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Патент USA US2106946

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Feb. 1, 19.38.
c. E. FREDERICKSON
2,103,946v
DIFFERENTIAL MECHANISM
Filed March 31, 1936
QM.
/
3 sheetsisiheet l
Feb. 1, 1938.
c. E. FREDERICKSON
2,106,946.
DIFFERENTIAL MECHANISM
Filed March 51, 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet 2'
mm.
.
R.
WW.
QM.
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Nw
v .,
3
$4
W
Feb. 1,1938.
c. E. FREDERICKSON
2,106,946v
DIFFERENTIAL MECHANISM
Filed March 51', 1956'
£5
DELETE
_
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
Patented Feb. 1, 1938
' 2,106,946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ‘
2,106,946
'
-
DIFFERENTIAL MECHANISM
Clayton E. Frederickson, Chicagmvlll.
Application March 31, 1936, Serial No. 71,945
18 Claims. (01. 74-3895)
My invention relates to the art of wheeled reference indicate like parts in all the ?gures,
motor vehicles and particularly to that part of I and 2 represent the respective shafts or axles
the vehicle known as the “di?erential”. Di?er
of an automobile rear axle assembly. These
entials may generally be classed in two .types: shafts are located in alignment and their ad
5 the geared and the gearless. The present in
jacent ends are provided with spline grooves 3. v 5
A spline collar 4, having internal splines 5, is
' vention relates to the gearless type, and it par
ticularly has for its object to provide such a dif
ferential of as fewparts as possible and one pos
sessing a minimum amount of lost motion.
?tted on each shaft. These collars have a tight
fit on the shafts, although the shafts may be
pulled out of the collars when it is desired to
10
Further, the invention has for an object to - remove and replace the shafts. These collars 10
provide a gearless differential which may be used are also provided with external splines _6 which
on all types of cars and in other placeswhere engage with the spline grooves I2, hereinafter
differentials are employed.
again referred to. The collars 4 have external
A further object of the invention is to ‘simplify
bearing surfaces ‘I to receive the center ring l8
15 and improve the construction disclosed in my
which keeps the-ends of the collars against fric- 15.
application ?led February 21, 1935, Bar. No. 7,609‘, ‘tional contact with one another. Each collar 4
by making the driven clutch members of like con
has a bearing surface 8 for the hub of the ad
struction (interchangeable), and by combining
jacent driven clutch plate or member Ill.
'the ‘functions of the springs with those of the
cross keys or pins.
‘
mentioned.
Other objects will in part be obvious and in
part be pointed out hereinafter.
‘no
.
The _
hubs 9 have the spline grooves l2, hereinbefore
‘
'
_
'
20
Each driven clutch member In has a set of
cam teeth H and a set of clutch teeth ‘l4 on its
To the attainment of the aforesaid objects and face ‘IS, the. clutch teeth-being inclined to the
ends the invention still further resides in the ‘ vertical at an angle, preferably, of 25 degrees.
novel details of construction; combination and The driving edges of the clutch teeth It are un- 25
arrangement of parts, all of which will be ?rst dercut as at l5 .(see Figure 8), the purpose of
fully described in the following detailed descrip
which will later appear.v The inner walls of the
tion, and then be particularly pointed out in the valleys between adjacent teeth are radially
appended claims, reference being bad to the ac
grooved as at It, the purpose of which will also
companying drawings, in which:
later appear. The two side clutchv members 30
Ill-l0 are of like construction, so the descrip
Figure 1 is a vertical'section of the invention,
tion of one of them will su?ice for both.
the section being taken 'on the line l-l of Fig
ure 2.
'
The driving clutch plate or member 23 is il
Figure 2 is a side elevation of one-half of the lustrated in detail in Figures 3, 4 and 5, by refer
35 structure shown in Figure 1.
_
_
Figure 3 is a side elevation of the driving
clutch plate or member.
‘
-
ence-to‘which it will be seen that it has a portion 35 >
25 having inclined clutch teeth 26 on both sides,
the valleys between adjacent teeth being radially
Figure 4 is a vertical section of the same on grooved as at l1. The driving clutch member is
the line 4-4 of Figure 3.
~ in the form of a ring, having an ‘opening 30 to
Figure 5 is an elevation of one-half of the embrace the cam teeth I l-ll of the clutch 40
driving plate or member, taken from the side members ill-l0.
opposite that of Figure 3.
