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Патент USA US2107089

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Feb- 1» 1938.
B. A. swENNE's
v Filed Jan. 17„1934
s sheets-Sheet 1
' Feb. 1, 1938.
.1_y ,1_ SWENNES
Filed Jan. 17, 1934
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Feb. 1, 193s;
<2,107,089 f
Filed Jan. 17, 1934
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Feb'. 1, 193s
N 2.107.089
Benjamin Arthur4 Swennes, Rockford, Ill., as
signor to Borg-Warner Corporation, Chicago,
Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Application January 17, 1934, Serial No. ‘706,993
1s claims. (Citi-4189.5)
More particularly th'ednvention relates to a -as an exempliiication ofthe principlese'of theV
invention andlis not intended to. limit the in
transmission; of a type adapted for use in auto
vention to the embodiment lillustrated. The
motive vehicles. .
It is the general object of the invention to scope of,V the invention will be pointed out in the
appended claims.
provide a new and improved transmission mech
As illustrated in the drawings,v and particu
anism forconnecting a drive shaft toca drivenl
larly in Fig. 1 thereof, vthe invention is embodied
Another object is to provide such a mechanism in a mechanism for establishing a driving conembodying reduction gearing for actuating the nection between an engine _crank shaft I0 and a
l C driven shaft positively at low speeds, and a hy- .Y
driven lshaft Ilricoaxialsylith the crank shaft.
draulic power transmitter connected in parallel
with the gearing effective to pick up the load at
higher speeds and provide a cushioned drive to
The crank shaft carries a- flywheel I2 and is ar
ranged to 'be connected to a shaft I3gby means of
the driven shaft independently of the gearing.
or desired formnwhich is contained in a hous
an automatic clutch device C, lof any preferred
proved transmission mechanism for automotive
ing H. As shown herein, this clutch device has
a driving element mounted on and rotatable with`
vehicles embodyingA a reduction gearing for atf
ltaining low vehicle speeds, in combination with
flywheel and an opposed annular pressure' plate
Another object is to provide a new and im
a hydraulic power transmitter of the fluid fly
wheel type so arranged~ that at low engine speeds
the driven shaft is driven positively through the
.reduction gearing independently of the action of
the fluid flywheel, thus eliminating the slip which
would be present if the flywheel were serially in
the transmission, and arranged so that at higher
engine speeds the fluid flywheel will transmit
power from the crank shaft to the driven shaft,
automatically cutting out the reduction gearing.
Another object is to provide such a transmis
sion mechanism embodying a reduction gearing
the crank shaft I0, comprising a portion of theY
I4, and a driven element comprisingV a clutch
_disk I5 and the sh'aft I3 to which it is splined.
The clutch is generally veffective to connect the
shaft I3 to the crank shaft IIJ when the speed of
the crank shaft Ill is increased above a first-pre
determined speed, for example a speed slightly
higher than the normal idling speed of an engine
in an automotive vehicle. IThe detailed construc
tionand the operation of the clutclrwill be de
scribed hereinafter.
The power transmitting Ymeans connecting the-
_driver'r element „of the clutch device C with the'
provided with a freewheeling device which over- Y' driven shaft II includes a variable reduction
runs when the _load _is picked up by the iluid 'gearing G, contained in a casing I1, and a fluid
coupling F. When the speed of the crank shaft
Other ,objects will become readily apparent I0 is increased above the ilrst predetermined
from the following detailed description taken in speed the clutch device C is automatically en
connection with the accompanying drawings,"inl ga'ged and the shaft II' is driven through the
gearing G.- The fluid coupling F, however,-is
Which I
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal central section through - connected in parallel with thev gearing G and4
a preferred form of the invention.
Fig.»2 is a fragmentary longitudinal central
section through the mechanical clutch device
showing the clutch engaged.v
Fig. 3 is a fragmentarysection along the line
3-3 of Fig. 1.“
when the speed of the crank shaft is increased '
the driving eillciency thereof increases so that 40
the slipbetween the 'diiving and driven .parts
of the'iluid clutch reaches a ratio less than the '
speed ratiol of the driving and driven shafts while
the latter are operatively `connected through the
Fig. 4 is a section along the line 4-4 of Fig. l. gear train and the lfluid coupling becomes effec 45'
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary end elevation of the ' tive to transmit power directly from the driven
mechanical clutch device along the line 5-5 element of the clutch device -C to the shaft II, A
o'f Fig,
Fig. 6 is a\fragmentary- section along the line
>6_6 of Fig; 1.
exclusive >or independently of the` - gearing G.
