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Патент USA US2107054

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Febg l, 193s.
Filed July 24, 1935
LooM/s M. HA YMoA/o,
Patented Feb. 1, 1938
Loomis M. Haymond, Cincinnati, Ohio
Application July 24, 1935, Serial No. 32,920
2 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in a
fuel unit of the type formed of waste material;
that is, sawdust, wood shavings and the like
which is combined with a suitable fire-sustaining
5 binder.
An object of this invention is the provision of
cut into blocks and the cylinders into shorter
lengths and ñnally the said blocks and short
length cylinders provided with a wick to facili
tate lighting thereof.
Specifically it is proposed to utilize a mixture 5
in the ratio of l lb. of parañin wax to 21/2 lbs. of
a fire aid or wood kindling that can be more
finely divided wood; that is, sawdust, wood shav
readily utilized than the like substances hereto
ings, ground wood or shredded wood. Substan
tially this same ratio will obtain if tallow'is used
as well as with the paraffin oil and vegetable or 10
fore produced.
(C1. 44-41)
Another object of this invention is the provi
sion of a fuel unit which is composed of saw
dust, wood shavings, shredded wood or the like
combined with an infiammable binderthat can be
readily used out of doors byr campers and the
like and which can be readily lighted without
animal glue. The/paraf-Iin wax, tallow and glue
wouldä be mixed with the Wood while the same
are hot and in a liquid state. This mixture is
then turned into a mold which would produce
forming a part thereof and it is to be understood
that any modifications may be made in the exact
either the sheet I0 shown in Fig. 3 or the cylinder l”
II shown in Fig. 4. At I2 in Fig. 3 is illustrated
the cross-section of the sheet while at I3 in Fig.
4 is illustrated the cross-section of the cylinder.
The sheet lo is then divided into mocks or st/icks
along the dotted lines I4 and I5 while the cylin
der II is divided into shorter -lengths indicated
by the dotted line I6.
The dividing of the sheet I0 in accordance with
the dotted lines I4 and I5 results in the final
25 structural details there shown and described,
within the scope of the appended claims, without
departing from or exceeding the spirit of the
form of a block or stick I‘I shown in Fig. 1. The 25
cutting of the cylinder II at the dotted lines I6
results in the form I8 of Fig. 2, there shown as
danger to the user and which will burn or sus
tain ñre for a considerable period of time con
sidering the size thereof.
Other objects and advantages of the present
20 invention should be readily apparent by refer
ence to the following specification considered in
conjunction with the accompanying drawing
having a flat base I8a on which it readily stands
In the drawing:
upright, and as being provided centrally thereof
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of one form of the
with a wick I9. It should be understood at this 30
time that while the block or stick I'I of Fig. 1 is
not illustrated as having a wick therein said block
could readily have the wick supplied thereto.
The method of manufacturing the form of the
invention in Fig. 2 consists in placingthe initial
mixture in a suitable mold for forming the cylin
der I I and then cutting the cylinder into shorter
lengths. These shorter lengths are` then pro
vided substantially along the .axis thereof with
a hole or aperture 20 through which the wick I9
is drawn. In order to facilitate the threading
of the wick I9 through the hole or aperture 20
the said aperture may be slightly larger in diam
eter than the wick. The wick is then sealed in
fuel unit;
Fig. 2 is a second form thereof;
Fig. 3 is a plan-sectional view of the formation
from which the final form of Fig. 1 is cut;
Fig. 4 is a side elevation-sectional view of the
formation from which the form in Fig. 2 is cut;
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view through the
form illustrated in Fig. 2 as seen from line 5-5
Throughout’the several views of the drawing
similar reference characters are employed to de
note the same or similar parts.
Briefly this invention pertains to the mixing of
45 sawdust, shavings. ground wood and shredded
wood with either parañin wax or tallow and sub
jecting the said mixture to a pressure suitable to
cause same to have a close-grained texture.
stead of mixing the wood parts with paraffin wax
50 or tallow the same may be mixed with paraffin
oil and either a Vegetable glue or animal glue
and then the mixture subjected to a pressure and
allowed to cool.
This mixture would be made up either in sheets
lor relatively long cylinders and the sheets then
position by the application of molten paraiiin
wax or the like around the wick at the upper end
2I and the lower end 22 thereof. It is, of course,
understood that the entire aperture 20 may be
filled with the molten wax around the wick I9
after the said wick has been placed therein but 50
it is suflicient if the wick be merely sealed there-v
in by the wax rings 2| and 22 sinc'e after the
candle I8 has been once lighted and is then ex
tinguished there will be sufficient molten wax
on the upper end of the candle to solidify into a 55
sealing ring upon extinguishing of the flame.
