Патент USA US2106632код для вставки
Jan. 25, 1938, l o, FREUND` l 2,106,632 ¿SUPPLEMENTARY DEVICE Fo'R BINOCULAR RANGE FINDERs Filed June 5, 1.936 ' 2 Sheets-Sheet l l l „ a """"" " f 39 y Ín ven/or: Janyzs, 193s. n o. FREUND 2,106,632 Y SUPPLEMENTARY DEVICE FOR BINOCULAR RANGE FINDEÈS Filed June 5, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 a, [nvenfat' ' 2,106,632 Patented las. 25, ¿193s UNITED STATES ' PATENT OFFICE '2,106,632 SUPPLEMENTARY DEVICE FOR BINOCULAR . RANGE FINDERS ’ Otto Freund, Jena, Germany, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Bausch & Lomb Optical Com pany, Rochester, N. I., a corporation of New York Application June 5, i936, serial No.` 83,693 In'Germany June 7, 1935 - - 5 Claims. I have ñled an application in Germany, June 7, 1935 of which the following is a specification. The invention has reference to binocular range iinders of any kind, i. e. especially to rangei‘inders 5 in which the Istereoscopic image of a distant ob - ject is compared with stereoscopic measuring 'I'he invention concerns a supplementary de vice to be placed in the paths of- imaging rays .of the eye-pieces of a binocular rangeñnder equipped with means for neutralizing errors of height. The supplementary device permits to find very reliably errors of height and their mag marks at constant or variable virtual distances, as well as to rangeiinders for comparing instead nitudes, no matter where the rangefinder is mounted and what kind of object is concerned. of stereoscopic measuring~ marks two such space The idea underlying thisl problem is to place be tween the observer’s eyes and the image planesof 10 10 images of an object as are produced when dif ferent rangeñnder bases are used, these images the rangeñnder, optical means which so combine ’ >being separated from each other in the field of view by a line parallel to the rangefìnder base or_ overlapping each other. In rangeiinders of the the component images viewed by both eyes that one- eye sees these images overlap each other or separated from each other by a separating line parallelto the rangeilnder base. According to 15 10 said kind, the stereoscopic images are very often subject to errors. of- height, which may be due either toïthe component image of the object viewed in the one rangeilnder eye-piece and the corresponding mark lying at a height different 20 from that of the component image of the object viewed in the other rangeiinder eye-piece and the mark- corresponding to this other image, or to two heights of the component images of the ob one eye-piece, an optical system combining the pencils of imaging rays of the two eye-pieces, and ject diil‘ering from those of the corresponding 25 marks. This difference very often obtains also in the positions of the component images of the object relative to the component images over. tem may naturally be o', reñecting system which simultaneously deñects the pencil of imaging rays 25 >of an eye-piece. The simultaneous perception of - lapping them or relative to the separatinglines. For the sake of simplicity; _the following con 30 sideration refers only to rang'eñnders with meas uring marlm, but it is understood that, in princi ple, al1 other rangeñnders for measuring methods of the said kind are concerned as well. ' ' Whereas a diiîerence of height ofthe two com 35 ponent images of the .object does not entail special disadvantages when, in the fields of -view of the twoveye-pieces, the images of the objectareat the same height as the corresponding marks, .the measuring accuracy is impaired by the invention, the problem is solved by provid ing the device with at least one reñecting sys te`m which de?leots the pencil of. imaging raysl of adisplaceable optical system varying the al titudinal direction of the one of the two pencils of imaging rays. The displaceable optical sys the images of both fields of view of the range ñnder by one eye permits the Aobserver to ñnd easily small errors of height and to compensate for differences of height of the component images 30 of the object relative to the corresponding marks. This compensation of the errors of height in the rangeñnder is eiïected by ñrst making the mark images coincide completely as- regards height, which is effected by means of the displaceable optical system, and by then providing this coin cidence also with respect to the two component images of the object by operating the device for neutralizing errors of height. When rangeñ'nd 40 even very slight diiîerences of height between the ers without marksare concerned, the'separating limages of the object and the corresponding marks, especially when long serial measurements lines' parallel to the rangeñnder base or one of the two pairs of component images oi' the object are concerned, for which stereoscopic rangeñnd are treated in the-_same manner as the mark images referred to-above, errors being removed 45 height can, it is true, be discarded by means of by subsequent adjustment of the images or the 45 -suitable devices with whichthe rangeflnders are remaining pair of component images of the object. The accompanying drawings illustrate ñve con generally equipped, but dimculties arise not so much in neutralizing these errors as in finding structional examples of the invention. 