The fluid clutch Fis made of such dimensions
as give Aitj a power transmitting capacity capable 50
of transmitting the full power of the vehicle en
gine and -with but a relatively small amount of
-slip between the driving and driven parts of thev
one such embodiment with the understanding . clutch.while the engine and the driving clutch
lpart are rotating Vat a speed corresponding to 55
55 that the present disclosure is to be considered
While the invention is susceptìblegof embodi
ment in many different forms, I have shown in
the drawings- and will herein describe in detail
engine speed during normal vehicular speed inA
39 coiled on the pins 33 and having the ends
thereof engaging the fingers and housing re
high gear.> In the exemplary form of the inven
tion, the gearing G embodies an overrunning - spectively. The springs tend to shift the fingers
clutch or “freewheeling” device OC which over
in a counterclockwise direction about their fui
5 runs to permit the direct drive through the fluid _ crums (Figs. 1 and 2) thus preventing rattling as 5
’ coupling. By this arrangement a positive drive well as taking up clearances at the hooks.
Disregarding for the moment the automatic
through the clutch device C and gearing G is
obtained at the lower speeds, and the yieldable features of the clutch, a manual control is pro
and shock-absorbing drive of a fluid coupling is vided,_operable even when the clutch is under the
control of the automatic mechanism, for disen-.- l()
l i obtained at the higher and more normal operat
ing speeds. The clutch device C is positioned gaging the clutch through the use of the usual immediately adjacent the crank shaftV i0, which . clutch pedal mechanism. This comprises a
herein comprises the driving shaft or element, in throwoutbearing 40 slidably mounted on a sleeve
order that the clutch device will be effective to 4I whichin turn is slidable on a tubular extension
' disconnect the- driven shaft II completely from
the driving shaft. Although the clutch device
may assume various preferred forms.. as illus
trated herein the clutch is arranged to be oper
ated either manually_ or automatically. l When
, 42 of the transmission housing H and surrounds 15
the driven shaft I3. The throwout bearing 40 _is
adapted to be shifted to the left, (Figs. 1 and 2)
by means of a fork 43 pivoted on a shaft 44 and
engaging the bearing, to force the inner Aends/ofV ?' f"
arranged IQLBUÈOmaÈÍC 'OPQTaÈÍOD-ÈhG-Glutìîïîä M4the throwout fingers 32 _toward’tlìe left from the 20
preferably ineffective when the shaft III is rotat
position shown in Fig; 2 to that shown in Fig. 1.
ingat a low speed comparable to the idling speed
The foregoing description embodies the usual
of an automotive engine; the clutch being auto
features of conventional single disk clutches
. Amatically engaged as the speedof the crank shaft
which are normally engaged and manually dis
' is increased above the idling speed. _ ‘_
engaged bypigieoperator atfvl‘ll. ?There is also il- 25
lustrated an automatic control that olsengages
As mentioned hereinbefore the driving element
of the clutch is mounted on and rotates with the
shaft I0, an annular-clutch housing 20, secured
to the rear surface of the flywheel by screws 2|,
carrying the pressure’pla‘te‘l'ä': AThe'flywheel is se
cured to a flange I0’ on the shaft I0 by screw and
the clutch automatically below a predetermined "Nr ^~
rotative speed unless the automatic control is
locked out of engagement to convert the clutch
to a vconventional one wherein the clutch is always 30
engaged unless deliberately held out of engage
~nut devices 22. The shaft I3 passes through a ment by the operator.
central aperture in the housing 20 and has cdneggutomatici?echanism which acts to hold
trunnion I3* formed on its left hand‘encUFigÍl the clutch disengaged below `a predetermined
35 engaging a ball bearing 23 positioned in a recess
wg” 24’in the crank shaft I0.
