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Патент USA US2106632

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Jan. 25, 1938,
Filed June 5, 1.936
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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f 39
y Ín ven/or:
Janyzs, 193s.
Filed June 5, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
[nvenfat' '
Patented las. 25, ¿193s
Otto Freund, Jena, Germany, assignor, by mesne
assignments, to Bausch & Lomb Optical Com
pany, Rochester, N. I., a corporation of New
Application June 5, i936, serial No.` 83,693
In'Germany June 7, 1935 - -
5 Claims.
I have ñled an application in Germany, June
7, 1935 of which the following is a specification.
The invention has reference to binocular range
iinders of any kind, i. e. especially to rangei‘inders
5 in which the Istereoscopic image of a distant ob
- ject is compared with stereoscopic measuring
'I'he invention concerns a supplementary de
vice to be placed in the paths of- imaging rays
.of the eye-pieces of a binocular rangeñnder
equipped with means for neutralizing errors of
The supplementary device permits to
find very reliably errors of height and their mag
marks at constant or variable virtual distances,
as well as to rangeiinders for comparing instead
nitudes, no matter where the rangefinder is
mounted and what kind of object is concerned.
of stereoscopic measuring~ marks two such space
The idea underlying thisl problem is to place be
tween the observer’s eyes and the image planesof 10
10 images of an object as are produced when dif
ferent rangeñnder bases are used, these images
the rangeñnder, optical means which so combine
’ >being separated from each other in the field of
view by a line parallel to the rangefìnder base or_ overlapping each other. In rangeiinders of the
the component images viewed by both eyes that
one- eye sees these images overlap each other or
separated from each other by a separating line
parallelto the rangeilnder base. According to 15
10 said kind, the stereoscopic images are very often
subject to errors. of- height, which may be due
either toïthe component image of the object
viewed in the one rangeilnder eye-piece and the
corresponding mark lying at a height different
20 from that of the component image of the object
viewed in the other rangeiinder eye-piece and the
mark- corresponding to this other image, or to
two heights of the component images of the ob
one eye-piece, an optical system combining the
pencils of imaging rays of the two eye-pieces, and
ject diil‘ering from those of the corresponding
25 marks. This difference very often obtains also
in the positions of the component images of the
object relative to the component images over.
tem may naturally be o', reñecting system which
simultaneously deñects the pencil of imaging rays 25
>of an eye-piece. The simultaneous perception of
- lapping them or relative to the separatinglines.
For the sake of simplicity; _the following con
30 sideration refers only to rang'eñnders with meas
uring marlm, but it is understood that, in princi
ple, al1 other rangeñnders for measuring methods
of the said kind are concerned as well. '
' Whereas a diiîerence of height ofthe two com
35 ponent images of the .object does not entail
special disadvantages when, in the fields of -view
of the twoveye-pieces, the images of the objectareat the same height as the corresponding
marks, .the measuring accuracy is impaired by
the invention, the problem is solved by provid
ing the device with at least one reñecting sys
te`m which de?leots the pencil of. imaging raysl of
adisplaceable optical system varying the al
titudinal direction of the one of the two pencils
of imaging rays. The displaceable optical sys
the images of both fields of view of the range
ñnder by one eye permits the Aobserver to ñnd
easily small errors of height and to compensate
for differences of height of the component images 30
of the object relative to the corresponding marks.
This compensation of the errors of height in the
rangeñnder is eiïected by ñrst making the mark
images coincide completely as- regards height,
which is effected by means of the displaceable
optical system, and by then providing this coin
cidence also with respect to the two component
images of the object by operating the device for
neutralizing errors of height. When rangeñ'nd
40 even very slight diiîerences of height between the
ers without marksare concerned, the'separating
limages of the object and the corresponding
marks, especially when long serial measurements
lines' parallel to the rangeñnder base or one of
the two pairs of component images oi' the object
are concerned, for which stereoscopic rangeñnd
are treated in the-_same manner as the mark
images referred to-above, errors being removed
45 height can, it is true, be discarded by means of by subsequent adjustment of the images or the 45
-suitable devices with whichthe rangeflnders are remaining pair of component images of the object.
