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Патент USA US2106894

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- Feb. 1, 1938.’ ‘
' Filed-Sept 20, 1935
. 7
2 Sheets-Sheet}
V J!
“,9. Jame,” v_ ‘
Patented Feb. 1. 1938 ‘
rno'roGnsrmc c
Heins Kiippenbendu', Dresden, Germany, assign
or to Zeiss Ikon Aktiehatt, Dresden,
Application ‘September 20,1935, Serial No. 41,390
' '
In Germany August 18, 1984
8 Claim.
This invention relates'to improvements in pho
tographic cameras.
(01. 95-10)
settings or the shutter or diaphragm respectively
are noneuniformly determined.
It is a further object of the invention to pro
‘ It pertains particularly to that type of cameras
in which an electricphotometer forms part of vide a camera of- this character wherein the Y
5 the equipment associated with_the camera, the ' setting means for the diaphragm or shutter are 5
indication of the photometer being utilized for adapted to engage successively andcon'ductively
determining the setting of the‘ diaphragm or oi’ resistance sections serially positioned in the cir
the shutter, or of both. In cameras of this type cuit oi’ the photometer, the length of adjustments
the mechanical setting means for the diaphragm for successive settings of the diaphragm or shutter
10 may, for instance, be coupled with the electric, being non-uniform, and hence also the length of 10
‘photometer so as to cause an indicator-in the contact between the setting means and the re
sistance sections being non-uniform, the resist
circuit of'the photometer to assume a predeter
mined position when the diaphragm has beenv set ance values, however, of these sections being
to the aperture called for .by certain light condi-_ ‘uniform in spite of their unequal dimensions.
subjected to circuit conditionsresulting from uni
The invention, therefore, also has the object of 15
interposing in a circuit of an electric photometer
forming a part of a camera equipment, a plurality
form increments; positive or negative, in the value
of the current, while the adjustments of the dia
the setting means for the diaphragm'or shutter,
15 tions to which the photometer is responsive.
The instrument of the photometer is thereby
' 20 phragm are non-uniform‘. ‘In the cameras of
of resistance sections successively engageable by
the conductors in the several resistance sections, 0
this type'it was customary to provide a mechanical however, having diilerent coe?icients oi resist
equalization means between the setting mecha- ‘ ance for the purpose of making uniform the in- .
nism for the diaphragm and'the means for vary
- ing the current coridltions'in the photometer to
25 produce a uniform in?uence upon the instrument
oi’ the photometer in spite of-n'on-uniiormset
tings of the diaphragm.
Similarly also, it- had been proposed to couple
the mechanism for setting the shutter to pre
determined speed values with the means for alter
~ ‘ ing thetposition of the indicator ofthe-photom
eter, whereby likewise the ‘registration 'of the
instrument of the photometer with a ?xed mark
on the‘ same served as an indication that the
crements, positive or negative, in the current
values vor the photometer which are obtained by‘ I
the proper setting of the diaphragm or shutter.
With these ‘and numerous other objects in
.view, embodiments of the invention are shown in
the accompanying drawings and described in the
following speci?cation which makes reference to
the drawings.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically the assembly of
a photometer with setting means for the dia
phragm and setting means for the shutter, where
35 proper setting of the shutter had been obtained. in the successive adjustments of the diaphragm 5
non-uniform while the successive adjust
It is an object oilthe present invention to elimi
nate injassemblies of this character‘ mechahical 'ments.of the shutter are approximately uniform.
Fig. 2‘ shows dically a similar as
means interposed between the diaphragm or
of setting means for diaphragm and shut
shutter and the photometer, respectively.
te'r with a photometer wherein, however, succes
40 I Another object of the invention ,is to provide a sive adjustments or both the diaphragm and the 40
photographic camera having an electric photom ' shutter tor the‘ proper aperture and speed values _
‘eter adapted to generate ‘itsown current upon are non-uniform.
energization by light, ‘and having mechanical
Fig. 3 shows in horizontal section and partly
means for setting the diaphragm or the shutter ‘ top plan view a camera equipped with a photom45' or both and effect an equalizing coupling between (etc; and setting means for the diaphragm and
the setting meansoi thispart and the instru-.
ment of the. photometer by electricmeans. ., -
Fig. 4 is a front elevation oi a camera of this ,
The invention also has the object of providing character.
a camera of this character wherein the setting: ' ' The electric photometer I, Fig. 1, is of that type 50
50. mechanism of the diaphragm or shutter alters the in which upon energizatiorr by light, an instru
ment 2 in the circuit 0! the photometer shows the ,
value of the resistance in the circuit of the pho
de?ections oi.’ a pointer depending upon the value
tcmeter ande?ects a uniform alteration, a posi
_ tive or-negative increment oi! the current value of the'current generated, by the photometer. The
55 o! the ~photometer even though the successive conductor, 3 extending from the photoelectric u
generator is shown associated with a betting
means It illustrated diagrammatically as a pointer
adapted to slide in contact with a resistance 6
' whichin Fig.1 may be considered to be associated
with the shutter equipment.
