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Патент USA US2106634

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Jan. 25, 1938.
. 2,106,634
. Filed June 7, 1953
. Nv
im@ Hä;
Patented Jan. 275, A1.938
3,106,634 ‘
Pnm'rnvc or FmRoUs MATERIALS BY
Melvin R. Greiser, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignors to
Carthage Mills Incorporated, Carthage, Ohio,
.ia corporation of Ohio
Application Juneï'l, 1933, Serial No. 674,723' .
2 Claims.
My invention relates to the printing of fibrous
materials, pile fabrics and the like.> In the man
ufacture of carpeting and other pile fabrics it
has been the general practice to produce de
5 signs by weaving the material initially from yarns
arrangement» of'parts of which I shall now set
forth the. aforesaid exemplary embodiment.
Reference is made to thedrawing, Wherein:,--~
Figure 1 is a semi-diagrammatic view of _a
or threads of differing colors. It has been real
printing machine arranged in accordance with ' 5 my invention to carry out my process.
ized that fabrics might be more cheaply made
were it possible to produce the desired designs
in them by a' printing process employing dyes,
treated by my process.
after fabrication.
More or less successful at
tempts have been made to print upon pile fab
` rics or ñbrous materials by mixing dyes and
mordants, together with certain materials to give
body to the mixture, and then using the mixture
1 - in place of ink in a printing process. Difficulties
have been met with, however, which in general
have to do with the penetration of the color,
the fixing of the color upon or into the iìbers,
adequate printing mechanism in view of the dif
iiculty of handling dye combinations and cor
rosive mordantamechanical difficulties in print
> . ing, such as the collection of lint by the- plates,
The primary object of my invention is to pro
25 vide an` adequate, vcheap and simple process forA
printing by impregnation, pile fabrics or fibrous
bodies. I shall-describe my invention in con
nection with the manufacture of a relatively in
expensive ñoor covering by a printing process
from a non-woven ñbrous body material, as will
hereinafter be described in detail, it being under
. stood, however, that my invention is by no means
conñned to any particular character of fabric,
woven or unwoven, upon which printing is de
85 sired.
If it is my object, however, to produce
the said inexpensive floorÁ covering, it will be ob
vious that considerationsof economy in >process
and apparatus become very important. Conse
quently it is a more specinc object of my inven
'40 tion to provide a simpliiied general process for
the purpose desired.A It is also my object to pro
vvide .a process in which, for the printing step,
ordinary printing means such as have hereto
fore been employed in the felt base ñoor covering
45 art, may be utilized without deterioration.. It is
also my object to make provision for a better
penetration of the color, for the protection of the
printing plates and general apparatus, and for
taking care of the necessary supplementary op
50 erations, such as steaming the web.
These and other objects of my invention which
will be set forth hereinafter or will be apparent
to one skilled in the art upon reading these -
specifications, I accomplish by that certain series
55 of manipulations and by that construction and
Fig. 2 is a representation of ~a web of material
Fig.' 3 is a sectional view of' a steaming device.
As aforesaid, I shall describe my invention `in 10
connection with the printing ofv a relatively in-_
expensive non-woven, felted mass or pad of fibers.
Such materials are now obtainable on themarket
in wide widths. They are made up of a relatively
loosely felted mass of fibers, for the most part 15
animal ñbers. One face of the web is usually
treated with such a- substance as rubber latex,y
which contributes some strength to the web,~ and
also gives it non-slipping characteristics when
used as a rug. While my invention is not limited 20 ‘
to any particular material to be printed upon, .
the material referred to is relatively inexpensive
1and is suitable for the manufacture of rugs which
_are both durable and> beautiful, and which are
exceedingly economical .providing the problems 25
connected with the treating of the same are
Hltherto such problems have been bailiing. An
attempt has been made to mix a mordant, such
as formic acid, with suitable dyes and gums to 30
give body to the composition, and then print
therewith upon the web. But inadequate pen
etration has been secured, the printing plates
soon pick up lint or dust from the web and be
come fouled so that the printing is no longer 35
cleanly done; and the acid mordants are cor
rosive in their character and attack the print
ing plates if they are of metal, and in any event
attack the machinery bearing the printing plates. ’
The steaming has had to be done in large cham- 40
bers or ovens, and where intermediate 'steamings
are necessary the process has had to be inter
rupted. Attempts have been made to steam lthe
web by blowing live steam thereon from a plu
rality of nozzles; but this is both wasteful of 45
steam and creates unpleasant working conditions.
Additionally, unless the steam is specially pro
duced, it is likely to contain oil or grease and
foreign materials, which tend to soil the web.