4Figure 1 them. . As'an observer can view in binocular shows in plan view section the iirst example in 50 rangeiinders each of the two ocular ñelds of view connection with a stereoscopic rangeñnder. by means of one eye only, he is compelled to g Figure 2 represents a section through line A-A compare these fields separately, one ,after the in. Figure 1. Figures 3 and 5 show the second other, by shutting his one eye and opening-the- and third examples, respectively, in plan view vother and vice versa. A comparison of this kind section. Figure 4 represents a section through 55 produces incorrect results when the rangeflnder line B-B in Figure 3, and Figure 6 represents a 55 section through linev C--C in Figure 5. Figures is stationary,_and the viewed object, nearly mo tionless, but effecting this comparison is entire '7 and 8 show in plan view sections the fourth lyimpossible when, for instance, the rangefinder and ñfth examples, respectively, in connection is placed on a moving ship and when the object f, with a stereoscopic rangeiinder. ers are especially suitable. 60 is a moving aircraft. These errors of - ' The iirst constructional example (Figures 1 and 2,106,882 » 2) is used in connection with a stereoscopic rangeiinder having _a housing I. At a distance apart which corresponds to the base length, the housing I has two windows 2 that are in front of pentagonal prisms 3 each of which has one roof shaped reñecting surface. Pencils of light rays entering the windows 2 are deviated at right angles by the prisms 3 and directed to objectives 4, which gather the imaging rays on the ray exit 10 surfaces 5 of triangle prisms 6 each of which is ing aperture 3|, the glass cube 29 being so silver plated as to be half-transparent. Between the two prisms, an astronomical telescope 32 magni lying one time is so mounted in the housing' 26 as to be rotatable, by means of a screw 34, against the pressure of a spring 35 about a horizontal axis 33 parallel to the entering imaging rays. l The device according to'the second example is used in the same manner as that according to the first example, for instance in connection with a provided with a measuring mark 1 whose stereo scopic combination provides a stereoscopic mark at a deñnite virtual distance. The image planes of the rangefinder which are determined by the stereoscopic rangeñnder of the kind represented wedge-shaped prisms I0 rotatable in opposite prism I1, reverses the images completely. The change of direction of the imaging rays emanat ing from the eye-piece 8, which is necessary for 20 the compensation of height of the two marks 1, is in Figure l. As, however, the astronomical tele scope 32 in the path of the imaging rays com pletely reverses the images, there must be used, '15 marks 1,'are viewed by means of adjustable eye- ' instead of the prism I1 of the .first example, which has one reñecting surface, a prism 28 pieces 8. The rangefinder has a measuring de which, in addition to the effect produced by the vice which consists in the known manner of two senses by means of a milled head 9, and of an 20 indicating device consisting of an index I2 and a division> I I representing ranges. The rangeflnder also contains a device .for neutralizing errors of height which consists of two wedge-shaped prisms vI4 rotatable in opposite senses by means of a milled head I3. The wedge-shaped prisms I0 are ineffective when their refractixng edges are hori zontal, in contradistinction whereto the wedge-` shaped prisms I4 do not p_roduce any effect when effected in the device according to the second ex ample by rotating the telescope 32 about the hori-' zontal axis 33 by means of a screw 34, against the pressure of the spring 35. In all other respects, 25 the determination and the compensation of errors of height in the rangeñnder are effected in the manner described with 4reference to the first example. , their refracting edges are vertical. In the device according