Another setting mechanism‘ 8 for the dia
phragm also is illustrated as a pointer which may
be considered insulated from the setting mecha
nism 4 for the shutter and which also is adapted
to sweep or slide in conductive relation overa
resistance l associated with the diaphragm.
From this second setting means a conductor I
leads to the instrument 2 of the photometer, the
circuit being closed by a return conductor 2. .It
spect of a ?xed mark 2|,‘ also visible throughthe
opening l8.
The lens'znounting 21 illustrated in Fig. 3 is of
the readily detachable type permitting the use
of selectively determined lenses as~ desired. The
resistances ‘I and 5 respectively are‘ secured to the
detachable lens mounting and are adapted to be
contacted by wiping elementsv 22 and 2! respec
tively-which may be assumed to be associated and
to form part 01' the setting means for the dia
phragm and ior the shutter respectively. The
setting means 22 for the diaphragm are‘ mounted
in cooperation with thedial indications 10 by
means of a pointer 24 in a manner well known in
will be obvious, therefore, that the current value the art. jl‘he shutter exempli?ed in the present
in the circuit of the photo-electric generator and instance by a slit shutter 25 is set by means of a
the instrument will be determined by the value button 28 preferably at the front .wall of the
of the resistance to which the setting means i camera in cooperation'with' a dial. the values of
and 6 have been adjusted.
which appear at l l. The button or knob 26 actu
The dial indications II and H for shutter and ates upon manipulation a train ‘of gears 21, 28 20
diaphragm respectively furthermore show that
the gradations of the diaphragm dial‘ are more
lacking in uniformity than the gradations o! the
shutter dial whichare' approximately uniform in.
for imparting a proper sliding movement to the
member 23 in relation withthe resistance 5 at
tached to on camera mounting.v
Fig. l. _ since it is desirable upon setting the dis‘
In the use of the camera the setting means 22
for the diaphragm is actuated to a predetermined
phragm or shutter to di?erent successive values
aperture value, whereby the resistance of the cir
to alter the current in the photometer circuit uni
formly, the resistance sections ‘Id, 1b, 10, etc., of
which the resistance 1 is composed and which
are respectively associated with the gradations oi
the diaphragm dial, are 01' nonuniform resistance
value. The length of adjustment between the
indications 2 and {.4 on the diaphragm dial'be
.ing considerably greater than the length of ad
justment between the‘ indications22 and I3, it is
obvious that the adjustments nearer the upper
end of the diaphragm dial would induce greater
increments in the current values thamthe adjust
merits nearer the lower end of the can, l'iorv the
40 purpose of equalizing these increments, the re
sistance sections associated with the various dial
indications have been made nonuniform, for in
stance by making these sections of conductors
having di?erent coemcients of resistance. In this
manner the unequal settings oi’ the diaphragm are
equalized in their in?uence upon the reading of
the instrument 2.
In Fig. 2 illustrating a similar diagrammatic
assembly, the setting mechanism I for the shutter
is adopted to remain in sliding contact with seri
ally disposed resistance sections is, lb, lc, etc.,
cuit in the photometer is subjected to an- alter.
ation proceeding in uniform increments. The
shutter settting means 2| is then manipulated
until the pointer is observed by the user enters 80
into registering position with the fixed mark 20
which then indicates that the proper adjustment
of the shutter has been attained. '
I claim:
1. In a photographic‘camera the combination 35
of an electric photometer, a shutter coupled to
the photometer, mechanical means movable over
distances of varying (lengths for setting the
shutter to selective speed values, a dial having
non-uniform gradations indicating‘ said speed
eter upon adjustmentsvof the shutter to succes
sive speed values, said last named means-being
formed by resistance sections in the photometer
circuit successively engageable .by the shutter 1
setting means and having non-uniform coei’il
cients of resistance, the coe?icients of resistance
being 'reversely proportionate to the distance be
tween each two successive dial gradations.
2. Ina photographic camera the combination
the ohmic values of which may be uniform in
spite of the fact that the path of adjustment for
successive settings is nod-uniform. Here also the
various sections 5a, lb, Ic, etc., may, therefore, be
with the photometer, a‘ diaphramnieans !or
made of conductors of di?erent ooeiilclents of re-_
setting the diaphragm selectively to di?erent
sistance to produce upon successive settings of
the shutter uniform increments, positive or nega-
values, and electrical means iorrendering uni
form the increments in the currentoi the photom-.
of an electric photometer, a ‘shutter, means for
setting the shutter selectiveLv to di?erent speed
values, said shutter setting means being-coupled
aperture values, said diaphragm letting means
being coupled with'the photometer, dials indicat
tive, in the current values of the photometer ‘cir
ing the speed values and aperture values respec
cult. The resistance ‘I associated with the setting tively, each of the dials having non-uniform 60.
