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Патент USA US2106603

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Jan. 25, 1938.
` Filed Aprjil 20, 19256y
'2 -Sheets-Shee't` l
Filed April~ 20, 1936
f 2 Sheets-Sheet
25, 1938
2,106,603, ,
Emile Jacques, Pai-Is, France ,
Application April zo, 193s, serial »16.575.257
AIn France April 27, 1935 '
1l claim. (ci. 'i4-259)
The present invention relates to a speed
their relative rotational velocity is very low in ,
changing device, particularly applicable to mo-v comparison with the relative velocity of the said " .
tor vehicles and the like and enabling the speed driving and driven members.
of the driven shaft to be automatically varied
For example, in a» simplified embodiment. the f
5 as a function of the reaction torque, and in in
device according to the invention .is áconstituted ‘6
verse ratio thereto, the engine torque and the by a differential with a high reduction ratio and `
speed of the driving shaft being maintained at a whose smaller sun’wheel is integral with the
constant value. In particular, the invention re »driving shaft and whose larger- sun wheel is in
fers to a variable speed device of the type having tegral with the driven shaft: and having inter
l0 what may be called a “receding reaction point”, posed between the sun wheel carried.~ by the 10
in which the point of application of the torque
driven shaft and the planetary cage a clutch
reaction of the reduction gears is constituted by for example, magnetlc,-adapted to transmit a
a member adapted to slip against an external torque equal to the maximum resistance torque
resistance when the resisting torque exceeds a
l5 certain value.
Variable gears of this type are already known,
which comprise a dliïerential gear with sun
wheels integral with the driving and driven
for which the device is designed. -
By way of example, two embodiments of a de- l5
vice according to the invention are described
below, and illustrated in the accompanying
shafts respectively, the planetary cage being sub- ' Fig. 1 is a
atie representation ,of the
.20 jected to a variable braking torque, as ,a func
first embodiment; and Fig. 2 is asimilar rep- 2n
tion of the reaction effort and immobilizing said ‘ resentation of the second embodiment.
cage so 4long as the resisting torque is less than or'
l Figs. 3 and 4 represent in longitudinal section,
equal to the driving torque, whilst allowing it to
two variants in detail of an embodiment of the
turn more or less rapidly when the resisting
,2'5 torque exceeds the drivingv torque, and thereby
effecting a reduction in the speed of the driven
shaft. In any event,l the braking torque applied
Fig. 5 is theelectrlc circuit diagram for the 25
case in which magnetic clutches are used.
The-device shown in Fig. 1 comprises, between
to the planetary cage, absorbs an amount of~ the driving shaft I and the driven shaft 1, a
power which is proportional to the speed reduc
differential of 'which the sun wheel 3, is fast on
3 o. tion obtained, and is entirely wasted. ' To recover
the drivingl shaft l, and the orbit wheel-I issu
this wasted power, it has been proposed to eifect iast on the driven shaft >2. The said differential
by means of a generator--hydraulicv has avery high reduction ratio, that `isvto say, I
- or electric-coupled to the planetary cage in the the diameter of the sun wheel l is much-less
differential and feeding a motore-hydraulic or
35 electric--ñxed on the driven shaft of the trans- '
than that of the orbit wheel I, these two wheels- '
being connected by trains of double planet -pin- '35
mission. This arrangement enables the overall
lons 5,» Gand 5', 6', of which the planets i, I'.'
eil‘lciency of the variable gear to be appreclabiy
meshing. with the sun wheel 3 have a greater
diameter than the planets 6, 6'» meshing with ~
improved but it has the drawback of being bulb
and expensive, because each of the jtwo nia
40 chlnes-generator and motor-serving to re
cuperate the energy lost inbraking the plane
tary cage must be capable of taking the wlifole
of the power transmissible by the ~variable gear.