` VThepluteh-disk I5 of the clutch device is slid
.ablí secured to the shaft I3, a -hub I5’ of the .
speed of the drive shaft I0, and operates by cen- 35
trifugal force to engage the 'clutch above such
speeds, acts through a sleeve 48 concentric with
the shaft I3 and slidable longitudinally thereof,
clutch disk being slidably mounted on splines I3"
40 on the shaft I3. The clutch disk carries the usual
friction facing material I5" on both sides, and
may have a resilient mountingl on its hub to softeny
engagement shocks, as well as prevent the trans
on a tubular extension 48° of the back plate 20,
from the position shown in Fig. 1 to the position 40
shown in Fig. 2. This sleeve has a radial flange
49 at one end and lugs 50, and carries pawls 5I
pivoted to said lugs at 52, the pawls having hooks
53 engaging pins 54 on the Vinner ends of the'
mission of torsional vibrations to the transmis-Í
45 sion gear train. The particular mounting shown
inFigs. 1 and 2 may be termed „a torque cushion
throwout fingers 32. When the hooks are so en- 45
gaged by complementar-ilyshaped rubber disks 29
gaged and with theY aumiìtic mechanism holding
the sleeve in the position oikli‘igura'laagainst the
housing‘hZll, the clutch' is automaticallñiseih‘m‘
held between a plate 30 and the dutch diskby riv
gaged since the pawls act through the fingers 32 ,
since tmub-has a series of projections 428 en
50 ets 3|. The clutch disk is'positioned between the` xtòlaretract Ythe pressure plate I4. When the au- _50
right-hand or rear face of the flywheel I2 and the
tomatic mechanism is operated by centrifugal
pressure plate I4, within the housing 20, the force, the sleeve' 48 is released and moved to the
clutch disk serving to drive the shaft I3 when right into the position of Figure 2 in response to
the pressure plate is advanced to clamp the clutch the pressure of the'springs 30Il which force the
~ y, Y. 55? disk against the flywheel.` VAs is usual practice in
corìferîtional manually operatedgnçlutches, the
pressure plate is spring loaded by a"plurality~of
pressure springs 30a, located in pockets 3|a formed
in the housing -.2II and each bearing againstthe
co pressure plate with a predeterminedpressure t6
provide the total pressure on the pressureplate
required by the desired torque rating of the clutch.
pressure plate to the- left’into clutching engage-- 5 5
ment and act through the pressure fingers and
pawls to pull the sleeve- 43’ to the right. When
the pawl hooks 53 are disengaged `from the pins
54 by means hereinafter' to bev described the
throwout ñngers are fully under the control of 60
the throwout bearing 40 and thus the clutch be
comes a conventional manually operated one
_The pressure plate I4 is arranged to be moved which remains fully engaged irrespective ofthe
against the action of. the springs 3IIa to release the automatic control, the sleeve 48 remaining in its
left hand position as shown in Fig. 1.
65 clutch device, and _as illustrated herein'the re
The automatic control, one element of which is
leasing action is obtained by means including a,
plurality of angularly spaced throwout ilnge‘rs 32 shown in the upper portions of Figs. 1, 2, and 5,
comprises . pairs of spaced weight members 30
(Figs. 1, 2, and 5). The outer ends of these fin
gers carry pins 33 engaging in hooks 34 formed in pivotally mounted on spaced lugs 6I on the hous-Í .
70 fbosses 35 projecting from the pressure plate ing 20 by pins 62. 'I'he weight members 50 have 70
through apertures 36 in the housing 20, the fin
connecting bridges 63 to increase the effective
weight and leverage of the assembly on its pivots
gers being fulcrumed on-buttons 31 on the hous
ing by means' of adjustable cap screws
62. The assembled weights are so formed and
pivoted as to swing outwardly in _a radial plane
ried on the fingers. The throwout fingers are re
75 tained on the bosses by means of torsion springs relative to the clutch axis, under the influencel of 75
centrifugal force, into the position of Fig. 2, where
the sleeve is moved forward, to cause the hooks
the weights come to rest against thehousing 20. , 53 to move radially outwardly »out of engage
Each member 60 carries fulcrum pins 64, offset
ment with pinsA 54 on the 'fingers 32. Forward
relative to the pivots 62, which pins 64 are con ' movement of the sleeve> 8| to effect such disen
nected by links 65 to a pin 66 at the outer end gagement is imparted thereto as an incident to
of a lever 61.` A spring guide rod 68 telescopes movement -of the bearing 40 acting through sleeve _
in the shank of a yoke 69 on the pin 66 and has 4| movabletherewith and abutting a flange 85
its outer end secured to a lug 10 »on the housing on sleeve 8|. The sleeve 8| .may be locked in
its forward position permanently to remove the
between the lugs'Bl. Acoiled spring 1| is inter
automatic control by means f a dog 86 pivoted
10 posed between a collar 12 on the rod 68 and the
on the housing H to drop be ind the sleeve 4|
yoke 69.
and prevent return thereof to normal position.
