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Патент USA US2107098

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Feb. 1, 1938.
Filed April 11, 1951
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ELHEEJVEE'H M55175!!!‘
Patented Feb. 1, 1938
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5‘ Clarence H. Wiegrnan, Detroit, lvliiohu
Packard , Motor
assignor '
Company, ‘Detroit,
Mich, a corporation of Michigan
Application April 11, 1931, Serial No. 529,349 _
(Cl. 123—30.2)
The engine illustrated is of the four-cycle type
This invention relates to internal combustion
5 7 Claims.
and there is an air inlet port l4 and an exhaust
outlet port !5 extendingthrough the rear por
tion of the cylinder wall» adjacent the head. ‘ Ase
sociated with the air inlet port is a housing I5
t is advantageous and desirable inv some in
stances, particularly where employed as the power
plantforaeroplanes, that engines be constructed
formed with a forwardly extending neck l1 hav
with aminimum over-all dimension and an object
of this invention is to provide such an engine
through an arrangement of the fuel inlet and ex
ing a passage l8 therethrough which communi
cates with and forms a continuation of the air
inlet port ill. The air inlet, formed by the pas
sage 58 through the neck and the port -I 4 through
the cylinder, extends in a plane perpendicular to
' haust ports and their valve mechanism.
Another object of the invention is to provide an
engine of the compression-ignition type in which
the cylinder axis and opens towardthe front of
the air intake port is arranged to induce move~
ment of the air charges in a manner such that
rotation thereof inthe associated cylinder is ma
terially assisted.
the engine and discharges tangentially of the
rearmost portion of the cylinder wall. This port
is preferably in the form of‘a venturi in order
to speed up the travel of air therethrough. A
housing It is associated with the cylinder and is
provided with a passage 20 which extends rear
wardly from the cylinder in a plane perpendicular
Still another‘object of the invention is to pro
vide an engine in which the inlet and outlet ports
extend perpendicular to the cylinder axis and
through the wall thereof adjacent the head so
that no valve housings and mechanism project
to the axis thereof and communicates with the
exhaust outlet port It extending through the
beyond the top of the cylinder head.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an internal combustion engine in which the, cyl
cylinder. The two housings l6 and i9 are each
provided with a flat wall 42 'whichrbears against
a ?at surface on the boss 2! formed on the rear
inder is formed with a solid head from which ?ns
25 extend throughout its area to provide a maxi
mum heat transfer along this surface.
Other objects of the invention will appear from
the following description taken in connection with
- the drawing, which forms a part of this speci?ca
tion, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a sectional view through a cylinder of
an engine, taken substantially on line I—l of
Fig. 2, illustrating my invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view of the engine
cylinder, taken on line'2—2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary end view of one of the
valve mechanisms and its housing with the cover
plate removed.
Referring now to the drawing by characters of
I have illustrated my invention asso
ciated with an internal combustion engine of the
compression-ignition type in which the air and
fuel are mixed and compressed within a cylinder
to form the fuel charge. A cylinder I9 is provided
45 with circular cooling ?ns H and secured to one
end of the cylinder, and preferably formed inte
grally therewith, is a solid head l2. There are no
apertures or ports extending through the head,
such as is customary with the poppet valve type of
engine, and a plurality of ?ns l3 project from
vthe outer wall of the head in spaced parallel re
lation. These fins are designed so that the spaces
therebetween will provide channels extending in
the direction of the air stream which is utilized
55 to transfer heat from the engine.
wall of the cylinder, and suitable securing means,
such as bolts 22, fasten the housings to this boss.
7 The inner ends of the inlet and outlet ports
are controlled by suitable valve means. As shown
in the drawing there is a poppet valve 23 having
a stem which extends through a portion of the
housing l6 and having a head which cooperates
with a seat formed in thecylinder wall. Aspring
24 bears against a retainer v25 secured to the
valve stem and engages a seat in the housing so , _
that it normally holdsthe valve in seated rela
tion. This valve is opened by mechanism op
erated in a conventional manner by a moving
part of the engine, not shown, which can be
similar in construction to the mechanism for op
erating. the exhaust valve 26. A stem of the
exhaust 'valve; extends through awall of the
housing 19 and the head thereof cooperates with
a seat formed in the cylinder wall to close or
open the port l5. There is a guide member 21
associated with the housing through which the 45
‘valve stem extends and a coil spring 28 is ar
ranged between a ?anged portion of the guide and
a retainer 29 which is secured to the valve stem.
Within the housing [9 there is pivoted a bell crank
38 which is actuated to open the valve by means 50
of push rod mechanism 3! actuated by a mov
ing part of the engine in a conventional manner.
The spring 28 normally maintains the exhaust
valve in closed position and said valve is opened
through the push rod actuating the bell crank. 55
The end of the housings can be closed by a cover,
as indicated at 32.