>
Figure 6 is a side elevation of one of the driven
clutch plates or members.
'
Figure 7 is a section on‘ the line 1—'l of Fig
ure 6.
Figure 8 is an enlarged detail view illustrating
how the teeth of the driving and driven clutch
for passage of the bolts 28, later again referred
to. The driving edges of the teeth 26 are under- 45
,cut, as at 42.
The differential casing or cage member is com
thevcross pins with the parts thereof separated;
posed of two similar sections I 9 and 20, each of
which has oil-circulatingiholes 24 and a hub 44,
the latter serving as a bearing for the collar 4. 50
Side thrust wear rings" 2| are provided as shown._
and
At the outer side 'of each driven clutch member‘ '
members engage.
.
Figure 9 is a detail elevational view of one of
'
Figure 10 is an enlarged detail section on the
line |0—l0 of Figure 6.
55
The member 23 hasan apertured peripheral
?ange 3| which'isv provided with apertures 32
i0 is a ring plate 22 having ears 21 apertured for
the passage of the cross pins 34 which carry
In the drawings, in which like numerals of ' spring abutment cups 43 and springs 36 that serve 55
2
‘2,100,940
_
continuously to urge the members ill-l0 to~ . the appended claims without departing from the
ward one another, and also serve, in combina
spirit of the invention.
tion with the pins 34 and cups '42, to limit the
What I claim is:
distance to which the members lO-ll may be
1. A differential comprising a driving clntch
separated.
member having clutch teeth on its opposite sides,
The casing sections l9 and 20 have holes 40 two driven clutch members located one at ‘each
for the cups 43 to pass through. At least one of side of said driving clutch member and having‘
'the casing sections has a ?ange II to which the clutch teeth to mesh respectively with those of
' usual ring gear (not shown) may be secured in said driving clutch member, two shaft sections,
~10 ‘any, suitable way, as by bolts or rivets.
The cas
means to mount said driven clutch members on
ing sections also‘ have holes 33 through which
said shaft sections so that said driven clutch
the bolts 28 pass.
members will turn with and be slidable along_
'
The cross pins 24 are made in two parts for _ said shaft sections, means to limit the move
convenience in assembling, one part having an
15 integral head and a reducedthreaded end 35
to which the other head is ‘screwed and secured
by riveting over the end 25.
Operation
20
Assuming the vehicle to be running forward or
backward in a straight 'line, the parts will be
in the position indicated in Figure 8 with both
clutch members III in full‘ mesh with the clutch
ment apart of said driven clutch members to a
distance such that only one driven clutch meme 15
her at a time can be unmeshed from the driving
clutch member, and including means continu
ously urging said driven clutch members into
mesh with said driving clutch member.
‘2. A differential comprising a driving clutch
20'
member having an annular series of spaced clutch _
teeth on each of its two sides, two clutch mem
' ‘member 22. In this position assume the member
25 23 to be moving in the direction of the arrow :2:
bers, vone located at each side of said driving
clutch member, each of said two clutch members
having clutch teeth to cooperate with those of
in Figure 8. The undercut portions 42 on the
advance edges of the teeth 26 will engage the
the driving clut'ch member, two shaft sections,
undercut portions I! on the trailing edges of
respective shaft sections to turn therewith and be ’
the teeth I4 and interlock therewith, as it were;
the inclinations of the contacting parts serve to
slidable along the same, means to limit the move
ment apart of said two clutch members to a 30
distance such that only one of 'said two clutch
V30
' tend to draw together the three clutch members
means to mount said two clutch members on the '
23,10 and Ill.
' members at a time can be unme'shed from the
When the vehicle turns, the outside wheel will i driving clutch member and for continuously urg
be moving faster than the inside wheel and con
ing said two clutch members into mesh with said
35 sequently the cam teeth II will unmesh, theree
' by forcing the cam plate of the outside wheel
driven clutch member.
'
3. A differential comprising a driving clutch
out of mesh with the driving plate 23, at which
member, aligned shaft sections, a casing to which
time the parts will be positioned as shown in
a driving gear may be applied, means to mount
‘Figure 1. When the machine again straightens
40 out, the parts will mesh once more and driving
power will be applied a: both shaft sections i
and 2.