to the third construc 30 The supplementary device according to the first constructional example has a housing I5 provided v tional example (Figures 5 and 6), two objectives 31 are mounted in a'housing 36 at such a distance with two. windows I6 at a distance apart corre 30 sponding to that of the eye-pieces 8 of the range flnder. Behind the left window I6, a triangle prism I1 is disposed in a mount I8 which is ro -apart as corresponds to the interocular distance of the eye-pieces 8 of the rangeñnder. Behind each of the objectives 31 is _disposed a triangular ' tatable about a pin I9 and has an arm 20 con prism 38. The objectives 31 have .the same focal nected to a tension spring 2I against the action of which the arm 20 can be rotated by means of ascre'w 22. Behind the right :window I6 ‘is a glass cube 23 and a` viewing aperture 25 in the by means of the prism 38, the rear foci of these objectives coincide in an edge» 39 of a- right angled isosceles triangle prism 40 mounted in the 40 housing I5, the glass cube 23 having a diagonal - surface 24 which is so silver-plated as to be half transparent.' j When the rangefinder is used'and a verification ' is to be made as to whether there are any errors of height, which may be due for instance to dis length and, on account of the deflection of rays - housing 36, the said edge 36 being the edge in which the two surfaces' of prism 40 at right angles to each other intersect. This edge 39 lies in the front focal plane of an eye-piece _4I mount ed in .the housing 36. As 'in the first example, 45 the left prism 38 is disposed in the housing 36 in a mount 42 having an arm “and rotatable account of vibration, the supplementary device is i lagainst the pressure of a spring 45 about a pin 46. Also the device according to this constructional . ‘ so placed behind the rangefinder that the windows ` I6 are infrontA of the eye-pieces 8. The paths example can be used with a range?lnderfor in 50 stance accordingA to Figure 1. When looking - of the imaging rays of the eye-pieces 8 are thus combined, and the object images produced by the through the eye-piece 4I, the person using the ~ placements of the >optical part òf the'apparatus on>` device sees an image iield divided by a vertical 'rangefinder are seen by the observer lookinginto the viewing aperture as superposed on each 55 other, deviations as to height of the object im# separating line, namely the edge 36. By means of the eye-pieces 8 and the objectives 31, 4the 55 height. Now, the images of the marks 1 are given equal height by rotating the screw 22 accordingly 60 and, subsequently thereto, an eventual difference of height of the object images is compensated for by rotating the wedge-shaped prisms I4 by -left half of the said field of view, and the ob ject image of the right objective 4 and the right mark 1 are imaged in the right half of the ñeld of view. To facilitate the adjustment of the mark images at equal -height in the field of view those of the marks~1 and, accordingly, the range ñnder can be use_d agai'rî'witho'ut the supplemen other parts being rangeñnger marks of the usual kind at equal distances from the corresponding ages as well as ofthe images of the marks' 1 object image produced by the left rangeflnder being readily recognizable by their differences of A objective and the left mark 1 are imaged in the 1 55 of the device, the marks 1 can be made to con means of the milled-head I3. These manipula tions remove errors of height of the kind in which - sist of a plurality of parts, one of these parts of the object images assume heights different from Äeach mark representing a horizontal line and the tary device. « The device'according to the second construc tional Vexample (Figures 3 and 4) h'as a housing 26 .which is provided with two Windows 21. Be hind the left window 21 is disposed a pentagonal 'prism 28 having a roof-shaped reflecting surface, ‘and behind the right window 21 is a glass cube 75 29, which combines the light- rays, and a view. liñes. When the line images- in the two halves of the field of view are given the same height. by means of the screw 4I, the heights of the 70 marks used for rangeñnding are made to coincide with each other. The errors of height are neu tralized completely by giving the object images of the two- halves of the ñeld of view the same height in- the manner described hereinbefore.. ' 15 3 2,106,689 The device according to the fourth -construcs ences of height of the mark images areremoved ‘by rotating the milled head 53. When these imagesassume the same height, the .differences `of height of the images ofvthe‘objectv are' com-v pensated for _by operating the rotating wedge tional example (Figure '7) is a stationary `supple mentary device mounted into »a rangeiinder.'