The accompanying drawings illustrate ñve con
generally equipped, but dimculties arise not so
much in neutralizing these errors as in finding structional examples of the invention. 4Figure 1
them. . As'an observer can view in binocular shows in plan view section the iirst example in
50 rangeiinders each of the two ocular ñelds of view connection with a stereoscopic rangeñnder.
by means of one eye only, he is compelled to g Figure 2 represents a section through line A-A
compare these fields separately, one ,after the in. Figure 1. Figures 3 and 5 show the second
other, by shutting his one eye and opening-the- and third examples, respectively, in plan view
vother and vice versa. A comparison of this kind section. Figure 4 represents a section through
55 produces incorrect results when the rangeflnder line B-B in Figure 3, and Figure 6 represents a 55
section through linev C--C in Figure 5. Figures
is stationary,_and the viewed object, nearly mo
tionless, but effecting this comparison is entire
'7 and 8 show in plan view sections the fourth
lyimpossible when, for instance, the rangefinder and ñfth examples, respectively, in connection
is placed on a moving ship and when the object f, with a stereoscopic rangeiinder.
ers are especially suitable.
60 is a moving aircraft.
These errors of
- '
The iirst constructional example (Figures 1 and
2,106,882 »
2) is used in connection with a stereoscopic
rangeiinder having _a housing I. At a distance
apart which corresponds to the base length, the
housing I has two windows 2 that are in front of
pentagonal prisms 3 each of which has one roof
shaped reñecting surface. Pencils of light rays
entering the windows 2 are deviated at right
angles by the prisms 3 and directed to objectives
4, which gather the imaging rays on the ray exit
10 surfaces 5 of triangle prisms 6 each of which is
ing aperture 3|, the glass cube 29 being so silver
plated as to be half-transparent. Between the
two prisms, an astronomical telescope 32 magni
lying one time is so mounted in the housing' 26 as
to be rotatable, by means of a screw 34, against
the pressure of a spring 35 about a horizontal axis
33 parallel to the entering imaging rays.
The device according to'the second example is
used in the same manner as that according to the
first example, for instance in connection with a
provided with a measuring mark 1 whose stereo
scopic combination provides a stereoscopic mark
at a deñnite virtual distance. The image planes
of the rangefinder which are determined by the
stereoscopic rangeñnder of the kind represented
wedge-shaped prisms I0 rotatable in opposite
prism I1, reverses the images completely. The
change of direction of the imaging rays emanat
ing from the eye-piece 8, which is necessary for 20
the compensation of height of the two marks 1, is
in Figure l. As, however, the astronomical tele
scope 32 in the path of the imaging rays com
pletely reverses the images, there must be used,
'15 marks 1,'are viewed by means of adjustable eye- ' instead of the prism I1 of the .first example,
which has one reñecting surface, a prism 28
pieces 8. The rangefinder has a measuring de
which, in addition to the effect produced by the
vice which consists in the known manner of two
senses by means of a milled head 9, and of an
20 indicating device consisting of an index I2 and a
division> I I representing ranges. The rangeflnder
also contains a device .for neutralizing errors of
height which consists of two wedge-shaped prisms
vI4 rotatable in opposite senses by means of a
milled head I3. The wedge-shaped prisms I0 are
ineffective when their refractixng edges are hori
zontal, in contradistinction whereto the wedge-`
shaped prisms I4 do not p_roduce any effect when
effected in the device according to the second ex
ample by rotating the telescope 32 about the hori-'
zontal axis 33 by means of a screw 34, against the
pressure of the spring 35. In all other respects, 25
the determination and the compensation of errors
of height in the rangeñnder are effected in the
manner described with 4reference to the first
their refracting edges are vertical.