'
The only lost motion encountered is that due
to the depths of the undercut portions of the
said clutch member in said casing around the
adjacent ends of said shaft sections, said driv 40
ing clutch member having! on both sides like
annular series of ‘spaced generally radially dis
posed clutch teeth, two independently driven
clutch members located at opposite sides of said
45 teeth 26 and I4 (seeFigure-S) , which'is approxi
driving clutch member, one mounted on each
shaft section to turn therewith and be slidable
along the same, said. two clutch members each
lubricant will pass therein and serve to prevent
50 wear and will eliminate any tendency of‘ the
said driving clutch’member, springs urging said
mately equal to the pitch of cam teeth H.
By providing the radial grooves l6 and I‘! in
the recesses or valleys between adjacent, teeth,
faces to stick together. Furthermore, the edge
vcorners of the ‘teeth 26 and I4 are preferably
beveled, as at 45, to make engagement and dis
engagement easy and to prevent‘ chipping of the
65
teeth.
7
.
The teeth 26 on one side of the member 23
are staggered with respect to those on the other
side.
'
From the foregoing it will be seen ‘that my
improved differential compensates for curves
automatically. In the'straight-away it trans;
mits power equally and positively to both driving
wheels of the vehicle and turns them at exactly
equal speeds regardless of their traction. Ii’ both
65 wheels lose their grip on the road, it is only
35
having clutch teeth to cooperate with those of
driven clutch members into mesh with said driv
ing clutch member, said teeth being adapted to
unmesh and permit one driven clutch member
to unmesh from said driving clutch member when
unequal torque resistance is encountered by the
shaft sections, and cross members extending
through apertures in said driving clutch member
and cooperative with said driven clutch members
to permit but one driven clutch member to un
mesh at a time from said driving clutch member.
4. A di?erential comprising ‘a driving clutch 60
member, aligned shaft sections, a ‘casing to which
a driving gear may be applied, means to mount
said clutch member in said casing around the
adjacent ends of said shaft sections, said driv
ing clutch member having on both sides like an
nular series of spaced generally radially disposed
necessary to provide traction for one wheel to be clutch teeth, those on one face being staggered
on one’s way.
70
I
.
I
'
-
The invention has other advantages over the
gear type of diiierentials, which advantages will
be clear to those skilled in'the art. .
'
' While I have illustrated a preferred embodi
, ment of the invention, it is to be understood
with respect to those on the other face, two in
dependently driven clutch members located at
opposite sides of said driving clutch member, one
mounted on each ‘shaft section ‘to turn there 70
with and be slidable along the same, said two
clutch members each having clutch teeth to co
operate with those of said driving clutch mem
that changes in the construction and arrange
75 ment of parts may be made within the scope of /ber, springs urging said driven clutch members 75
8,106,946
into mesh with said driving clutch member, said
3
clutch teeth to cooperate with those of said am.
teeth being adapted to unmesh and permit one _ ing clutch member, springs urging said driven
driven clutch member to unmesh from said driv-' clutch members into 'mesh , with said driving
clutch member, said teeth being adapted to un
ing clutch member when unequal torque resist
ance is encountered by the shaft sections, and mesh and permit one driven clutch member tov
cross members extending through apertures in .unmesh from said driving clutch member when .
I said driving clutch member and coperative with unequal torque resistance is encountered by the
said driven clutch members to permit but one shaft sections, the spaces between adjacent clutch
driven clutch member to unmesh at a time from teeth of the several clutch members having their
10 said driving clutch member.
_
5. 'A di?erential comprising a driving clutch
member, aligned shaft sections, a casing to which
' a drivingxgear may be applied, means to mount
said clutch member in said casing around the
15 adjacent ends of said shaft sections, said driv
ing clutch member having on both 'sides like
annular series of spaced generally radially dis
posed clutch teeth, two independently driven
‘clutch members located at opposite sides of said
20 driving clutch member, one mounted on each
inner _ wall-faces radially, grooved.
8. In a. differential mechanism, a two-part
w
casing having bearing hubs, two splined collars
journaled in said hubs and each adapted to re- ,
‘ceive the end of an axle member, a driven clutch
member slidably mounted on each collar and ro
tatable therewith, a driving clutch member
mounted in said casing between said driven clutch
is
members, said driving and said driven clutch »
members having engaging clutch teeth, said
driven clutch members having engaging cam‘
shaft section to turn therewith and be slidable
along the same, said two clutch members each
teeth, .means continuously urging- said ‘clutch
members together and limiting their separation
having clutch teeth to cooperatewith'those‘of
apart to a predetermined distance, said means
said driving clutch member, springs urging said including a set of combined spring and cross
pin units carried by the casing and operatively 25
25 driven clutch members into mesh with said driv
ing clutch member, said teeth being adapted to connected with said 'driven clutch members.
