Патент USA US2106603код для вставки
Jan. 25, 1938. E. JACQUES 2,106,603 AUTOMATIC VARIABLE SPEED GEAR ` Filed Aprjil 20, 19256y '2 -Sheets-Shee't` l y v ' .162@6: Jan. 1938. _ EJACÓL'IÈS ` 2,106,603 ' AUTOMATIC VARIABLÈ SPEED GEAR Filed April~ 20, 1936 D M \ 2.9 3/ f 2 Sheets-Sheet ` -Patented 25, 1938 2,106,603, , UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE ì 2,106,6«3 ' AUTOMATIC VARIABLE SPEED GEAR. Emile Jacques, Pai-Is, France , Application April zo, 193s, serial »16.575.257 - , AIn France April 27, 1935 ' 1l claim. (ci. 'i4-259) The present invention relates to a speed their relative rotational velocity is very low in , changing device, particularly applicable to mo-v comparison with the relative velocity of the said " . tor vehicles and the like and enabling the speed driving and driven members. ' of the driven shaft to be automatically varied For example, in a» simplified embodiment. the f 5 as a function of the reaction torque, and in in device according to the invention .is áconstituted ‘6 verse ratio thereto, the engine torque and the by a differential with a high reduction ratio and ` speed of the driving shaft being maintained at a whose smaller sun’wheel is integral with the constant value. In particular, the invention re »driving shaft and whose larger- sun wheel is in fers to a variable speed device of the type having tegral with the driven shaft: and having inter l0 what may be called a “receding reaction point”, posed between the sun wheel carried.~ by the 10 in which the point of application of the torque driven shaft and the planetary cage a clutch reaction of the reduction gears is constituted by for example, magnetlc,-adapted to transmit a a member adapted to slip against an external torque equal to the maximum resistance torque resistance when the resisting torque exceeds a l5 certain value. Variable gears of this type are already known, which comprise a dliïerential gear with sun wheels integral with the driving and driven for which the device is designed. - ' ,. By way of example, two embodiments of a de- l5 vice according to the invention are described below, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings. - shafts respectively, the planetary cage being sub- ' Fig. 1 is a atie representation ,of the .20 jected to a variable braking torque, as ,a func first embodiment; and Fig. 2 is asimilar rep- 2n tion of the reaction effort and immobilizing said ‘ resentation of the second embodiment. cage so 4long as the resisting torque is less than or' l Figs. 3 and 4 represent in longitudinal section, equal to the driving torque, whilst allowing it to two variants in detail of an embodiment of the turn more or less rapidly when the resisting deviceinmg.2. ,2'5 torque exceeds the drivingv torque, and thereby effecting a reduction in the speed of the driven shaft. In any event,l the braking torque applied . . - _ .` Fig. 5 is theelectrlc circuit diagram for the 25 case in which magnetic clutches are used. The-device shown in Fig. 1 comprises, between to the planetary cage, absorbs an amount of~ the driving shaft I and the driven shaft 1, a power which is proportional to the speed reduc differential of 'which the sun wheel 3, is fast on 3 o. tion obtained, and is entirely wasted. ' To recover the drivingl shaft l, and the orbit wheel-I issu this wasted power, it has been proposed to eifect iast on the driven shaft >2. The said differential the by means of a generator--hydraulicv has avery high reduction ratio, that `isvto say, I - or electric-coupled to the planetary cage in the the diameter of the sun wheel l is much-less differential and feeding a motore-hydraulic or 35 electric--ñxed on the driven shaft of the trans- ' than that of the orbit wheel I, these two wheels- ' being connected by trains of double planet -pin- '35 mission. This arrangement enables the overall lons 5,» Gand 5', 6', of which the planets i, I'.' eil‘lciency of the variable gear to be appreclabiy meshing. with the sun wheel 3 have a greater diameter than the planets 6, 6'» meshing with ~ improved but it has the drawback of being bulb and expensive, because each of the jtwo nia 40 chlnes-generator and motor-serving to re cuperate the energy lost inbraking the plane tary cage must be capable of taking the wlifole of the power transmissible by the ~variable gear. The’object of the present invention is to dis the- driven orbit wheel I. In the example shown the diiferential has spur gearing: the shafts 1, 40 'i'carrying the pairs of planets are parallel with , the driving and driven shafts, and the orbit wheel 4 consists