> This rangeñnder conforms substantially to the rangeñnder described with reference to the ñrst example. . 'I‘he diñerences of the rangefinder shown inv Figure 7 from the said other range ilnder consist in the following. The pentagonal prisms 41> behind the windows 2 have simple 10 reñecting surfaces, and no image-reversing roof surface. There are no triangular prisms 6„ but pentagonal prisms> 48 on whose ray exit surfaces, which coincide with -the focal planes of the ob jectives 4, are provided marks 1. The housing 15 I has a ñange part 48 the exterior wall 'of which contains the adjustable eye-pieces 8. Behind the prisms 48 are disposed objectives 50 of such focal lengths as lto imagegthe marks 1 in the front focal planes of 'the'eye-pieces 8. About 20 an axis at right angles to the rangeiinder base, a housing 52 can be rotated in the part 48 by shaped prisms i4. Subsequently’to the ray paths l from the objectives 58 to the eye-pieces, 8 having been made free by rotatingv the head 53. the ' rangeñnder can be used formeasuring purposes in-- the' known manner,v without ' the ,resultsv being 10 impaired `by errors of height. . '. ' The_device according to the fifth constructional example ' (Figure 8) is used, together-with a rangeñnder that _has nolmeasuring marks and with which lmeasurements are, eiîected bygiving l5. the same virtual distance to -two such stereo scopic images of an _objectvas are produced by means of two rangenndersystems n' of different. bases. The said »rangeiìnder has a> housing y8| with four apertures for entering rays. -The two apertures in the left end of the base are covered means of a milled head 53.> The housing 52 by two planoèparallel ~glass plates'82, 63', and the has two windows 54 corresponding to the objec tives 58. The one of the-windows 54 is provided two apertures in the right end of the baseV are covered by two divergent lenses ‘84,A 85 whic‘i 25 with- a dispersing lens 55 of such a focal length I are' equal to each other. The housing 8| con tains two tubes 58 and 51 having in their ends that the_ front focus of the optical system con sisting of this lens 55 and one objective 50 lies ftelescope' objectives 88, 69 andy 10, 1I; respective ' in the plane of the corresponding mark 1. _Be-' ly.. Four pentagonal prisms-12, 13,'14'and 15,--' hind-the lens 55 is disposed a triangle prism 56, which are provided behind the ray entrance 30 and behind the free window 54, in the housing apertures, deñect the entering. pencils of imag-> 52, is a glass cube 51 having a diagonal surface' ing rays at right angles intoV the saidobjectives.` The `ray pencils are combined by these objectives 58 which is so silver-plated as to be half-trans parent. 'I‘he housing 52 also has a window 59, to object- _images and> so deflected by means of two ray combining systems 18 and .11, each of which corresponds to the glass cube 51, and be which consists of a trapeziform-and an image ' tween the prism 56 and the cube 51 a convergent lens 60 is so disposed that, in consideration of reversing roof~surfaced- triangle prism,lthat they ' the reñection on the surface 58, its rear focal are in pairs in the _front focal plane of two plane coincides with the front focal plane of the adjustable eye-pieces 18, 19 in the housing 8l. The light exit apertures of the trapeziform and eye-pieces 8. 40 When ranges are to be measured by means of the device, the housing 52 is so turned through the agency of the milled heady 53 that the raypath from the objectives 50_to the eye-pieces 8 ' remains unobstructed. The objectives 50 pro 45 duce in the front focal planes, of the eye-pieces ' 8 intermediate images of the image planes of the rangeñnder and the marks 1. As this inter' mediate imaging entails a complete image rever _ sion, the prisms 41 and 48 are solconstructed that the intermediate images are erect, as are ` the images on the ray exit surfaces 5 in the de the triangle prisms cover the upper and the lower halves, respectively, of the ocular fields of view. To each of the interior tubes 66, 61 is coordinated a device for displacing the one of the two imag ing ray pencils altitudinally.. These devices con sist of boxes 80, 8i which are displaceably mount ed in the_interior> tubes> 86, 61 and in which wedge-shaped prisms 82, 83 are so mounted that their -refracting edges are horizontal. 