In the device according to the third construc 30
The supplementary device according to the first
constructional example has a housing I5 provided v tional example (Figures 5 and 6), two objectives
31 are mounted in a'housing 36 at such a distance
with two. windows I6 at a distance apart corre
sponding to that of the eye-pieces 8 of the range
flnder. Behind the left window I6, a triangle
prism I1 is disposed in a mount I8 which is ro
-apart as corresponds to the interocular distance
of the eye-pieces 8 of the rangeñnder. Behind
each of the objectives 31 is _disposed a triangular '
tatable about a pin I9 and has an arm 20 con
prism 38. The objectives 31 have .the same focal
nected to a tension spring 2I against the action
of which the arm 20 can be rotated by means of
ascre'w 22. Behind the right :window I6 ‘is a
glass cube 23 and a` viewing aperture 25 in the
by means of the prism 38, the rear foci of these
objectives coincide in an edge» 39 of a- right
angled isosceles triangle prism 40 mounted in the 40
housing I5, the glass cube 23 having a diagonal
- surface 24 which is so silver-plated as to be half
When the rangefinder is used'and a verification
' is to be made as to whether there are any errors
of height, which may be due for instance to dis
length and, on account of the deflection of rays -
housing 36, the said edge 36 being the edge in
which the two surfaces' of prism 40 at right
angles to each other intersect. This edge 39 lies
in the front focal plane of an eye-piece _4I mount
ed in .the housing 36. As 'in the first example, 45
the left prism 38 is disposed in the housing 36 in
a mount 42 having an arm “and rotatable
account of vibration, the supplementary device is i lagainst the pressure of a spring 45 about a pin 46.
Also the device according to this constructional .
‘ so placed behind the rangefinder that the windows `
I6 are infrontA of the eye-pieces 8. The paths example can be used with a range?lnderfor in 50
stance accordingA to Figure 1. When looking
- of the imaging rays of the eye-pieces 8 are thus
combined, and the object images produced by the through the eye-piece 4I, the person using the ~
placements of the >optical part òf the'apparatus on>`
device sees an image iield divided by a vertical
'rangefinder are seen by the observer lookinginto
the viewing aperture as superposed on each
55 other, deviations as to height of the object im#
separating line, namely the edge 36. By means
of the eye-pieces 8 and the objectives 31, 4the 55
height. Now, the images of the marks 1 are given
equal height by rotating the screw 22 accordingly
60 and, subsequently thereto, an eventual difference
of height of the object images is compensated
for by rotating the wedge-shaped prisms I4 by
-left half of the said field of view, and the ob
ject image of the right objective 4 and the right
mark 1 are imaged in the right half of the ñeld
of view. To facilitate the adjustment of the
mark images at equal -height in the field of view
those of the marks~1 and, accordingly, the range
ñnder can be use_d agai'rî'witho'ut the supplemen
other parts being rangeñnger marks of the usual
kind at equal distances from the corresponding
ages as well as ofthe images of the marks' 1 object image produced by the left rangeflnder
being readily recognizable by their differences of A objective and the left mark 1 are imaged in the
1 55
of the device, the marks 1 can be made to con
means of the milled-head I3. These manipula
tions remove errors of height of the kind in which - sist of a plurality of parts, one of these parts of
the object images assume heights different from Äeach mark representing a horizontal line and the
tary device.
The device'according to the second construc
tional Vexample (Figures 3 and 4) h'as a housing
26 .which is provided with two Windows 21. Be
hind the left window 21 is disposed a pentagonal
'prism 28 having a roof-shaped reflecting surface,
‘and behind the right window 21 is a glass cube
75 29, which combines the light- rays, and a view.
liñes. When the line images- in the two halves
of the field of view are given the same height.