9. In a diiferential mechanism, a two-part cas
unmeshl and permit one driven clutch member,
to unmesh from said driving clutch member when ing having bearing hubs, two splined collars jour
unequal torque resistance is encountered by the naled in said hubs and each adapted to receive
the end of an axle member, a driven clutch mem 30
30 shaft sections, said driving clutch member hav
ing transverse apertures and 'cross pins passing ber slidably mounted on each collar and rotatable
through the same, ring plates at the outer sides therewith, a driving clutch member mounted in
said casing between said driven clutch, members,
of said driven clutch members, and having open
lugs to pass said pins, spring cups on said pins said driving and said driven clutch members
35 and abutting said ring plates, said springs being having engaging clutch teeth, said driven clutch 35
members having engaging cam teeth, means con
located in said cups.
6. A differential comprising a driving- clutch tinuouslyurging said clutch members-together
member, aligned shaft sections, a casing to which and limiting their separation apart to a prede
a driving gear may be applied, means, to mount
40 said clutch member in said casing around the
termined distance, saidlmeans comprising ring
plates engaging said driven clutch members, 40
spring cups engaging said plates, cross pins pass
clutch member having on both sides like annular ' ing through apertures in said casing and, said
series of spaced generally radially disposed clutch driving clutch member‘ and said cups, and springs
adjacent ends of said shaft sections, said driving
teeth, those on one face being staggered with re
spect to those on the other face, two independ
ently driven clutch members located at opposite
sides of said driving clutch member, one mount
ed on each shaft section to turn therewith and
be slidable along the same, said two clutch mem
bers each having clutch teeth to cooperate with
50, those of said driving clutch member, springs
urging said driven clutch members into mesh
with said driving clutch member, said teeth be
ing adapted to unmesh and permit one driven.
clutch member to unmesh from said driving
55 clutch member when unequal torque resistance
is encountered by the shaft sections, said driving
clutch, member having transverse apertures and
cross pins passing through the same, ring plates
at the outer sides of said driven clutch mem
in the cups on the pins for purposes described.
10. In a diiferentlal mechanism, a two-part 45
casing having bearing hubs, two splined collars
journaled in said hubs and each adapted to re
ceive the end of an axle member, a driven clutch
member slidably mounted on each collar and
rotatable therewith, a driving clutch member
mounted in said casing between said driven
clutch members, ‘said driving. and said driven
clutch members having engaging clutch teeth,
said driven clutch members having engaging cam
teeth, means continuously urging said clutch 55
members together and limiting their separation
apart to a predetermined distance, said means
comprising ring plates engaging said driven
clutch members, spring cups engaging said plates,
cross pins passing through apertures in said cas
bers, and having, openings to pass said pins, ing and said driving clutch member and said
spring cups on said pins andabutting said ring _ cups, and springs in the cups on the pins for
purposes described, said pins each comprising
plates, said springs being located in said cups.
7. A differential comprising a driving clutch two sections secured together for purposes de
member, aligned shaft sections, a casing to which scribed.
a driving gear may be applied, means to mount
‘11. In a differential mechanism, a two-part
said clutch member in said casing around the
adjacent ends of said shaft sections, said driving
casing having bearing hubs, two splined collars
clutch member having on both sides like annu
lar series of spaced generally radially disposed
70 clutch teeth, two independently driven clutch
members located at opposite sides of said driv
ing clutch member, one molmted on each shaft
' section to turn therewith and be siidable along
75
the same, said two clutch members each having
60
journaled in said hubs and each adapted to re
ceive the end of an axle member, a driven clutch
member slidably mounted on each collar and 70
rotatable therewith, a driving clutch member
mounted in said casing between said driven
clutch members, said driving and said driven
clutch members having engaging clutch teeth,
said driven clutch members having engaging cam 7
: 8,100,546.