'I‘he boxes 88, .8| are provided with racks _84, _85 in mesh with toothed wheels 88,' 81 connected to milled heads 88, 88 outside the housing 6I.,v In 'front of the ends of the interior-tube“ which face the measured in the usual manner by combining ’ object, pairs of wedge-shaped prisms 38, 8| are stereoscopically the intermediate images of 'the so disposed in the housing 8| as to be rotatable 55 object and by determining the range difference in opposite senses. The refracting edges of the of the virtual position of this stereoscopic image wedges 88, 9| are vertical when the wedge-shaped by means of the measuring device I0, Il, I2 and ‘l prisms do not produce any effect. The pairs the virtual position .of the space image lof the of wedge-shaped prisms 88, 8| are operated by mark. For determining errors of height, the toothed wheels 92, 93 connected to a shaft 34 housing 52 is so rotated by means of the milled- which is disposed in the housing 8| and rotat 60 head 53 that ,the imaging rays of the eye-pieces able by means of a milled head 95, the two ex 8 traverse the prisms. 56`and 51. ' O_n account of terior wedge-shaped prisms being rotatable in the consequent simultaneous displacement of the a sense reverse to-that of the two interior wedge divergent lens 55 into the‘left of these ray paths, shaped prisms. The range-ñnding device of-the 65 the imaging rays emanating as „convergent rays apparatus consists of two~convergent lenses 88, vice according to the ñrst example. Ranges are from the left objective 50 are made parallel and then combined by the’convergent lens 68 to a converging >pencil whose point of convergenceco incides with the point of convergence of the con 99 displaceable in the direction of the range finder base by means of a'rack 88 and a'toothed wheel 81. These lenses 88„88 are disposed be hind the divergent lenses 54, 68 and have such focal lengths that one each of the convergent 70 verging pencil of imaging rays produced by the 70 right objective 50. Accordingly, the two images ' and one each oi' the divergent lenses produce of the viewed object aswell as the images of the effect of a plano-parallel plate when the the two marks 1 overlap each _other in the focal plane of the right eye-piece, and undesired dif 75 ferences of height »are noticed at once.¿ Differ optical axes coincide, in contradistinction where- . I to displacements of the lenses entail lateral de viations of the pencil of imaging rays.. The 4... 2,106,082 toothed wheel 91 is coupled to a milled head |00 and provided with a division |0| representing ranges and coordinated to an index |02. _ The supplementary device according to the fifth example has a housing |03 with, two ray entrance apertures |04at a'distance apart which corresponds to the interocular distance of the eye-pieces 18. Between the aperturesilil is a rotatable bolt |05 for a lens holder |06. In this lens holder, two objectives |01 are so mounted as to lie behind the apertures |04. Small rota tions of the bolt |05 entail such displacements of the objectives |01 at right angles to their op tical axes that the incident-pencil of rays is de viated _altitudinally. Behind the objectives |01 are disposedpentagonal prisms |08 for deñect ing> the rayïpencils at right angles into a ray convergingsystem which consists of two triangle prisms |09 and ||0 and whose cemented sur face I Il is sjo silver-plated as to be half-trans parent. The rear focal planes of the objectives visible in the right eye-piece 19. As soon as this adjustment is eilîected, the rangeñnder is devoid of anyv errors of ‘height detrimental to observa tions and can be usedfor further measurements without the supplementary device. I claim: 1. A supplementary device for a binocular rangeñnder having a device for removing errors of height, the said supplementary device com prising a housing, this housing having two aper. tures in one side and a third aperture in the op posite side, the distance apart of the two first said apertures corresponding to the interocular distance of the two eye-pieces of the said range ñnder, optical means for lateral deflection of at least the light rays entering through the one of the two ñrst said apertures, optical means for combining the two pencils of light rays entering through the two ñrst said apertures, optical means for altitudinal Ídeflection of at least the 20 light rays entering through the one of the two |01 coincide' with the front focal plane of an ' iirst said apertures, and -mechanical means for eye-piece H2. The lens holder |06 is rotated by means_,ofta milled head ||3 and a friction 25 wheel III.` j ' - ~ when `the device is tp be used, the housing displacing the last said optical means, the said _ optical means being disposed in the said housing. 