Each lever .61 to which the links 65 are con
nected and against which the spring 1| acts,v is Dog 66 is suitably controlled by manual means
fulcrumed at 15 to a bracket 16 on the housing not shown.
The fluid coupling F which is herein shown in
15 20. The lever also carries an offset roller 11
bearing against the flange 49 of the sleeve 48,
» the arrangement being such that the combined
forces of the springs 1| acting throughy the levers
the form of a ñuid flywheel .comprises a driving '
element having an annular casing 90 and a driven
element or runner 9|. The casingV is formed in
sections 90' and.I 90" secured together at their
peripheries bya screws `92 and is herein mounted 20
through the throwout fingers 32, thus holding the - on the right hand end of the shaft i3 (Fig. 1) and
sleeve 48 in the position of Fig. 1 until centrifugal secured thereto by means of a key 93 so as to
force swings the weights outwardly to release the rotate therewith. The casing 90 has a tubular
pressure of the rollers 11 against theI flange of the extension 94 in the vform of a> sleeve having a
flange 95 secured to the casing section 90" by 25
25 sleeve.
meansof a plurality of rivets _96. The runner 9|
The spring 1| acts to oppose the outward move
ment or response of the weights to centrifugal is secured to a shaft» 91 which extends through
forces acting thereon. It-will be evident that the the sleeve 94 and is concentric with the shafts
degree of preloading of the springs Will determine , i3 and || and is positioned between said shafts,
rotative speed at which the weights swing the runner being riveted to an annular 4flange 98
outwardly, since centrifugal force varies as the on the shaft`91. This tubular portion of the
casing 90 preferably extends into the casing I1
square of the rotative speed.
Automatic engagement of the clutch is depend _ so that any fluid leaking along the shaft 91
ent von the overbalancing of the springs 1| by the passes into casing i1 and not out into the .hous-`
ing H. In addition, a packing ring |04 surrounds
35 combined action o_f the springs 30a, acting through
lingers 32 on sleeve 48, and the weights 60,' acting , the shaft 91 within the tubular portion94, and
through links 65, the springs 1| having their force is automatically ltaken up by means of a spring
multiplied by the leverage acting on the rollers 11 pressed ring |95. A reduced end 99 of `the shaft"A
while the springs 30ß have their forcé reduced byl i3 is rotatably mounted in a recess 91' in the
the leverage of the throwout fingers. Thus' the adjacent end of the shaft 91 by means of a plu 40
61 and rollers 11 are sufficient to overbalance the
20 clutch pressure springs 30a acting on the sleeve 46
sleeve- 48 may iioat in a balanced position be
rality of rollers |00, and a reduced portion l i' of .
tween these spring forces as long as the clutch is
set for automatic operation. In practice, how
the shaft | | is rotatably mounted in a recess 91"
in the adjacent end of the shaft 91 bymeans of
ever,v the springs 1| overbalance the opposing f a sleeve bearing lill. The sleeve 94 is rotatably
forces to a predetermined extent dependent upon mounted in one end of a part |02 of the housing 45
the desired rotative speed» of clutch engagement, H (which part surrounds the fluid coupling), by
the excess spring force acting to hold the weights means of a ball bearing |03 and projects into the
in the position of Fig. 1 until increasing centrif-` adjacent gear lcasing l1. In this manner the
ugal force absorbs the excess spring force. Since shaft i3 and the ñuid coupling casing 90 includ
the variables are under the designer’s controlthe ing the tubular portion 94 are .connected together 50
50 clutch can be designed to operate at. a predeter
to rotate as a unit, being driven by the crank
mined speed and to have a predetermined mairie ~shaft iowhenever the clutch device C is en
mum torque capacity and >rate of- engement. gaged.
As illustrated herein (Figs. 1 and 6) the driv- «
It will be noted from Fig. 2 that with the clutch
automatically and fully. engaged it can still be ving element 99 of the fluid coupling F. is pro
manually disengaged by shifting the throwout
vided with -angularly spaced radially extending
bearing 90 to the left, the bearing acting through . vanes V and V’ which are somewhat semi-circular the’ throwout fingers to -retract the pressurel inform and project from the inner wall of the
90'5. The vanes are :intersected>
plate as well as forcibly to return the automatic casing section
mechanism to the position shown in Fig. 1 of the ' by an annular semi-cylindrical wall |06 >so as to 60
drawings. rI‘he effect of this is essentially to ' form a plurality of n_uid ducts |09 decreasing in
cross sectional area toward the outer portion of
overcome the centrifugal force by a directly ap
plied force of greater magnitude acting through' the casing. The runner 9| is positioned in op
the fingers 32.