The admission of live steam to steaming cham- 50
bers is subiect to the same disadvantages, though
to somewhat lesser degree. In addition, Washings
and dryings of the web, where necessary, have
greatly slowed up the process; and these factors
have in general made the printing of webs of the 55
character described an operation out of all pro
portion as to costliness to the costtof the web
I have found that by my process, webs ofthe
character described, or pile fabrics, etc. may be
adequately printed upon the ordinary flat bed
printing press used in the manufacture of felt
base floor coverings. It should be understood
that my invention is not limited to use upon ñat
or otherwise as desired. Upon the framework
there are mounted a series of reciprocating stand
ard devices 5, controlled by cams 6. The stand
ards 5 bear the printing blocks or plates 1. As
the cams 6 rotate in timed relationship, the
standards 5 are caused to pull the plates 'I down
into contact with the web during periods of _rest
thereof, and to raise them out of contact; with
the plate during the inking operation, and dur
10 bed printing presses, but that the principles may
» be applied and practiced upon other types of
ing the movement of the web. The web of course l()
moves ina step by step manner through the
printing machinery, such as the rotary presses»
and the like; and I desire the appended claims
to be understood as not limited to the general
features of any particular character of printing
printing device. Inking pans 8 to contain the
color are-provided. These pans contain suitable
application devices, not shown, but usually in
the nature of rolls with doctors, and they are
mechanism, excepting where specifically set forth.
I have found that by the application of the
mordant and penetrant or wetting agent first to
the web, I secure a number of remarkable ad
20 vantages.
In the first place, the mordant han
dling equipment is localized at one point and is
reduced to a minimum. Within the limits of
sound economy it can be such equipment as is
not affected by the corrosive character of the
25 mordant, or if not, can be replaced from time to
time, as necessary, without great cost. Secondly,
the remainder of the printing m-achine, including
the printing plates and moving parts are pro
tected from the action of the mordant and do
30 not tend to be corroded thereby. In the third
place, the wetted character of the web, I have
found, entirely prevents the printing plates from
picking up and becoming fouled by dust, lint,
fibers etc. from the web.
In the fourth place,
when the web is wetted without being entirely
saturated by the mordant, the penetration of
colors into the web is much more effective. The
dye substance employed appears to strike down
wardly through the web, penetrating substantially
40 throughout itsdepth Without undesirable side
spreading of the color.
In the ñfth place, my
printing mechanism handles nothing but the dye
substance, together with such gums or other ma
terials as may be thought necessary to give the
45 dye sufficient body. This appears not only to give
me a more advantageous substance ' for color
mounted to reciprocate longitudinally of the ma
chine'. For this purpose small Wheels on the pans
engage tracks along the edges of the machine,
and mechanism is provided to move the pans in
synchronism with the other movements of the 20
machine so that when the printing plates are
raised, the pans pass beneath them and apply
color to the printing surfaces, all as is under
stood in this art.
An exemplary printing machine of this char
acter contains 30 or more of the standards 5,
which will be found adequate- for the carrying
on of my invention.
I have shown a web 3 coming from a supply
roll onto the table 2. As an initial operation I 34)
apply the mordant to the web. For this purpose
I have shown a series of nozzles 9, located above
the table from which the mordant is sprayed onto
the web. I prefer this met`-od of application be
cause it is one of the simplest and least expen
sive which I may use, but other methods of appli
cation are suitable. I may apply the mordant. ~
by means of felt-covered blocks, or by means of
a roll, which may be of rubber or other acid re
sistant substance. Under some circumstances I 40
can knife the mordant onto the web; but I do
not ordinarily prefer to do this, since while I
desire my web to be thoroughly wetted, I do not
desire it to4 be completely saturated. Conse
quently spray coating or roll coating is preferable,.
in my opinion, either to kniñng or to passing the
application, but also appears to make for greater web bodily beneath the surface of a bath of
permanence in the web, In the sixth place, the l mordant, which, however, might be done.
f Next it is usually advantageous to steam the
character of operations performed by me are
web after mordanting to soften the ñbers and
repeated as often as necessary. Thus the web increase the penetration thereof by mordanting.
may be mordanted and printed, and afterward I have shown two of the standards marked 5a, as
bearing steaming devices indicated generally at
mordanted again. Printings may follow mordant
I0. These devices have connections II, with a
ings as often as desired, and double printings may
be employed.
Again I have devised a method and means for
steaming the web. In general these means are
analogous to the printing means in that they con
tact the sheet or web intermittently, as in the
60 flat bed press, or by a rolling contact as in the
rotary press. They are in the nature of pressing
and steaming devices in which the steam escapes
to the web through .confining means which not
only permit steaming at a higher temperature,
65 but localize the action of the steam and filter out
of the steam such foreign substances as might
otherwise stain or soil the web.
I have illustrated my invention in Fig. 1 as ap
plied to a flat bed printing press of the type gen
70 erally used for the paint printing-of felt base
floor coverings. The press is an elongated struc
ture built upon a frame I, having a table 2. The
sheet 3 is carried over this table from a source
of supply 4, by means of the ordinary chain car
75 rying device having points to penetrate the web,
source of live vsteam which may, of course, be
either the general steam supply of the plant or
a special source. Steaming devices will in gen
eral be more or less of the same proportions as
the printing plates with reference to their area,
but 'it is obvious that they may be larger or (il)
smaller, as desired, and more particularly that
more than an oppositely disposed pair of stand
ard members 5a may be employed to control a
single steaming device.