It will be observed that the air intake and ex
what I claim is 2'
1. In an internal combustion engine, a'cylinder, ’
a head at one end of the cylinder, said cylinder
' haust valves. open inwardly of the cylinder and
having air inlet and exhaust outlet ports extend—
adjacent the'head, and the piston 33 recipro
ing therethrough adjacent the head, said ports
extending substantially. tangentially of the cyl
inder wall, and valves associated with the interior
cating within the cylinder is provided with a
pocket 43 which extends adjacent the valves.
This pocket is semi-circular in cross-section taken ' ends of the ports and extending radially of the
transversely of the piston axis and is of a depth
10 such that it extends beyond the valve heads when
2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder 10
Air is ' having a head at one end'and air inlet and ex
drawn into'the cylinder during the suction stroke haust outlet ports extending therethrough at an
the piston is at top dead center position.
7 of the piston through the passage l8 and the port '
l4'and tangentially to the rear- wall of the cyl
15 inder so that it will be introduced ina manner
to cause its rotation within the cylinder and sub
stantially without interference by the valve l4.
During the compression stroke'of the piston, the
rotating air is compressed and is ?nally contained
20 within the pocket portion'of the piston and the "
associated walls of} the cylinder where the rota
obtuse angle relatively and tangentially of the
inner wall of the cylinder, inwardly opening
valves extending radially through the cylinder 15
wall and controlling said ports, and a piston inv
the cylinder having a segmental recess in the
head end providing a combustion chamber *and
a clearance forthe valves when in open position.
3. In an internal combustion engine, a joy]
inder having a head at one endland airinlet
and exhaust outlet' ports," said ports extending
a high compression is introducedby means of through the cylinder in a relatively close relation 7
the nozzle 34. The nozzle ‘can be of any con— and tangentially of the v inner‘ surface of the
ventional type for injecting'atomized liquid fuel ' cylinder, inwardly opening valves "extending ra—‘ 25
‘ in variable quantities into the cylinder,’ and inthis dially' through the cylinder wall controlling‘ said ’
tion istcontinued, and‘ atomized liquid fuel under
instance the injection deviceis arranged at the
rear portion of the cylinder and projects through
its wall toward theaxis‘of the cylinder in a path
substantially transversely of‘ the rotating com
ports,’ a piston having ahead with a segmental
recessed portion providing clearance‘ space for.
the valves when open and'va combustion chamber,’
pressed air. The piston is connected with the
crank shaft of the engine in, a conventional man
cylinder wall intermediate‘ the ports, said injec- -
ner by means of the connecting rod 35.
‘Through the association of the valves, ports and
injection device in a plane beneath the cylinder
head, a minimum over-all dimension'is required
_, and, consequently, when the engine is employed
the combustion chamber in a direction whereby
the incoming air will‘traverse the same. '
4. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder
having ahead at one end, said‘cylinder being
formed with an air inlet passage and an ‘exhaust
outlet passage extending therethrough adjacent
to travel is materially lessened, as compared with
engines in which the valve and Valve housings
the head, ' said passages being substantially
straight and tangential to the inner wall of the
cylinder heads. In addition, this arrangement of
the ports and valves permits the operating mecha
nism for the valves to be arranged at the rear of
the cylinders, and it also allows the fuel injec
tion device to be arranged at the rear of the
cylinder so that fuel can be injected into a com
bustion space formed bythe piston pocket which
at the same time permits clearance vof the valves,
and thus a high compression ratio can be attained.
The arrangement of the fins entirely across the
and engageable with the inner ends of said pas
sages, said valves having stems extending radially
of the cylinder and in, an angular relation to the
axes of thepassages, and a piston in said cylinder
having a segmental pocket inthe end affording
clearance for the valves when open and'forming a
combustion chamber with the: adjacent cylinder
5. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder
which cannot be attained when valve housings are
secured upon the cylinder head,and as a. result
the head, said passages being angularly disposed >
a high rate of heat, transfer ensues.
While I have herein described in some detail
front of the cylinder and the outlet passage opene
a speci?c embodiment of my invention, which I
deem to be new and advantageous and may, spe
ci?cally claim, I do not desire it to be understood
that my invention is limited to' the exact details
relatively with the inlet passage opening at the
ing towards the rear of the cylinder, said passages
being tangentially disposed with respect to‘ the
inner wall of the cylinder, and valves controlling
the flow through such passages.‘
‘ * of the construction, as it will be apparent that
changes may be made therein without departing
from the spirit or scope of my invention.
cylinder, valves opening inwardly of said cylinder ‘ '
having'a head at one end, said cylinder being
formed with; an air inlet 'passage'and an exhaust
outlet passage extending therethrough adjacent
, cylinder head provides a heat transfer efllciency
tion device being arranged to discharge fuel into
V as the power plant of an aeroplane, the resistance
A‘ project through andare associated on top of the
and an injection deviceextending through the
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