2. In a supplementary device according to claim' l, said optical means comprising a reñecting‘sys « |03 is givenithe position behind 'the eye-pieces tem for deñecting at least .fthe light rays enter of the rangefinder, as described with reference ` ing through the one of thel two first said aper to the first example. As is well known, this tures, the said reñecting system being disposed in 30 rangefinderproduces two stereoscopic images of the said housing and rotatable about an axis 30 an object which are so disposed as to be inverted parallel to the axes of the pencils of light rays entering through the two first said apertures. relatively to each other and separated by a hori 3. In a supplementary' device according to claim zontal separating line. 'I'he 4sepz'irating, lines are " provided by the lower edges of> the light exit 1, said optical means comprising a telescope dis apertures of the trapeziform prisms of the sys tems 16 and 11, and the inversion of the images is effected by the roof-shaped surfaces ofthetriangle prisms of the said systems. The two object images produced by the objectives 60 and ` 1| furnish the erect, and the two object images produced by the objectives 69 and 'l0 furnish the inverse stereoscopic image of the object. The ranges are measured _by makingl the displaceable lenses 9B, 99 produce acoincidence of the two stereoscopic images. The supplementary device 45 acts as a double telescope which is disposed be vhind the eye-pieces“, 19 of the rangeñnder and in- whose field of >view the two erect as well as posed in the path of the lightrays entering the said housing through the' one ofthe two ñrst said apertures, the _said telescope magnifying one time. this telescope being disposed in the said hous ing and rotatable about an axis parallel to the axes of the pencils of light rays entering through 40 the two ñrst said apertures. f' - . Í 4. In a supplementary `device accordingl to claim 1, said optical means comprising a tele scope system disposed in the fsaid housing, this telescope system comprising two objectives and a 45 common eye-piece, the said objectives being co ordinated to the two ñrst'said apertures in the housing, the said eye-piecel being coordinated to the two inverted object `~images> of the range the said third aperture in the housing, at least ilnder overlap each other. .,By turning the milled one of the said objectives in the housing being head H3, the lensholder |00 is rotated through rotatable about an axis parallel to the axis of the small angles until the images of the two separat-_ Aiirst said rotatable objective. 5.- In a binocular rangeñnder having a device ing lines coincide in the ñeld of view of the eye-piece H2. Subsequently thereto, the errors for removing errors of height, a supplementary of height of the rangeilnder, which are perceived device mounted in frontvof the two eye-pieces of 55 55_as differences of height of object images over the said rangeiinder, the said supplementary de `lapping each other, viz, the unequaldistances of .._vice comprising a housing,y this housing having the object images from the separating line, are two apertures in one side and a third aperture in removed by rotating the milled heads 8_9 and 89 the opposite side, the distance apart of the two and thus displacing the wedge-shaped prisms 92 first said apertin‘es corresponding to the interocu»l lar distance of the two eye-pieces of the said and 0_3 until these differences of height have dis appeared in- the erect as well as in the inverse rangefinder, optical means for lateral deñection object images. Differences of height can now _off'fat least the light rays entering through the exist onlybetween the object images of the up- - "one of the two ñrst said apertures, optical means per and the lower half of the image iield. 'I‘hese for‘co'mbining the two pencils- of light rays enter ing through the two first said apertures, optical differences of the object images from the sep arating line are `dealt with by rotating the milled means for altitudinal deilection of at least the _ head 95, which means that the images ' of the light rays entering through the one of ~the two two halves of the image ileld are displaced rela tively to the separating line in the reverse di 70 rection of height, since the pairs of wedge-shaped prisms 90 and 9|, which are operated at the same ilrst said apertures, and mechanical means for time, »iniluence in- different _senses the images displacing the lastîsaid optical means, the said optical means being` disposed in the said housing. < ò'i'ro FREUND. .