. v
Movement of the bearing 40 to the left in Fig- l
65 also serves to disengage-pawls 5| from the fingers
32 to remove the automatic mechanism from
posed relation to the impeller vanes of the driv
ing element and conforms somewhat in shape to
the adjacent portion of the casing 99. The run-`
ner may also be provided with vanes V and V’
control of the clutch. To that end a sleeve 8|
is slidably mounted on shaft >|3 and urged out
similar to those on the driving element and, i-n
wardly of the tubular extension 48a by'ïa com
pression spring 82. The sleeve 8| is formed with
longitudinal s_lots 83 to receive the ends of in
wardly projecting fingers 84 on the pawls 5|. At
vanes are intersected by a corresponding an
the form illustrated in the drawings, the runner
nular semi-cylindrical wall |01. The alternate
vanes V' are herein cut oiT slightly adjacent their
inner ends compared to the vanes V. The casing
their rearward ends the slots are formed with » section 90” is . provided with a screw ~plug |08
cam surfaces which engage the fingers 64, when - which maybe removed for the purpose of ñlling 75
A 2,107,089
parts as shown in Figure 1. When gear |22 is
ing operation of the fluid coupling, fluid is forced moved to the left (Figure 1) to mesh with broad
outwardly through the ducts formed in the driv -gear ill, there isprovided a second power train
ing element or impeller and into the ducts formed between sleeve 94 and driven shaft v| i. By means
of the second power train it is possible to use
Ul inthe driven element or runner in a well known
manner. At relatively slow speeds the slip is the engine as a brake, thereby eliminating the
vhigh, but as the speed of the driving element freewheelìng action as explained below.
the casing with a suitable fluid such as oil. Dur-v
increases the torque transmitted to the runner
increases until a speed is attained where the run
ner is rotated- by the impeller with a relatively
small amount of slip, thus forming a substantially
direct and cushioned drive between the shaftv |3
and the runner shaft 91. -
_In the preferred form of the invention the
driven‘shaft || is arranged to be driven from
`the tubular portion 94 of the casing 90 through
If it is desired to cut out the freewheellng>
clutch during the forward drive of the driven
shaft, the cluster gear may be shifted toward the
left (_Fig. 1) ~until the arm |3| is in the position
F', whereupon the clutch element |24 is engaged
with the clutch element |33 on vthe runner shaft
and the gear |22 of the cluste'r gear is engaged
The shaft || is then driven
from the driven element of the clutch C directly
the gearing in the transmission casing I1 when , through the fluid coupling casing, gears iiil, lil,
the engine crank shaft is rotating below a speed and |22, the gear ||| acting as an idler gear.
at which the fluid coupling is 'effective to drive In this position of the cluster gear the engine is
20 the shaft ||. Sleeve 94 projects into the trans
effective for braking purposes.
mission casing |»1 and carries a gear ||0 which
By this arrangement 'a positive drive through
meshes with» a wide faced gear Iii rotatably clutch C and the gearing in casing |1 is avail
mounted on a parallel stub shaft ||2_. The gear able for positively accelerating a vehicle, while at
||| has an annular recess | I3 in one end (Figs. 1
the same time the cushioned drive through the
and 4) in which the rollers ||4 and cam ||5 of fluid coupling is available at the'higher and more
the overrunning clutch or freewheeling device normal operating speeds. 'I'he starting and ac0C are positioned. The cam Ii! is herein shown celerating maybe entirely automatic, the low
as formed integrally with a sleeve ||6 and gears speed positive drive being- completed‘autcmati-
||1 and III, being rotatably mounted onthe
shaft ||2 by means of sleeve bearings ||9 and
A shiftable cluster gear element |2| is
slidably mounted on and splined to the adjacent
end of the driven shaft || and comprises spur
gears |22 and |23 and a'toothed clutch element
|24; This cluster gear has splines |25 engaging
slots |26 in the shaft || and is arranged’to be
shifted longitudinally of the shaft || by means
of arms |21 which carry pins |28 engaging in a
peripheral slot |29 in the hub of the cluster
gear, the cluster gear in the present instance
having four operative positions on the driven
shaft ||. The arms |21 are secured to a trans
versely extending control shaft |30 which shaft
also has secured thereto an operating arm ' I 3|. ‘
The four operative positions of the operating arm
|3| are herein designated by dot and dash lines
F'; F, N, and R., designating two “forward”
speeds, “neutra " and “reverse”,> respectively.