The’object of the present invention is to dis
the- driven orbit wheel I. In the example shown
the diiferential has spur gearing: the shafts 1, 40
'i'carrying the pairs of planets are parallel with ,
the driving and driven shafts, and the orbit
wheel 4 consists of a crown wheel with internal
teeth. The differential may equally wellbe con
1125 pense with the employment of such a complicated
recuperating system, by reducing the losses of
structed with bevel gearing. Between the driven 45
orbit wheel I and the planetary cage l, is dis
posed a clutch 9 (preferably magnetic) adapted
power due to the shifting of the receding re
a‘ction point; and it is characterized by the fact 'to transmit when slipping a torque exceeding
the value of the driving torque,l which must be
that-instead of tending to immobilize the mem
Í 50 ber serving as the reaction point-the external kept constant, and equal to the maximum value ‘so ‘
resistance is formed by a slipping clutch located of the resisting torque for which the apparatus
between two rotating members. of the device, is intended.
these being connected respectively to the driving- ' The device operates 'as follows. When the
and driven members by transmission means which clutch`l is energized. so long as the resisting>
f ss are so arranged that as soon as slipping occurs.
'torque applied to the shaft 2 is less than or" -, .
equal to the dnvm'g torque applied to the snm
To enable the device to function in reverse, a
lI, no slip takes place and the differential rotates
second clutch I 0 is located between the planetary
cage 8 and the frame I I, the de-excitation of the
clutch 9 and the excitation of the clutch I0
clearly causing a reversal of direction of rota
tion of the shaft 2. The clutch `III should be so
designed as to allow no slip with the result that,
in reverse drive, the device operates with a /flxed
as a solid unit and causes the shaft 2 to be driven
at the same speed-as the shaft I.
When the re- ’
sisting torque exceeds the driving torque, the
clutch 8 begins to slip and the planetary cage
8 moves relatively to the driven orbit wheel 4
whose speed decreases and becomes inversely pro
portional to the value of the resisting torque.
10 ¿The operation and advantages of the device
according to the invention are explainable in the'
following manner.
reduction equal to k.
The arrangement shown diagrammatically in '
Fig. 2 consists as- before of a differential with a
high reduction ratio, the smaller sun wheel 3
Let Ni represent the _constant speed of the
being keyed on the driving shaft I, whereas the
driving shaft I; N2 the speed of the driven shaft
15 2; N the speed of the planetary cage 8; k the
speed reduction coeilicient of the differential,
larger orbit wheel 4 is keyed on the driven shaft
and n the ratio between the maximum value of
of disposing the slipping clutch between the
driven orbit wheel 4 and the cage carrying the
planets 5, 5', this clutch 9 is disposed between
the variable resisting torque Cr and the constant
value Cn of the driving torque; so that the
clutch 8 is able to transmita torque equal to
'I‘he ratio between three speeds N, Ni and N2 is
given by the equation
When the’driven shaft 2 tends to be arrested
30 by a resisting torque greater than the driven
torque-Cn, the planetary cage 8 tends to rotate
at the speed
2 and the planets 5, 5' mesh simultaneously with 15
the sun Wheel 3 and the orbit wheel 4.
the orbit wheel 4 and an internally toothed 20
crown wheel I2 mounted idly on the driving shaft
I and the teeth I3 .of which mesh with pinions
I4, I4’ keyed on the planet shafts I5, I 5'. The
crown wheel I2 performs the function of the
cage 8 in the construction shown in Fig. 1. The
ratios of the gears 5-4 and I4-I3 diiîer, but are
very close so that when slipping of the clutch
occurs, the relative speed of the crown wheel
I2Y and the orbit wheel 4 is extremely low, even
when the speed of the latter slows down con
siderably under the effect of a heavy resisting
torque applied to the shaft -2.
The advantage of this form of construction
resides in this, that the supplementary reduction
represented by the gearing I4-”I3, disposed be
tween the planetary cageand the slipping means
8, allows thedimension’s of the pinions to be re
so that there is available on the planetary cage
duced, a lower reduction ratio for the differen
8, a torque equal in value to OuUc-Í-l), the re
tial properly so called, being employed.
In -the example shown in detail in Fig. 3, the
driven orbit wheel 4, instead of being ~keyed di
40 sult being that the cage l tends to take with it ,
the driven orbit wheel 4 and therewith the
driven shaft 2 through the motion of the clutch
9, the planets 6, 8' reacting >against the driven
orbit wheel 4, so long as the reaction torque Ca
does not exceed the value nCu ofthe torque
45 > which this
clutch can transmit.
