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Jan. 25, 1938. M. GREISER . 2,106,634 PRINTING OF‘AFIBROUS MATERIALS BY IMPREGNATION - . Filed June 7, 1953 «È . Nv .im~y, z „E "î à? ‘2 im@ Hä; vENToR. ,man ATToRNEYs, 2,106,634 Patented Jan. 275, A1.938 UNITED STATES PATENToFFiCE 3,106,634 ‘ Pnm'rnvc or FmRoUs MATERIALS BY ~ ' IMPREGNATION ~ ` ‘ Melvin R. Greiser, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignors to Carthage Mills Incorporated, Carthage, Ohio, .ia corporation of Ohio Application Juneï'l, 1933, Serial No. 674,723' . 2 Claims. My invention relates to the printing of fibrous materials, pile fabrics and the like.> In the man ufacture of carpeting and other pile fabrics it has been the general practice to produce de 5 signs by weaving the material initially from yarns arrangement» of'parts of which I shall now set forth the. aforesaid exemplary embodiment. Reference is made to thedrawing, Wherein:,--~ Figure 1 is a semi-diagrammatic view of _a or threads of differing colors. It has been real printing machine arranged in accordance with ' 5 my invention to carry out my process. » ized that fabrics might be more cheaply made were it possible to produce the desired designs in them by a' printing process employing dyes, treated by my process. after fabrication. More or less successful at tempts have been made to print upon pile fab ` rics or ñbrous materials by mixing dyes and mordants, together with certain materials to give body to the mixture, and then using the mixture 1 - in place of ink in a printing process. Difficulties have been met with, however, which in general have to do with the penetration of the color, the fixing of the color upon or into the iìbers, adequate printing mechanism in view of the dif iiculty of handling dye combinations and cor rosive mordantamechanical difficulties in print > . ing, such as the collection of lint by the- plates, etc. ^ - _ The primary object of my invention is to pro 25 vide an` adequate, vcheap and simple process forA printing by impregnation, pile fabrics or fibrous bodies. I shall-describe my invention in con nection with the manufacture of a relatively in expensive ñoor covering by a printing process from a non-woven ñbrous body material, as will hereinafter be described in detail, it being under . stood, however, that my invention is by no means conñned to any particular character of fabric, woven or unwoven, upon which printing is de 85 sired. If it is my object, however, to produce the said inexpensive floorÁ covering, it will be ob vious that considerationsof economy in >process and apparatus become very important. Conse quently it is a more specinc object of my inven '40 tion to provide a simpliiied general process for the purpose desired.A It is also my object to pro vvide .a process in which, for the printing step, ordinary printing means such as have hereto fore been employed in the felt base ñoor covering 45 art, may be utilized without deterioration.. It is also my object to make provision for a better penetration of the color, for the protection of the printing plates and general apparatus, and for taking care of the necessary supplementary op 50 erations, such as steaming the web. These and other objects of my invention which will be set forth hereinafter or will be apparent to one skilled in the art upon reading these - specifications, I accomplish by that certain series 55 of manipulations and by that construction and Fig. 2 is a representation of ~a web of material Fig.' 3 is a sectional view of' a steaming device. As aforesaid, I shall describe my invention `in 10 connection with the printing ofv a relatively in-_ expensive non-woven, felted mass or pad of fibers. Such materials are now obtainable on themarket in wide widths. They are made up of a relatively loosely felted mass of fibers, for the most part 15 animal ñbers. One face of the web is usually treated with such a- substance as rubber latex,y which contributes some strength to the web,~ and also gives it non-slipping characteristics when used as a rug. While my invention is not limited 20 ‘ to any particular material to be printed upon, . the material referred to is relatively inexpensive 1and is suitable for the manufacture of rugs which _are both durable and> beautiful, and which are exceedingly economical .providing the problems 25 connected with the treating of the same are solved. , ' s Hltherto such problems have been bailiing. An attempt has been made to mix a mordant, such as formic acid, with suitable dyes and gums to 30 give body to the composition, and then print therewith upon the web. But inadequate pen etration has been secured, the printing plates soon pick up lint or dust from the web and be come fouled so that the printing is no longer 35 cleanly done; and the acid mordants are cor rosive in their character and attack the print ing plates if they are of metal, and in any event attack the machinery bearing the printing plates. ’ The steaming has had to be done in large cham- 40 bers or ovens, and where intermediate 'steamings are necessary the process has had to be inter rupted. Attempts have been made to steam lthe web by blowing live steam thereon from a plu rality of nozzles; but this is both wasteful of 45 steam and creates unpleasant working conditions. Additionally, unless the steam is specially pro duced, it is likely to contain oil or grease and foreign materials, which tend to soil the web. The admission of live steam to steaming cham- 50 bers is subiect to the same disadvantages, though to somewhat lesser degree. In addition, Washings and dryings of the web, where necessary, have greatly slowed up the process; and these factors have in general made the printing of webs of the 55 2,106,634 2 character described an operation out of all pro portion as to costliness to the costtof the web itself. I have found that by my process, webs ofthe character described, or pile fabrics, etc. may be adequately printed upon the ordinary flat bed printing press used in the manufacture of