by means of the screw 4I, the heights of the 70
marks used for rangeñnding are made to coincide
with each other. The errors of height are neu
tralized completely by giving the object images
of the two- halves of the ñeld of view the same
height in- the manner described hereinbefore.. ' 15
The device according to the fourth -construcs ences of height of the mark images areremoved
‘by rotating the milled head 53. When these
imagesassume the same height, the .differences
`of height of the images ofvthe‘objectv are' com-v
pensated for _by operating the rotating wedge
tional example (Figure '7) is a stationary `supple
mentary device mounted into »a rangeiinder.'>
This rangeñnder conforms substantially to the
rangeñnder described with reference to the ñrst
example. . 'I‘he diñerences of the rangefinder
shown inv Figure 7 from the said other range
ilnder consist in the following. The pentagonal
prisms 41> behind the windows 2 have simple
10 reñecting surfaces, and no image-reversing roof
surface. There are no triangular prisms 6„ but
pentagonal prisms> 48 on whose ray exit surfaces,
which coincide with -the focal planes of the ob
jectives 4, are provided marks 1. The housing
15 I has a ñange part 48 the exterior wall 'of which
contains the adjustable eye-pieces 8. Behind
the prisms 48 are disposed objectives 50 of such
focal lengths as lto imagegthe marks 1 in the
front focal planes of 'the'eye-pieces 8. About
20 an axis at right angles to the rangeiinder base,
a housing 52 can be rotated in the part 48 by
shaped prisms i4. Subsequently’to the ray paths l
from the objectives 58 to the eye-pieces, 8 having
been made free by rotatingv the head 53. the '
rangeñnder can be used formeasuring purposes
in-- the' known manner,v without ' the ,resultsv being 10
impaired `by errors of height.
The_device according to the fifth constructional
example ' (Figure 8) is used, together-with a
rangeñnder that _has nolmeasuring marks and
with which lmeasurements are, eiîected bygiving l5.
the same virtual distance to -two such stereo
scopic images of an _objectvas are produced by
means of two rangenndersystems n' of different.
bases. The said »rangeiìnder has a> housing y8|
with four apertures for entering rays. -The two
apertures in the left end of the base are covered
means of a milled head 53.> The housing 52
by two planoèparallel ~glass plates'82, 63', and the
has two windows 54 corresponding to the objec
tives 58. The one of the-windows 54 is provided
two apertures in the right end of the baseV are
covered by two divergent lenses ‘84,A 85 whic‘i
25 with- a dispersing lens 55 of such a focal length I are' equal to each other.
The housing 8| con
tains two tubes 58 and 51 having in their ends
that the_ front focus of the optical system con
sisting of this lens 55 and one objective 50 lies ftelescope' objectives 88, 69 andy 10, 1I; respective
' in the plane of the corresponding mark 1. _Be-' ly.. Four pentagonal prisms-12, 13,'14'and 15,--'
hind-the lens 55 is disposed a triangle prism 56, which are provided behind the ray entrance
30 and behind the free window 54, in the housing apertures, deñect the entering. pencils of imag->
52, is a glass cube 51 having a diagonal surface' ing rays at right angles intoV the saidobjectives.`
The `ray pencils are combined by these objectives
58 which is so silver-plated as to be half-trans
parent. 'I‘he housing 52 also has a window 59, to object- _images and> so deflected by means of
two ray combining systems 18 and .11, each of
which corresponds to the glass cube 51, and be
which consists of a trapeziform-and an image
' tween the prism 56 and the cube 51 a convergent
lens 60 is so disposed that, in consideration of reversing roof~surfaced- triangle prism,lthat they '
the reñection on the surface 58, its rear focal are in pairs in the _front focal plane of two
plane coincides with the front focal plane of the adjustable eye-pieces 18, 19 in the housing 8l.
The light exit apertures of the trapeziform and
eye-pieces 8.
When ranges are to be measured by means
of the device, the housing 52 is so turned through
the agency of the milled heady 53 that the raypath from the objectives 50_to the eye-pieces 8 '
remains unobstructed. The objectives 50 pro
45 duce in the front focal planes, of the eye-pieces '
8 intermediate images of the image planes of
the rangeñnder and the marks 1. As this inter'
mediate imaging entails a complete image rever _
sion, the prisms 41 and 48 are solconstructed
that the intermediate images are erect, as are
` the images on the ray exit surfaces 5 in the de
the triangle prisms cover the upper and the lower
halves, respectively, of the ocular fields of view.