of a crown wheel with internal teeth. The differential may equally wellbe con 1125 pense with the employment of such a complicated recuperating system, by reducing the losses of structed with bevel gearing. Between the driven 45 orbit wheel I and the planetary cage l, is dis posed a clutch 9 (preferably magnetic) adapted power due to the shifting of the receding re a‘ction point; and it is characterized by the fact 'to transmit when slipping a torque exceeding the value of the driving torque,l which must be that-instead of tending to immobilize the mem Í 50 ber serving as the reaction point-the external kept constant, and equal to the maximum value ‘so ‘ resistance is formed by a slipping clutch located of the resisting torque for which the apparatus between two rotating members. of the device, is intended. _ ~ . these being connected respectively to the driving- ' The device operates 'as follows. When the and driven members by transmission means which clutch`l is energized. so long as the resisting> f ss are so arranged that as soon as slipping occurs. 'torque applied to the shaft 2 is less than or" -, . lili. 2 2,106,603 equal to the dnvm'g torque applied to the snm To enable the device to function in reverse, a lI, no slip takes place and the differential rotates second clutch I 0 is located between the planetary cage 8 and the frame I I, the de-excitation of the clutch 9 and the excitation of the clutch I0 clearly causing a reversal of direction of rota tion of the shaft 2. The clutch `III should be so designed as to allow no slip with the result that, in reverse drive, the device operates with a /flxed as a solid unit and causes the shaft 2 to be driven at the same speed-as the shaft I. When the re- ’ sisting torque exceeds the driving torque, the clutch 8 begins to slip and the planetary cage 8 moves relatively to the driven orbit wheel 4 whose speed decreases and becomes inversely pro portional to the value of the resisting torque. 10 ¿The operation and advantages of the device according to the invention are explainable in the' following manner. , reduction equal to k. ' The arrangement shown diagrammatically in ' Fig. 2 consists as- before of a differential with a high reduction ratio, the smaller sun wheel 3 Let Ni represent the _constant speed of the being keyed on the driving shaft I, whereas the driving shaft I; N2 the speed of the driven shaft 15 2; N the speed of the planetary cage 8; k the speed reduction coeilicient of the differential, larger orbit wheel 4 is keyed on the driven shaft and n the ratio between the maximum value of of disposing the slipping clutch between the driven orbit wheel 4 and the cage carrying the planets 5, 5', this clutch 9 is disposed between the variable resisting torque Cr and the constant value Cn of the driving torque; so that the clutch 8 is able to transmita torque equal to nCu. 'I‘he ratio between three speeds N, Ni and N2 is given by the equation 1 When the’driven shaft 2 tends to be arrested 30 by a resisting torque greater than the driven torque-Cn, the planetary cage 8 tends to rotate at the speed « 2 and the planets 5, 5' mesh simultaneously with 15 the sun Wheel 3 and the orbit wheel 4. Instead the orbit wheel 4 and an internally toothed 20 crown wheel I2 mounted idly on the driving shaft I and the teeth I3 .of which mesh with pinions I4, I4’ keyed on the planet shafts I5, I 5'. The crown wheel I2 performs the function of the cage 8 in the construction shown in Fig. 1. The ratios of the gears 5-4 and I4-I3 diiîer, but are very close so that when slipping of the clutch occurs, the relative speed of the crown wheel I2Y and the orbit wheel 4 is extremely low, even when the speed of the latter slows down con siderably under the effect of a heavy resisting torque applied to the shaft -2. The advantage of this form of construction resides in this, that the supplementary reduction - represented by the gearing I4-”I3, disposed be tween the planetary cageand the slipping means 8, allows thedimension’s of the pinions to be re so that there is available on the planetary cage duced, a lower reduction ratio for the differen 8, a torque equal in value to OuUc-Í-l), the re tial properly so called, being employed. In -the example shown in detail in Fig. 3, the driven orbit wheel 4, instead of being ~keyed di 40 sult being that the cage l tends to take with it , the driven orbit wheel 4 and therewith the driven shaft 2 through the motion of the clutch 9, the planets 6, 8' reacting >against the driven orbit wheel 4, so long as the reaction torque Ca does not exceed the value nCu ofthe