mechanism 8 for the diaphragm is subdivided in- , ' gradations, the coupling between said shutter
to sections similarly to the showing ‘ogxFlg. 1.
setting means and the diaphragm setting means - ‘
and the photometer respectively includingserial
ly connected sectionsotohmicreaistanoesinthe
by way of example as illustrated in ms. 3. and.4. photometer circuit successively. engageable by
In incorporating this assembly with a photo
graphic camera, the arrangement may be made
The casing" of the
_ at the front wall with a
is shown equipped
closure I!
overlying the layers l‘! or materials which upon
76 energization by light’generate. an
, in conductors emanating from the end layers or
the cell formed in this manner. "An opening Jl
preferably in the top walltoi' the camera permits
the user to observe the position or anointed-I!
of an instrument in?uenced by the circuit in re
the two setting means respectively, said ohmic re
sistance sections ‘having non-uniform coemcients -
oi’ resistance or such proportion to said non-uni
form dial gradations that ‘upon setting the shut
ter and diaphragm respectively upon succe?ive
gradations of their respective dials, the current
alterations in the photometer circuit willbe uni
3. In a photographic camera, the combination
of an electric photometer, a lens system, means
for adjusting the opening of said lens system, a. justing means, both contact members being
shutter, means iorladjusting the speed-of said moved in coincidence with the displacement of
shutter, a photoelectric cell independently ar ‘the respective exposure adjusting means'of the
ranged of said adjusting means, a circuit there
for, and a resistance in said circuit, said two
adjusting means comprising each an indicating
photographic camera, means for connecting said I
contact members with the photoelectric circuit, _
4 a contact member in sliding engagement with
adjustmentiof said two'contact members, a dial '
said measuring instrument being adapted to be
vmember each having rigidly connected thereto adjusted to its zero position by corresponding
said resistance, the ‘resistances between any-‘two ‘having non-uniform gradations conforming to
consecutive positions of each of said indicating ~ selected positions 0! the said exposure adjusting 10
' members being of equal ohmic value, and a meas
uring instrument in the circuit of said photome
ter for indicating the correct setting of said two
adjusting means with respect to each other.
4. In a photometer for photographic cameras '
provided with exposure time vadjusting means,
a diaphragm and diaphragm adjusting means, a
photoelectric cell, a circuit thereion'an ohmic re
sistance, a measuring instrument in said cir
cuit, two contact members in sliding engagement
means 'otfthe adjoined photographic camerav the _
resistance being subdivided in like manner as
the dial into stages 0! different size, all stages
being of equal ohmic value, said dial .being so
arranged, that the outside'gradations' correspond '15
to extreme positions oi’ the said exposure ad
a 6. In a photometer- ior photographic cameras
provided with two exposure adjusting means,
namely one means tor adjusting the opening or
the camera lens and another-means for adjusting
with said resistance, one of said contacts being
moved in coincidence with the displacement of , the speed of the shutterj a photoelectric cell, a
circuit therefor,‘ an ohmic resistance, a measuring
the exposure time adjusting means oi the photo
graphic‘ camera and the other contact member instrument ‘in said circuit, two contact members 25'
25 being moved in coincidence with the displacement in sliding engagement with said resistance, one
of the diaphragm adjusting means, means for , 01’ said contact members being mechanically con
- connecting said contact members with the photo
electric circuit, said measuring instrument being
- nected with said lens adjusting means and the
other contact member being mechanically con
, adapted to be adjusted to its zero position by
nected with said shutter speed adjusting means,
' members, a dial having non-uniform gradations
dence with the displacement of the respective
exposure adjusting means of the photographic
30 corresponding adjustment of said two contact. both contact members being moved in coinci
conforming to selected positions of the exposure
time adjusting means and the diaphragm ad-, camera, means for connecting said contact mem
bers with the photoelectric circuit, said measur
,justing means respectively of theadjoined pho
ing instrument being adapted to be adjusted to 35
tographic camera, the resistance being subdivid
its zero position by corresponding adjustment of
ed in like manner as the dial intostages of dif
ferent size, all stages being of equal ohmic value. said contact members, a dial‘having non-uni
5. In a photometer for photographic cameras form gradations conforming to selected positions
provided with _two exposure adjusting means, of the said exposure adjusting means of the ad
joined photographic camera, the resistance be
40 namely one meansgfor adjusting the opening of
ing subdivided in like manner as the dial into
the camera‘ lens and another means for adjust
ing'the speed of the shutter; a photoelectric cell, stages of different size, all‘ stages being of equal
ohmic value, said dial being so arranged that the
a circuit therefor, ‘an ohmic resistance, a meas
uring instrument inv said circuit, two contact ‘ gradations decrease from a commonmedian zero
point to the values corresponding to the shortest
45 members‘ in sliding engagement with said re
sistance, one ‘of said contact members being exposure time and the smallest opening of the
mechanically connected with said lens adjusting camera lens respectively..
means and the ‘other contact member being me
chanically connected with said shutter-‘speed 'ad
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