-teeth, means continuously urging said clutch
"members together and limiting their separation
I 1 vapart to a predetermined distance, said means
comprising ring plates engaging‘ said driven
, clutch members, spring cups engaging said plates,
cross pins passing through apertures in said cas
ing and said driving clutch member and said
cups, and springs in the cups on the‘pins, said
pins each- comprising two sections permanently
10 secured together after assembling.
two driven clutch members located one at each 7
side of said driving clutch member and having
clutch teeth to mesh, respectively, with those of
said driving clutch member, two shaft sections,
means to mount said driven clutch members on
said shaft sections so that said driven clutch
members will turn with and be slidable along
said shaft sections, means continuously urging
said clutch members together and limiting their
separation apart to a predetermined distance, 10
12. In a differential mechanism, a two-partv said means including a set of combined spring
casing having bearing hubs, two splined collars and cross-pin units positioned through said driv
journa'led in said hubs and each adapted to re
ing clutch member and operatively connected
ceive the end of an axle member, a driven clutch
member slidably mounted on each collar and ro
with said driven clutch members. 1
tatable therewith, ‘a driving clutch member
mounted in said casing between said driven clutch
members, said driving and said driven-clutch
members having engaging clutch teeth, said
20 driven‘ clutch members having engaging cam
teeth, means continuously urging said clutch
members together and limiting their separation
apart toa predetermined distance, said means.
including a set of combined spring and crbss pin
26 units carried by the casing and operatively con-.
nected with said driven clutch members, said col
lars having adjacent bearing surfaces, and a
ring encircling said adjacent bearing surfaces._
13. A differential, including a driving clutch
'
16. A differential comprising a driving clutch
member having clutch teeth on its opposite sides,
two driven clutch members located one at each
side of said driving clutch'member and having
clutch teeth to mesh, respectively, with those of v‘
said driving clutch member, two shaft sections, 20
means to mount said driven clutch members on
said shaft sections so that said .driven clutch
members will turn with and be slidable alongv
said shaft sections, means continuously urging
said clutch members together and limiting their
separation apart to a predetermined distance,
said means comprising ring plates engaging said
driven clutch members, spring cups engaging
said plates, cross-pins passing through apertures
30 member having a series of clutch teeth on its ‘ in said driving clutch member and said cups, and
30
opposite sides, two driven clutch members located
springs in the cups on the pins.
v one at each side of said driving clutch member
17. In a gearless differential, a driving clutch‘
and having clutch teeth to mesh respectively member and two driven clutch members located
with those of said driving clutch member, two . one at each side of the driving clutch member,
shaft sections, means to mount said driven clutch means whereby the driven’ clutch members may 35
members on said shaft sections so that the driven -be caused to unmesh from the driving clutch
clutch members will turn with and will be slid- I member, and means continuously urging said
able along said shaft sections, means to limit the clutch members together and limiting their sepa
movement apart of said driven clutch members to ration to such distance that only one driven
40 a distance such that only one driven clutch mem
ber at a time can be unmeshed from the driving
clutch member, and means continuously urging
said driven clutch members into mesh with said
driving clutch member.
45
.
‘
14. A differential, including a driving clutch
member having a series of clutch teeth on its op
posite sides, two driven clutch members located
one at each side of said driving clutch member
and having clutch teeth to mesh respectivelywith
those of said driving clutch member, two shaft
sections, and means to mount said driven clutch
' members on said shaft sections so that the driven
clutch members will turn with and will be slid
able along said shaft sections, a single means
55 functioning to limit the movement apart of said
driven clutch members .to a distance such that
only one driven clutch member at a time can be
unmeshed from the
said driven clutch
urged to mesh with
15. A differential
driving clutch member while
members are continuously
said driving clutch member.
comprising a driving clutch
member having clutch teeth on its opposite sides,
clutch member at a time can unmesh from said
driving'clutch member, said means including a
set of combined spring and cross-'pin'units posi
tioned through openings in said driving clutch
member. and operatively connected with vsaid
driven clutch members.
'
18. In a gearless differential, a driving clutch
member and two driven clutch members located
one at each side of, the driving clutch member,
means whereby the driven clutch members may
be caused to unmesh from the driving clutch
member, and means continuously urging said 50
clutch members together and limiting their sepa
ration to such distance that only one driven
clutch member at a time can unmesh from said
driving clutch member, said means comprising
ring plates engaging said driven clutch members,
spring cups engaging said plates, cross-pins pass
ing through apertures in said' driving clutch
member and said cups, and springs in the cups
on the pins.
CLAYTON E. FREDERICKSON.
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