To each of the interior tubes 66, 61 is coordinated
a device for displacing the one of the two imag
ing ray pencils altitudinally.. These devices con
sist of boxes 80, 8i which are displaceably mount
ed in the_interior> tubes> 86, 61 and in which
wedge-shaped prisms 82, 83 are so mounted that
their -refracting edges are horizontal. 'I‘he boxes
88, .8| are provided with racks _84, _85 in mesh
with toothed wheels 88,' 81 connected to milled
heads 88, 88 outside the housing 6I.,v In 'front
of the ends of the interior-tube“ which face the
measured in the usual manner by combining ’ object, pairs of wedge-shaped prisms 38, 8| are
stereoscopically the intermediate images of 'the so disposed in the housing 8| as to be rotatable
55 object and by determining the range difference in opposite senses. The refracting edges of the
of the virtual position of this stereoscopic image wedges 88, 9| are vertical when the wedge-shaped
by means of the measuring device I0, Il, I2 and ‘l prisms do not produce any effect. The pairs
the virtual position .of the space image lof the of wedge-shaped prisms 88, 8| are operated by
mark. For determining errors of height, the toothed wheels 92, 93 connected to a shaft 34
housing 52 is so rotated by means of the milled- which is disposed in the housing 8| and rotat 60
head 53 that ,the imaging rays of the eye-pieces able by means of a milled head 95, the two ex
8 traverse the prisms. 56`and 51. ' O_n account of terior wedge-shaped prisms being rotatable in
the consequent simultaneous displacement of the a sense reverse to-that of the two interior wedge
divergent lens 55 into the‘left of these ray paths, shaped prisms. The range-ñnding device of-the
65 the imaging rays emanating as „convergent rays apparatus consists of two~convergent lenses 88,
vice according to the ñrst example. Ranges are
from the left objective 50 are made parallel and
then combined by the’convergent lens 68 to a
converging >pencil whose point of convergenceco
incides with the point of convergence of the con
99 displaceable in the direction of the range
finder base by means of a'rack 88 and a'toothed
wheel 81. These lenses 88„88 are disposed be
hind the divergent lenses 54, 68 and have such
focal lengths that one each of the convergent 70
right objective 50. Accordingly, the two images ' and one each oi' the divergent lenses produce
of the viewed object aswell as the images of the effect of a plano-parallel plate when the
the two marks 1 overlap each _other in the focal
plane of the right eye-piece, and undesired dif
75 ferences of height »are noticed at once.¿ Differ
optical axes coincide, in contradistinction where- . I
to displacements of the lenses entail lateral de
viations of the pencil of imaging rays.. The
toothed wheel 91 is coupled to a milled head |00
and provided with a division |0| representing
ranges and coordinated to an index |02. _
The supplementary device according to the
fifth example has a housing |03 with, two ray
entrance apertures |04at a'distance apart which
corresponds to the interocular distance of the
eye-pieces 18. Between the aperturesilil is a
rotatable bolt |05 for a lens holder |06. In this
lens holder, two objectives |01 are so mounted
as to lie behind the apertures |04. Small rota
tions of the bolt |05 entail such displacements
of the objectives |01 at right angles to their op
tical axes that the incident-pencil of rays is de
viated _altitudinally. Behind the objectives |01
are disposedpentagonal prisms |08 for deñect
ing> the rayïpencils at right angles into a ray
convergingsystem which consists of two triangle
prisms |09 and ||0 and whose cemented sur
face I Il is sjo silver-plated as to be half-trans
parent. The rear focal planes of the objectives
visible in the right eye-piece 19. As soon as this
adjustment is eilîected, the rangeñnder is devoid
of anyv errors of ‘height detrimental to observa
tions and can be usedfor further measurements
without the supplementary device.
I claim:
1. A supplementary device for a binocular
rangeñnder having a device for removing errors
of height, the said supplementary device com
prising a housing, this housing having two aper.
tures in one side and a third aperture in the op
posite side, the distance apart of the two first
said apertures corresponding to the interocular
distance of the two eye-pieces of the said range
ñnder, optical means for lateral deflection of at
least the light rays entering through the one of
the two ñrst said apertures, optical means for
combining the two pencils of light rays entering
through the two ñrst said apertures, optical
means for altitudinal Ídeflection of at least the 20
light rays entering through the one of the two
|01 coincide' with the front focal plane of an ' iirst said apertures, and -mechanical means for
eye-piece H2. The lens holder |06 is rotated
by means_,ofta milled head ||3 and a friction
wheel III.`
~ when `the device is tp be used, the housing
displacing the last said optical means, the said
_ optical means being disposed in the said housing.