Thecluster gear is shown in the normal forward
50 driving position F with the gear |23 meshing with
the ‘gear ||1, the drive fromthe sleeve 94 to the
driven shaftl || then -being through gears lill
and ||,|, the freewheeling clutch OC and gears
||1 and |23. Iln this “forward” position of the
55 cluster gear, the toothed l clutch element |24A
y `meshes with a wide faced gear |33, acting as a
cally by the clutch C (when the cluster gear |2|l
is in the position of Fig. 1l upon the increase
of the crank shaft speed.l As ,the vehicle accel
erates due to further increases in engine speed,
the efllciency of the fluid coupling increases to
a point where the fluid coupling becomes effec.
tive to drive the shaft ||,`overrunning the clutch
OC. This transfer of drive from thegearing to
the fluid coupling is automatic and without
Since the clutch C is always engaged auto
matically at the same rotative speed it may be 40
accurately adjusted to give the desired varying
slip during pull-in. The fluid coupling furnishes .
a cushioned coupling for normal driving and also
yields’so that the drive is through the gearing
whenever the load becomes too great for the
fluid coupling.
I claim as my invention:
l. A transmission mechanism for automotive
vehicles comprising, in combination With'a drive
shaft and a driven shaft, a mechanical clutch
device having the driving element thereof con
nected to said drive shaft, a fluid coupling com
prising an'annular fluid-tight. casing carrying
internal impeller blades forming a driving ele
ment, and a runner enclosed in said casing form- ’
ing a driven element, means connectingthe driv
complementary -clutch element, on the adjacent `en element of said clutch device 'to the driving
end of the shaft 91 to complete the driving con-` > element of- the. fluid coupling. means connecting
nectionbetween the runner 9| and the driven -' _the
When the arm |3| is moved to the’position N
the gear |23 is disengaged from the gear ||1 and
the clutch element |124 is disengaged from the
clutch elem'ent |33 on >the end of the runner
driven element of said clutch device to said
driven shaft and including the first mentioned
connecting means, reduction gearing and an over
running clutch inserial relation, means connect
ing» the `driven element of' said 'fluid coupling to
said driven shaft, means operable automatically
shaft 91, the transmission then being wholly dis
connected from the driven shaft | |. Upon a fur
ther movement of the _arm |3| counterclockwise
to the position R, the gear I 23 is moved >toward
the right (Fig._1) intoengagernent with a re
verse gear |35 (Figs. l and 3) which is mounted
upon an -increase in the speed of said drive
shaft above an idling speedv to engage said me
chanical clutch device` means in said fluid cou
on a short shaft |33 parallel to theshaft ||2, and
to the driven Vshaft at a higher speedy than
through said gearing, overrunning said clutch,
is in constant mesh with the gear ||`9.
Í '
Sleeve 94, gear H0, gear III, OC, gear H1,
and gear`|23 constitute »a first power train for
V75 driving driven shaft || from sleeve. 94 `with the
pling effective coincidently with a further in
crease of speed to drive the driven element there
of and transmit the power of the drive shaft
and means for alternatively connecting the driv
ing element of the fluid` coupling to the driven
shaft independently oi' said overrunning clutch.
2. link combination with a drive shaft and a
driven shaft, transmission mechanism comprising
a gear casing into which the driven shaft extends,
shiftable gearing in said casing including añrst
gear and a second gear, a clutch device, »one ele
ment of which is carried on and rotates with the
g drive shaft, a ñuid flywheel having a casing
impeller element and a runìier element positioned
within the casing-impeller element, means con
l0 necting said casing-impeller element to the driven
said driven member, Vadjacent gears respectively
.on the other of said driving members Vand said
driven member, and a gear -co-meshable with said
adjacent" vgears to interlock said other driving
shaft and said driven shaft.
_, 9. A transmission mechanism comprising co
axially rotatable power transmitting members,
means- whereby one of said members is yieldingly
urged ,to -rotate in the same direction as- the
other, a driven member, a direct driving connec-> 10
element of said clutch, a shaft on which said tion between said one member and said. driven
runner element is mounted, which shaft projects ' member, a one-way drive speed reduction con
_into said gear casing and carries said ñrst gear, - nection between the other of said members andA
and a tubular extension on said casing-impeller - said driven member, and means forl connecting
15 element surrounding said shaft and extending >both of said coaxial members with said driven
into s_aid gear casing and carrying said second member for common rotation therewith.