'I'he form of the invention illustrated in. Fig. 1,
or the blocks or sticks I'I, will be` utilizedfor
starting fires in normal fireplaces, such as grates,
stoves, furnaces and the like and for igniting the
usual fuels burned in such fireplaces. The form
of the invention illustrated in Fig. 2 will find its
- greatest use with campers and for temporary out
door fires by being placed between suitable up
10 rights on which cooking utensils or the like may
be placed. It is, of course, understood that the
candle form I8 may be employed in the normal
fireplaces for igniting heating fuels, while the
blocks or sticks Il could be utilized as fuel for
15 out-door fires. By providing the form I8 and sup
plying same with a Wick it can very readily be
lighted and then stood on end, as it has a sup
lng, but are not cleanrto handle, and may be
dangerous because they are too highly inflam
mable; in addition to the too rapid burning which
makes them ineffective because they are con
sumed before they fully ignite the other fuel, as
above explained. My composition, in substan
tially the proportions mentionedyof sawdust or
other wood substance or like fibrous material,
and paraffin or like material which is clean for
handling as well as cleanly burning without of
fensive odor or danger of explosion, can be inex
pensively produced, since the sawdust, for in
stance, is a by-product of lumber mills,‘and the
paraflîn, for instance, may be the crude scale
which is a by-product of oil refining. It is thus 15
practicably produced, is entirely practical, safe
and effective in use, and is commercially profit
porting base, and allowed to burn across its en
able so that its widespread use may be a real
tire cross-section -progressively from its top end
downward. Due, however, to the materials,
namely the wood content of the unit i8, a much
hotter fire is provided which will have greater
benefit both to the users and to those who have
usefulness for campers than the tallow candle.
Also due to the fact that the entire upper surface
will burn at one time instead of merely the wick
supplying the flame and the tallow the fuel for
the flame, the unit affords a much greater heat
producing effect than is had in a candle. It has
been found that the unit I8 having the dimension
30 of 11/2 inches in diameter and 3 inches in length
will supply a hot flame for a period of forty-five
not by-products and therefore too expensive, but
lI'his property of supporting a relatively slow
such by-products for disposal.
These advan 20
tages are not attainable with compositions call
ing for proportions of other substances which are
which render the use and operation of the ma
terial less satisfactory as above noted.
and pointed out its advantages over compositions
of the prior art when made up in suitable units ’
substantially as set forth, what I claim as new
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. An article of manufacture, a fuel unit or
kindler consisting substantially of an admixture
of finely divided wood and paraffin, in the ap
steady combustionthroughout a side on which it
proximate proportion of 21/¿ to 1 by weight, com
is ignited, from the initial surface inward, with
pressed into a cylindrical shape having a diam- ‘
an effectively hot flame yet without a too rapid
exhaustion of the fuel substance is of value when
the unit is used as kindling for other fuel, as
compared with fuel units having either a pre
40 ponderance of the less inflammablefibrous ma
terial, in which case the combustion cannot be
relied upon to continue until the fire is started,
or with units in which the highly inflammable
material is in too high proportion, in which case
45 the unit burns up too quickly, and for that rea
son does not start the fire. When used as kin
dling, the unit may be ignited on one or more
sides, and on each side that is ignited there will
be a relatively slow steady combustion all over
the surface of the side or sides, so that a com
paratively small block of the substance is suffi
cient for starting a ñre in a household furnace
or the like, with certainty that, once ignited, the
fire will start without further attention.
I am aware that other fuel compositions have
been provided, either wholly or almost wholly
of wood über or other fibrous material, or else
Having thus disclosed a preferred composition ,
eter and length whereby the unit or kindler is
provided with a supporting base at one end of the
cylinder and may be stood upright thereon, said
cylinder having an aperture extending the length
thereof, and a wick in said aperture and project 40
ing above the upper end of the cylinder whereby
the unit or kindler may be lighted and, due to the
composition of said cylinder, whereby the fire is
confined to the upper end of the cylinder.
2. An article of manufacture, a fuel unit or 45
kindler consisting substantially of an admixture
of finely divided wood and paraffin, in the ap
proximate proportion of 21/2 to 1 by weight, com
pressed into a cylindrical shape having a diam
eter and length whereby the unit or kindler is 50
provided with a supporting base at one end and
may be stood upright thereon, said cylinder hav
ing an aperture extending the length thereof, a
wick in said aperture and projecting above the
upper end of the cylinder whereby the unit or
kindler may be lighted and, due to the composi
tion of said cylinder, whereby the fire is confined
containing with such substance large proportions to the upper end of the cylinder, and means for `
of highly inflammable substances such as oil, ' sealing the wick in the cylinder aperture.
resin, sulphur and the like, which are not only
offensive due to the fumes produced While burn
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