torque 45 > which this clutch can transmit. It is thus evi dent that the device is substantially different from~ the known devices _mentioned earlier in this description in that the external resistance pro 50 vided by the clutch 8 acts. not as a brake, but as a means of transmission, and the planetary cage is not a brake‘d, but a driving member. ~ The high efficiency of the device is explainable as follows. It is clear that the maximum loss l55 of power will occur when the driven shaft 2 is as rectly on the driven shaft 2, is connected with said shaft through a supplementary reduction device which, on the one hand, enables a smooth er start to be effected and, on the other, facili tates adapting the running~ of the engine to the conditions under which the yvehicle is being used (town, road, hills etc.) and also allows engine braking at a reduced speed. This auxiliary re duction device >may also have a reduction ratio varying automatically with the resisting torque applied to the driven shaft, for which purpose itl comprises a diüerential, of which one sun wheel ` I8 is integral with the orbit wheel 4, and whereof the planets I1, I8, are’rotatable in a cage mem completely arrested by a resisting torque- of` ber I8, integral _with the driven shaft 2 and higher value than ncù. This lost powernwill whereof the other sun wheel 20 is integral with clearly amount to a disc 2| which can be heldsolid, with a disc 23 « NXXICH: nCgNl k+1 ì Since; on the other hand, y‘fthe power applied 4to the device by the driving shaft 'is equal~ to 65 CuNi, it is evident that the greatest loss corre sponds to an infinite speed reduction and is equal to » l2 _ „ . m% If a limited _reduction is desired, enabling the 70 value of the resisting torque to reach a maximum, for example of 5 times the value of the driving torque; and if .the ratio of reduction Ic is of the order of 100, it will be evident that the'maxi mum loss will be of the order of only 5%,‘which 75 is quite admissible. keyed on the driven shaft 2, by means of a mag netic clutch 22. Another clutch 22' enables the disc 2| to be held solid with the fixed housing 24. Finally, for reversed running, clutch I0 as before enables a d_isc 25 to be held solid with the hous ing 24, the disc 25 beiner integral with the cage 8 carrying the planet pint ons 5, I4, 5', I4' of a dif ferential, which is free on the driving shaft I. The auxiliary reduction device may alsotake ' the form of a train of gears controlled by hand as'shown in Fig. 4, a dog clutch 28, actuated` by the lever 21 enabling either the pinion I8-inte 70 gral with theorbit wheel 4-or a pinion 2l-con nected with a pinion I6 by the intermediary re duction gearing- 29-30-to be fastened on the driven shaft 2.> - ` ’ Fig. 5 is a diagram of the connections and con 75 3 arcanos trols of the several clutches. A lever 3| enables either the clutch 9 (for forward running), or the clutch lll` (for reversing) to be connected to a battery 32, or to the dynamo 33. A manually op speed reductiqnr- ratio is a function o! the resisting iîirquve, comprising a driving shaft, atdriven shaft, diiierentlal gear means with a, high ratio of reduction including a small sun wheel' fast i erated switch 34 serves for energizing either the.> on the driving shaft, an orbit wheel fast on the clutch' 22 of the auxiliary reduction 'device-*for driven shaft and having a greater diameter than use in> trailic or the clutch 22' for hillwork which ` thesaid sun wheel, planetfpinion means engag also allows of engine braking. The energizing of ing said two wheels: a disc mounted idly on the v these two Vcoils 22, 22', is also controlled by the ' driving shaft and including an internally toothed « brake pedal 35 of the vehicle, through the agency crown gear, pinions 'integral with the said -planet of- the movable sector 36, in constant connection pinion means-and engaging said crown gear, the . with the battery, and of the contacts 31, 38 _re tooth ratio oi'- said pinions- and crown gear being spectively connected with the windings 22, 22'. diñ'erent from, but close to the tooth ratio of the This control allows brakingÍ and progressive re planet'pinion means and thel orbit wheel, and a _sumption of drive to be effected irrespective oi' slippable clutch operative between said disc and 15 the running condition (traffic or hill work), se- ' the orbit wheel, said clutch being adapted .to lected What byImeans claim is:of the switch > 3l. Automatic change speed mechanism whose J transmit when slipping a torque equal to the _ maximum torque applied to the driven shaft. ’ , ' EMILE JACQUES.