10. Change speed power transmission mecha
3. In a transmission mechanism comprising a nism comprising coaxially rotatable power shafts,
fluid ñywheel having an annular `casing closed . a gear on one of said shafts, a clutch member on
20 at one end, and a runner within said casing, a the .other of said shafts, a driven shaft, a gear 20'
gear casing and shiftable gearing in said gear on said driven shaft, a clutch member on said
casing, in combination, a- shaft connected to and
\ driven by said runner and> extending `into said
gear casing, and a tubular extension onsaid an
driven shaft and cooperable with the ñrst named
clutch member, said4 clutch members being rela
tively movable into power transmitting relation;
and a power train including a broad gear and a 25
extending into said gear casing so as to discharge one-way drive connection in series therewith, said
any fluid, leaking along the runner shaft, into ' power train being disposed in power transmitting
nular casing surrounding said shaft and also
- relation between said one of the -coaxial shafts
the gear casing.
4. I_n combination with a drive shaft andr a and said4 driven shaft yandwith said broad gear
and the ñrst named gear in- mesh, said broad 30
30 driven shaft, transmission mechanism compris
ing a gear casing into which the driven shaft gearl and the gear on said driven shaft being rela
extends, shiftable gearing in said casing, a clutch tively movable. into meshed relation while pre
device one element of which rotates `with the serving the meshed relation of said broad gear
drive shaft, a ñuid flywheel having a casing
35 impeller element and a runner element positioned
within the casing-impeller element, means con-fA
necting said casing-impeller element to the other
element of -said clutch," a shaft on which said
runner element is secured, which shaft projects
.40 into said gear casing, and a tubular extension
on said casing-impeller element ksurrounding said
shaft and extending into said gear casing so that
any ñuid leaking along> the runner shaft is dis
charged into the gear casing.
5. A transmission mechanism comprising a ro
tatable mechanical clutch, a fluid clutch including
an impeller anda rotatable runner, a driving
connection between said mechanical clutch and
said impeller, concentric driven members, one of
and thel first named gear, and saidl clutch mem
bers being engageable either concurrently with 35
or non-concurrently with the meshed relation of
the broad gear and the first named gear.
1l. Change speed power _transmission mecha-4
nism comprising a iiexible coupling device> in#
cluding driving and driven rotative parts wherein 40
the driven part has a> tendency to follow the
rotation _of the driving part, a driven shaft, a-
power train of a selected speed lratio including
' in series therewith an overrunning connection,
said power'train being disposed in Ypower trans 45
mittingrelation between said driving part and
said driven shaft, a second power train between
said driving part and said driven shaft, vand cou
pling means for connecting said driven part and '
said ,driven shaft independently of the drive
runner for rotation therewith, the other> of said through said power train of selected ratio. '
concentric members being coupled with said im
peller for rotation therewith, and locking means
~operable to effect a coupling causing common
55 rotation of said concentric members.
6. A transmission mechanism comprising a_
fluid coupling device including an impeller and
a runner, concentric members driven respectively
by said impeller and said runner, a shaft adapted
60 to be individually driven by either-of said con
centric members, and means for coupling together
said concentric> members and said driven shaft
for common rotation.
’7. A transmission mechanism comprising co
65 axial driving members'a'drivenmember coaxial
' with said driving members, power transmitting
l2. Change speed power transmission mecha
nism comprising a ñexible coupling device in
cluding driving and driven coaxially rotatable
parts wherein the drivenfpart has a tendency to 55
follow> the rotation of the d_?iving part, a gear
rotatable with> said driving part, a .clutch mem
ber rotatable with the driven part, a driven shaft
rotatable coaxially with said parts,~a gear power
train including a broadl gear and acne-way drive
connection in series, said power train being driv
ingly disposed between said. driving part and said
driven shaft and with said broad gear enmeshed
with said driving part gear, a movable clutch
member on said driven shaft, a movable gear on 65
said driven shaft, said movable clutch member
means bridging said drivel members and said being, disposable -in coacting relation with the
driven clutch- 'part for directly coupling such
drivenmember whereby the latter may be indi
driven part 'directly`e >driven shaft, and
vidually driven from either of said driving mem
said movable gear being disposable in meshed 70
e.relation with said broad gear While, said driving
members for common rotation.
part gear is meshed therewith.