It is thus evi
dent that the device is substantially different
from~ the known devices _mentioned earlier in this
description in that the external resistance pro
50 vided by the clutch 8 acts. not as a brake, but
as a means of transmission, and the planetary
cage is not a brake‘d, but a driving member.
~ The high efficiency of the device is explainable
as follows. It is clear that the maximum loss
l55 of power will occur when the driven shaft 2 is
rectly on the driven shaft 2, is connected with
said shaft through a supplementary reduction
device which, on the one hand, enables a smooth
er start to be effected and, on the other, facili
tates adapting the running~ of the engine to the
conditions under which the yvehicle is being used
(town, road, hills etc.) and also allows engine
braking at a reduced speed. This auxiliary re
duction device >may also have a reduction ratio
varying automatically with the resisting torque
applied to the driven shaft, for which purpose itl
comprises a diüerential, of which one sun wheel
` I8 is integral with the orbit wheel 4, and whereof
the planets I1, I8, are’rotatable in a cage mem
completely arrested by a resisting torque- of` ber I8, integral _with the driven shaft 2 and
higher value than ncù. This lost powernwill whereof the other sun wheel 20 is integral with
clearly amount to
a disc 2| which can be heldsolid, with a disc 23 «
Since; on the other hand, y‘fthe power applied
4to the device by the driving shaft 'is equal~ to
CuNi, it is evident that the greatest loss corre
sponds to an infinite speed reduction and is
equal to
If a limited _reduction is desired, enabling the
70 value of the resisting torque to reach a maximum,
for example of 5 times the value of the driving
torque; and if .the ratio of reduction Ic is of the
order of 100, it will be evident that the'maxi
mum loss will be of the order of only 5%,‘which
75 is quite admissible.
keyed on the driven shaft 2, by means of a mag
netic clutch 22. Another clutch 22' enables the
disc 2| to be held solid with the fixed housing 24.
Finally, for reversed running, clutch I0 as before
enables a d_isc 25 to be held solid with the hous
ing 24, the disc 25 beiner integral with the cage 8
carrying the planet pint ons 5, I4, 5', I4' of a dif
ferential, which is free on the driving shaft I.
The auxiliary reduction device may alsotake '
the form of a train of gears controlled by hand
as'shown in Fig. 4, a dog clutch 28, actuated` by
the lever 21 enabling either the pinion I8-inte 70
gral with theorbit wheel 4-or a pinion 2l-con
nected with a pinion I6 by the intermediary re
duction gearing- 29-30-to be fastened on the
driven shaft 2.>
Fig. 5 is a diagram of the connections and con 75
trols of the several clutches. A lever 3| enables
either the clutch 9 (for forward running), or the
clutch lll` (for reversing) to be connected to a
battery 32, or to the dynamo 33. A manually op
speed reductiqnr- ratio is a function o! the resisting iîirquve, comprising a driving shaft, atdriven
shaft, diiierentlal gear means with a, high ratio
of reduction including a small sun wheel' fast
erated switch 34 serves for energizing either the.> on the driving shaft, an orbit wheel fast on the
clutch' 22 of the auxiliary reduction 'device-*for driven shaft and having a greater diameter than
use in> trailic or the clutch 22' for hillwork which ` thesaid sun wheel, planetfpinion means engag
also allows of engine braking. The energizing of ing said two wheels: a disc mounted idly on the v
these two Vcoils 22, 22', is also controlled by the ' driving shaft and including an internally toothed
« brake pedal 35 of the vehicle, through the agency crown gear, pinions 'integral with the said -planet
of- the movable sector 36, in constant connection pinion means-and engaging said crown gear, the .
with the battery, and of the contacts 31, 38 _re
tooth ratio oi'- said pinions- and crown gear being
spectively connected with the windings 22, 22'. diñ'erent from, but close to the tooth ratio of the
This control allows brakingÍ and progressive re
planet'pinion means and thel orbit wheel, and a
_sumption of drive to be effected irrespective oi' slippable clutch operative between said disc and 15
the running condition (traffic or hill work), se- ' the orbit wheel, said clutch being adapted .to
claim is:of the switch
Automatic change speed mechanism whose
J transmit when slipping a torque equal to the _
maximum torque applied to the driven shaft. ’
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