I have illustrated in Fig. 3 a sectional view
of an exemplary steaming device. It comprises
a top member I2, having passageways I3 for
steam and having the connection II. Beneath
the head I usually prefer to provide pads of
fibrous material indicated at Il. These give re "'0
siliency to the steaming device, and also act as
filters to remove from the steam foreign mate
rials therein.
A general, pervious covering I5
is provided to cover the under surface of the
steaming device. I have shown at I6 diagram
matically a two-way valve which may be under
stood as either manually controlled or controlled
in synchronism with the operation of the print
is a tendency of the gum to segregate toward
the top of the sheet, »giving an undesirabley sur
face texture. On the contrary, in my process.
ing machine by a suitable cam arrangement. > there is a tendency for the gum and wetting
agent to penetrate the web and, so far as it
of steam, and by means I8 either to a vacuum segregates, to segregate at or near ithe bottom ~
pump, or to a source of air under pressure.
of the web, where it increases the permanency of
When the valve mechanism is moved to the left, the web, leaving the upper dyed fibers clear and
steam is admitted to the steaming device. When brilliant.
10 it is moved to the right, the steam is cut off
Since my printing plates do not have to carry 10
and connection is made to the vacuum pump or
mordant, I may, if desired, use metal printing
source of air. Vacuum is preferable because it plates, though wooden> plates are in general pref- tends more effectively to remove the steam. erable and more economical. In any event, the
When the valve is in neutral position no ñuid machinery is protected from the mordant, and
pressure is applied to the steaming device. The the plates show no tendency to pick upIlint and 15
general sequence of operations will be a lower
foreign matter.
ing of the steaming device against the web under
After a final steaming, the web may either
pressure, the application of steam thereto for be finished, or if a washing is desired, it may
a predetermined interval, thecutting oil.’ of the be carried through a washing pan I9 and iinally
steam and the application of vacuum thereto, steamed to dry it by one or more steaming heads 20
and iinally the raising of the steaming head.
I 0c, on standards 5c. .At the conclusion of these
Having thus been steamed, the web 3 passes operations, the web is ñnished and may be rolled
beneath the printing heads 1 on the standards 5 up for sa‘le or cut into a series of rugs, where
and is printed in much the same manner- as the printing operation has produced rugl borders.
the printing operations heretofore carried on on Since a ñnal steaming may be employed to dry_
felt base door coverings. The pans contain suit
the web, I do not need to provide either steam
This valve is connected by means l1 to a source
able dyes, together with body-giving gums. The s rooms or drying chambers, and in one operation
I have produced a completed web.
It will be clear that modiiications may be made
previous application of mordant to the web in
creases the penetrative power of the dyes so ap
plied. The pre-treatment of the ñbers with the
mordant increases the fastness of the colors pro
duced, whereas the previous steaming of the web
in my invention without departing from the 30
spirit thereof, and in particular that my process
may be carried on on other printing'devices
also appears to assist the penetration of the y thanthat specifically illustrated herein. 'I'he
fibers by the dyes.
ñnished web I have illustrated in Fig. 2, where
In some instances double printing operations
will be found desirable. 'I'hus a plurality of
the printing plates l may be employed to print
one color, or the camarrangement which con
trols the travel of the web may be so adjusted
40 that two or more printing operations by the
same plate are performed upon the same portion
of the web.
Intermediate the printing operations if desired,
another mordant application may be made as
by means of the nozzles 9a, and the web may
again be steamed by heads Illa.
Additional printings may be carried on as by
blocks la, and a ñnal steaming applied, as by
heads Hlb.
It should be pointed out that the nature of
the steaming devices employed by me permits
a much more eiîective steaming of the web. ‘
color applications 20 and 2l are shown as ex
tending throughout the body of the fabric, _the
latex bonding coating being shown at 2.2. An
increase in the intensity of the color shading
toward the bottom of the web indicates a con
centration‘ of the gum at that point.
' Having thus` described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire'to secure'by Letters
Patent, is:-
1. In a process of printing ñoor covering ma
terials having a deep fibrous body, ‘by impregna
tion, the steps of treating a ñbrous web at one
station with a mordant liquid to` the extent of '
wetting said web’generally, moving said web to
another- station and treating ‘said web while wet
with said mordant, with a selective color appli 50
cation without mordant.
2. Aprocess of printing webs of floor covering
materials having a deep fibrous body, by im
pregnation, which comprises applying a mordant
without dye to said web generally at one stage, 55.
passing said web to a second stage and steaming
it, and passing said web to a third stage without
By reason of the close contact of the steaming
device to the web, not only may the steaming
l cn Ll be carried on under considerable pressure, -but
also for that reason at an elevated temperature;
The purpose of the gum in the dye, as aforesaid,
is to give it suitable body for printing. An excess drying and selectively applying dye without
of gum or poorly distributed gum is not desir
mordant to said wet web.
able in the-web. If a printed web is treated with
steam merely by blowing the steam upon it there ,p
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