felt base floor coverings. It should be understood that my invention is not limited to use upon ñat or otherwise as desired. Upon the framework there are mounted a series of reciprocating stand ard devices 5, controlled by cams 6. The stand ards 5 bear the printing blocks or plates 1. As the cams 6 rotate in timed relationship, the standards 5 are caused to pull the plates 'I down into contact with the web during periods of _rest thereof, and to raise them out of contact; with the plate during the inking operation, and dur 10 bed printing presses, but that the principles may » be applied and practiced upon other types of ing the movement of the web. The web of course l() moves ina step by step manner through the printing machinery, such as the rotary presses» and the like; and I desire the appended claims to be understood as not limited to the general features of any particular character of printing printing device. Inking pans 8 to contain the color are-provided. These pans contain suitable application devices, not shown, but usually in the nature of rolls with doctors, and they are mechanism, excepting where specifically set forth. I have found that by the application of the mordant and penetrant or wetting agent first to the web, I secure a number of remarkable ad 20 vantages. In the first place, the mordant han dling equipment is localized at one point and is reduced to a minimum. Within the limits of sound economy it can be such equipment as is not affected by the corrosive character of the 25 mordant, or if not, can be replaced from time to time, as necessary, without great cost. Secondly, the remainder of the printing m-achine, including the printing plates and moving parts are pro tected from the action of the mordant and do 30 not tend to be corroded thereby. In the third place, the wetted character of the web, I have found, entirely prevents the printing plates from picking up and becoming fouled by dust, lint, fibers etc. from the web. In the fourth place, when the web is wetted without being entirely saturated by the mordant, the penetration of colors into the web is much more effective. The dye substance employed appears to strike down wardly through the web, penetrating substantially 40 throughout itsdepth Without undesirable side spreading of the color. In the ñfth place, my printing mechanism handles nothing but the dye substance, together with such gums or other ma terials as may be thought necessary to give the 45 dye sufficient body. This appears not only to give me a more advantageous substance ' for color mounted to reciprocate longitudinally of the ma chine'. For this purpose small Wheels on the pans engage tracks along the edges of the machine, and mechanism is provided to move the pans in synchronism with the other movements of the 20 machine so that when the printing plates are raised, the pans pass beneath them and apply color to the printing surfaces, all as is under stood in this art. An exemplary printing machine of this char acter contains 30 or more of the standards 5, which will be found adequate- for the carrying on of my invention. I have shown a web 3 coming from a supply roll onto the table 2. As an initial operation I 34) apply the mordant to the web. For this purpose I have shown a series of nozzles 9, located above the table from which the mordant is sprayed onto the web. I prefer this met`-od of application be cause it is one of the simplest and least expen sive which I may use, but other methods of appli cation are suitable. I may apply the mordant. ~ by means of felt-covered blocks, or by means of a roll, which may be of rubber or other acid re sistant substance. Under some circumstances I 40 can knife the mordant onto the web; but I do not ordinarily prefer to do this, since while I desire my web to be thoroughly wetted, I do not desire it to4 be completely saturated. Conse quently spray coating or roll coating is preferable,. in my opinion, either to kniñng or to passing the application, but also appears to make for greater web bodily beneath the surface of a bath of permanence in the web, In the sixth place, the l mordant, which, however, might be done. f Next it is usually advantageous to steam the character of operations performed by me are web after mordanting to soften the ñbers and exceedinglysimple, «and Where desired, may be 50 repeated as often as necessary. Thus the web increase the penetration thereof by mordanting. may be mordanted and printed, and afterward I have shown two of the standards marked 5a, as bearing steaming devices indicated generally at mordanted again. Printings may follow mordant I0. These devices have connections II, with a ings as often as desired, and double printings may be employed. Again I have devised a method and means for steaming the web. In general these means are analogous to the printing means in that they con tact the sheet or web intermittently, as in the 60 flat bed press, or by a rolling contact as in the rotary press. They are in the nature of pressing and steaming devices in which the steam escapes to the web through .confining means which not only permit steaming at a higher temperature, 65 but localize the action of the steam and filter out of the steam such foreign substances as might otherwise stain or soil the web. I have illustrated my invention in Fig. 1 as ap plied to a flat bed printing press of the type gen 70 erally used for the paint printing-of felt base floor coverings. The press is an elongated struc ture built upon a frame I, having a table 2. The sheet 3 is carried over this table from a source of supply 4, by means of the ordinary chain car 75 rying device having points to penetrate the web, source of live vsteam which may, of course, be either the general steam supply of the plant or a special source. Steaming devices will in gen eral be more or less of the same proportions as the printing plates with reference to their area, but 'it is obvious that they may be larger or (il) smaller, as desired, and more particularly that more than