8. A transmission mechanism comprising co
13. A transmission mechanism for automotive
axial driving members, a driven member coaxial
with said'driving members, a releasable direct" vehicles comprising, in combination with a drive
shaft and a driven shaft, a mechanical clutch 75
'75 coupling between one of the driving members and
device having/the` driving'element thereof con
ber driven by said riñiner, means connecting said
Y`nected?to said drive shaft, a fluid ñywheel mm
second member with said driven shaft so that
as the speed of the drive shaft increases and the
prising driving and driven elements, means _con
necting the driven element of said clutch device
efficiency of the fluid ñywheel correspondingly
,'to the driving element of the yñuid flywheel, a ' increases the runner will become effective to
power train of‘seiected speed ratio connecting drive the driven shaft and overrun said overrun
the driving element of said fluid ñywheel to said
driven shaft and including an overrunning clutch
ning clutch.l
exclusive of said first power train and overrun
ning clutch, means operable automatically upon
and a driven element, a fluid iiywheel having an `
16. A transmission mechanism for-automotive
in serial relation therewith, a power train of - vehicles comprising in combination a drive shaft
and a driven shaft, an automatic clutch having 10
10l higher speed ratio for connecting the driven ele
ment >of said fluid flywheel to said driven shaft a driving element connected with the drive shaft
an increase in the speed- of said drive shaft above
15 an idling speed to engage said mechanical clutch
device, and ñuid in said fluid flywheel effective
.coincidental with a further increase in speed of
the drive shaft to drive the driven element there
annular casing Aforming an impeller element 'and
a runner rotatable within said casing, means con
necting said runner to the driven shaft, means
connecting the driven element of said mechani
cal clutch to the impeller element of said fluid
ñywheel, and means including the impeller ele
of and transmit the power of the drive shaft to y ment of said iluid ñywheel and an overrunning
clutch connecting the driven elementfof the me
chanicai clutch to the driven shaft.? «Jv/f
higher speed ratio as permitted by said overrun
20 the driven shaft through said power train of
ning clutch.
14. A transmission mechanism for automotive
vehicles comprising, in combination with a drive
25 shaft and a driven shaft, a ñuid coupling con
necting >said shafts-comprising an annular iluid
tight casing carrying internal impeller blades
17. A change speed transmission comprising
driving and driven shafts, a fluid medium clutch
including driving and driven parts, clutch mech
anism for drivingly connecting the driving shaft 25
with said driving part, a power train of selected
speed ratio including an overrunning connection
forming a driving element, and a runner enclosed interposed operatively between said driving part
and the driven shaft, and a power coupling inter
in said casing yforming a driven element, auto
posed between said driven part and said driven 30
matic clutch means connecting said driving ele
ment to said drive shaft, means connecting said shaft, said iiuid medium clutch being adapted
driven element to said driven shaft, a positive upon an increase in speed to transmit sufiicient
drive means comprising a reduction gearing and ' torque from the driven part for driving the driven
an yoverrunning clutch in serial relation between shaft at a speed greater than it is driven through
said driving element and said driven shaft, said the power train of selected speed ratio, and said 35
positive drive means being effective at lower drive
shaft speeds when the slip of the fluid-coupling
-is high, said fluid coupling being eil'ective to
transmit power through said means connecting
40 said driven element and said driven shaft at
higher drive shaft speeds incident to overrunning
said clutch.
15. In combination with a drive shaft and a
driven shaft. transmission mechanism compris
45 ing a clutch device including driving and driven
elements of which'the driving elementis driven
vby said drive shaft,‘a iiuid flywheel comprising
an impeller and a runner, means connecting said
impeller to the _driven element of said clutch de
50 vice, a gear box into which one end of said> driven
overrunning connection permitting of such great
er speed of the 'driven shaft.
18. Transmission
mechanism 'comprising a"
fiuid coupling device including driving and driven
parts, automatic clutch means for driving the 40
driving part of said device, a driven shaft, a
demobilizable power train of selected speed ratio
in power transmitting relationship between said
driving part and said driven shaft, a power cou
pling between said driven part and said driven 45
shaft, said device becoming operative upon in
creased speed of the driving part thereof to de.
velop torque adequate for driving said driven
shaft from said driven part through the power
coupling at higher speed, and` means automat
shaft extends in- axial alinement with said drive ically operable to eifect demobilization of the
shaft, a _nrst member driven by said impeller, . power train of selected ratio when the driven
means connecting'said member`~ and driven shaft shaft is driven at such increased speed. ‘
including an overrunning clutch. a second mem
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