2. In a supplementary device according to claim'
l, said optical means comprising a reñecting‘sys
« |03 is givenithe position behind 'the eye-pieces tem for deñecting at least .fthe light rays enter
of the rangefinder, as described with reference ` ing through the one of thel two first said aper
to the first example.
As is well known, this
tures, the said reñecting system being disposed in
30 rangefinderproduces two stereoscopic images of
the said housing and rotatable about an axis 30
an object which are so disposed as to be inverted parallel to the axes of the pencils of light rays
entering through the two first said apertures.
relatively to each other and separated by a hori
3. In a supplementary' device according to claim
zontal separating line. 'I'he 4sepz'irating, lines are "
provided by the lower edges of> the light exit 1, said optical means comprising a telescope dis
apertures of the trapeziform prisms of the sys
tems 16 and 11, and the inversion of the images
is effected by the roof-shaped surfaces ofthetriangle prisms of the said systems. The two
object images produced by the objectives 60 and
` 1| furnish the erect, and the two object images
produced by the objectives 69 and 'l0 furnish the
inverse stereoscopic image of the object. The
ranges are measured _by makingl the displaceable
lenses 9B, 99 produce acoincidence of the two
stereoscopic images. The supplementary device
45 acts as a double telescope which is disposed be
vhind the eye-pieces“, 19 of the rangeñnder and
in- whose field of >view the two erect as well as
posed in the path of the lightrays entering the
said housing through the' one ofthe two ñrst said
apertures, the _said telescope magnifying one time.
this telescope being disposed in the said hous
ing and rotatable about an axis parallel to the
axes of the pencils of light rays entering through 40
the two ñrst said apertures. f'
. Í
4. In a supplementary `device accordingl to
claim 1, said optical means comprising a tele
scope system disposed in the fsaid housing, this
telescope system comprising two objectives and a 45
common eye-piece, the said objectives being co
ordinated to the two ñrst'said apertures in the
housing, the said eye-piecel being coordinated to
the two inverted object `~images> of the range
the said third aperture in the housing, at least
ilnder overlap each other. .,By turning the milled one of the said objectives in the housing being
head H3, the lensholder |00 is rotated through rotatable about an axis parallel to the axis of the
small angles until the images of the two separat-_ Aiirst said rotatable objective.
5.- In a binocular rangeñnder having a device
ing lines coincide in the ñeld of view of the
eye-piece H2. Subsequently thereto, the errors for removing errors of height, a supplementary
of height of the rangeilnder, which are perceived device mounted in frontvof the two eye-pieces of 55
55_as differences of height of object images over
the said rangeiinder, the said supplementary de
`lapping each other, viz, the unequaldistances of .._vice comprising a housing,y this housing having
the object images from the separating line, are two apertures in one side and a third aperture in
removed by rotating the milled heads 8_9 and 89 the opposite side, the distance apart of the two
and thus displacing the wedge-shaped prisms 92 first said apertin‘es corresponding to the interocu»l
lar distance of the two eye-pieces of the said
and 0_3 until these differences of height have dis
appeared in- the erect as well as in the inverse rangefinder, optical means for lateral deñection
object images. Differences of height can now _off'fat least the light rays entering through the
exist onlybetween the object images of the up- - "one of the two ñrst said apertures, optical means
per and the lower half of the image iield. 'I‘hese for‘co'mbining the two pencils- of light rays enter
ing through the two first said apertures, optical
differences of the object images from the sep
arating line are `dealt with by rotating the milled means for altitudinal deilection of at least the _
head 95, which means that the images ' of the
light rays entering through the one of ~the two
two halves of the image ileld are displaced rela
tively to the separating line in the reverse di
70 rection of height, since the pairs of wedge-shaped
prisms 90 and 9|, which are operated at the same
ilrst said apertures, and mechanical means for
time, »iniluence in- different _senses the images
displacing the lastîsaid optical means, the said
optical means being` disposed in the said housing.
ò'i'ro FREUND. .
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