an oppositely disposed pair of stand ard members 5a may be employed to control a single steaming device. I have illustrated in Fig. 3 a sectional view of an exemplary steaming device. It comprises a top member I2, having passageways I3 for steam and having the connection II. Beneath ~ the head I usually prefer to provide pads of fibrous material indicated at Il. These give re "'0 siliency to the steaming device, and also act as filters to remove from the steam foreign mate rials therein. A general, pervious covering I5 is provided to cover the under surface of the steaming device. I have shown at I6 diagram 75 3 2,106,634 matically a two-way valve which may be under stood as either manually controlled or controlled in synchronism with the operation of the print is a tendency of the gum to segregate toward the top of the sheet, »giving an undesirabley sur face texture. On the contrary, in my process. ing machine by a suitable cam arrangement. > there is a tendency for the gum and wetting agent to penetrate the web and, so far as it of steam, and by means I8 either to a vacuum segregates, to segregate at or near ithe bottom ~ pump, or to a source of air under pressure. of the web, where it increases the permanency of When the valve mechanism is moved to the left, the web, leaving the upper dyed fibers clear and steam is admitted to the steaming device. When brilliant. 10 it is moved to the right, the steam is cut off Since my printing plates do not have to carry 10 and connection is made to the vacuum pump or mordant, I may, if desired, use metal printing source of air. Vacuum is preferable because it plates, though wooden> plates are in general pref- tends more effectively to remove the steam. erable and more economical. In any event, the When the valve is in neutral position no ñuid machinery is protected from the mordant, and pressure is applied to the steaming device. The the plates show no tendency to pick upIlint and 15 general sequence of operations will be a lower foreign matter. . ing of the steaming device against the web under After a final steaming, the web may either pressure, the application of steam thereto for be finished, or if a washing is desired, it may a predetermined interval, thecutting oil.’ of the be carried through a washing pan I9 and iinally steam and the application of vacuum thereto, steamed to dry it by one or more steaming heads 20 and iinally the raising of the steaming head. I 0c, on standards 5c. .At the conclusion of these Having thus been steamed, the web 3 passes operations, the web is ñnished and may be rolled beneath the printing heads 1 on the standards 5 up for sa‘le or cut into a series of rugs, where and is printed in much the same manner- as the printing operation has produced rugl borders. the printing operations heretofore carried on on Since a ñnal steaming may be employed to dry_ felt base door coverings. The pans contain suit the web, I do not need to provide either steam This valve is connected by means l1 to a source able dyes, together with body-giving gums. The s rooms or drying chambers, and in one operation I have produced a completed web. It will be clear that modiiications may be made previous application of mordant to the web in creases the penetrative power of the dyes so ap plied. The pre-treatment of the ñbers with the mordant increases the fastness of the colors pro duced, whereas the previous steaming of the web in my invention without departing from the 30 spirit thereof, and in particular that my process may be carried on on other printing'devices also appears to assist the penetration of the y thanthat specifically illustrated herein. 'I'he fibers by the dyes. ` ñnished web I have illustrated in Fig. 2, where In some instances double printing operations will be found desirable. 'I'hus a plurality of the printing plates l may be employed to print one color, or the camarrangement which con trols the travel of the web may be so adjusted 40 that two or more printing operations by the same plate are performed upon the same portion of the web. l - Intermediate the printing operations if desired, another mordant application may be made as by means of the nozzles 9a, and the web may again be steamed by heads Illa. Additional printings may be carried on as by blocks la, and a ñnal steaming applied, as by heads Hlb. It should be pointed out that the nature of 50 the steaming devices employed by me permits a much more eiîective steaming of the web. ‘ color applications 20 and 2l are shown as ex tending throughout the body of the fabric, _the latex bonding coating being shown at 2.2. An increase in the intensity of the color shading toward the bottom of the web indicates a con centration‘ of the gum at that point. 40 ' Having thus` described my invention, what I claim as new and desire'to secure'by Letters Patent, is:- _ ` 1. In a process of printing ñoor covering ma terials having a deep fibrous body, ‘by impregna tion, the steps of treating a ñbrous web at one station with a mordant liquid to` the extent of ' wetting said web’generally, moving said web to another- station and treating ‘said web while wet with said mordant, with a selective color appli 50 cation without mordant. " 2. Aprocess of printing webs of floor covering materials having a deep fibrous body, by im pregnation, which comprises applying a mordant without dye to said web generally at one stage, 55. passing said web to a second stage and steaming it, and passing said web to a third stage without By reason of the close contact of the steaming device to the web, not only may the steaming l cn Ll be carried on under considerable pressure, -but also for that reason at an elevated temperature; The purpose of the gum in the dye, as aforesaid, is to give it suitable body for printing. An excess drying and selectively applying dye without of gum or poorly distributed gum is not desir mordant to said wet web. able in the-web. If a printed web is treated with 60 steam merely by blowing the steam upon it there ,p MErÃvrN a. GREISER. '