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Патент USA US2107110

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Feb. l, 1938. ,
2,107,110 -
Filed Ja_n. 19, 1931
5 Sheets-Sheet l
'.Feb. 1, 1938.
.Filed Jan. 19, 1931
»3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
, BY .5m-pasar», Vanta#
w. A. EATON mi.
' 21101110
Filed Jan. 19, 1931
~ v
ys sheets-sheet. 3
MLP-R50 5! EHTa/v
¿gn-PHEN Vane-:H
wilma A. Eaton and stephen vnrecn, rms
burgh, Pa., assignors to Bendix Westinghouse
Automotive Air Brake Company, Pittsburgh,
Pa., a corporation of
Application January 1s, 1_931', serial Np. 509,856
5 Claims. (on. 12h-’41)
This. invention relates to power operating d connection between `the fluid motor ana operat
ing lever, the unit- being vacuum operated;
Imechanism andis illustrated and described as
»applied to the clutch mechanism of an automo
tive vehicle.
Figure 5 is an enlarged view of the self-lapping
valve structure vof Figure 2 in longitudinal s‘ec
- It is to be understood however, that the in
vention isl not limited to such application, but .
the valve structure employed in the vacuum op- ‘ ’
eration of the mechanism as. disclosed in F18
anismoor to control mechanism of an airplane,
ure 4.
In that embodiment of our invention illustrated 10 _
in detail in Figures l, 2 and 5, there is disclosed «
a clutch operating power unit III mounted on
the transmission case I2 on the chassis I3 of a
. ' However, the vprincipal object of the invention
conventional automotive vehicle.
is to provide a simple and -compact construction
which may readily (cooperate with the clutch or
brake mechanism of the conventional automotive.
_adapted to actuate. the clutching mechanism of
the conventional vehicle. A pedal lever I4, which“A
As disclosed, we have shown the operating unit 15
may be substituted for the conventional foot op
erated clutch lever, is preferably pivoted at I5
intermediate its ends to the end of a clutch throw '20
out crank arm I6, the' latter being keyed or other
wise ñxedly secured to the clutch shaft I8 pro
truding from the clutch and change gear hous
A further object of the invention is to provide
may be applied to other elements to be driven
boats, or to other analogous applications, such
as the shifting of clutches and the setting in op
eration of automatic machineryin factories.
an operating mechanism so designed as to per
mit either concurrent manual and power opera
tion or complete manual operation in case of
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 5 disclosing
in an automotive vehicle such as the brake mech '
10 to vthe steering and control mechanism of .motor '
. 15Y
tion;- and
failure of the power mechanism, the design being
also such as to apprise the operator at all times
The power motor or prime mover 20 is pref- 25
erably of the ñuid operated type and is rigidly ,
duringthe> operation of the mechanism of the
degree of power output; `this so-called “feel”
secured‘to the transmission or a chassis part by
bracket 22. The connecting- rod 24 of the motor
is preferably adjustably connected to a yoke
member 26, the latter beingfpivotally connected 30
to the lever I4 below the pivot I5. The connect
-being a function_oi either the combined output
of, the valve and power unit or of the valve unit
Yet another object is to provide a very reliable
structure wherein a graduated control of the
power unit is. obtained and to this end there is
suggested the employment of a self-lapping valve
ing or push rod 24 extends througha bearing- _
21 in the end of the non-pressure plate 28 of the
iiuid motor and'to vthe head of the rod is secured
the conventional push plate 30 which is adapted 35
unit, which permits of both progressive and intermittent application of the power unit. _
to/be acted upon by the usual ñexible diaphragm
In order that the invention in its various as
pectsmay be readily understood and appreciated -member 32. The pressure supporting yplate 34
by those skilled in the art, two embodiments >of of the motor is preferably formed on its base to
the invention are set forth hereinafter by wal1 of 'receive the valve operating mechanism for the
description and >exempliilcation in the accom Ymotor to be described hereinafter. 5, preferably
The valve unit, detailed in'Figure
panying drawings. It will be readily appreciated
a. casing 36 adapted to receive a- pis-V
however, that the description and drawings -are
illustrative only and are not to be taken in an ton 38. A. piston stop/40, limiting the motion
unnecessarily limiting sense. l
of thepiston to the left, maybe threadedly se- -
cured to the valve casing. A piston return spring ¿5
42 may be interposed between an annular- flange
or stop 44 within the cylinder casing and abut
46 securing a piston packing ring 48 in- lplace,
_Figure 1 is a view disclosing diagrammatically
an automobile chassis with my novel power op
' erati'ng mechanism incorporated therein shown
as controlling the operation of the clutch, _the
'the nut- .46 being vthreadedly mounted upon=a
mechanism beingpressure operated;
' hollow stemV portion 50 of the piston. 111e re- 50
504 Figure 2 is a side elevation, partly in section,
disclosing the power-unit in greater detailì..
,_ .nmainder'of’the valve structure comprises'aïalo't- ~
ted cylindrically shaped valve member B2i-slid..
Figure 3 isa _front elevation ofïthe. unit dis-_
‘_ closed in Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a view of a unit similar to that dis
closed in Figure 2_ disclosing a modiñed form of
ably received within a sleeve or _bushing I4 migre' _ ,
>flange 44, the seat 55 of the `valve member being
¿slightly spaced, in its inoperative position, from 55
-11,107,110 .
the endiìf the hollow steml 5I of the piston 38. mitting the piston 38 to `move to the left and
lthe intake valve to close against its seat I1.
The valve member is provided with an enlarge
ment or c_ollar 56 adapted to seat on the end of During this operation,l the foot of the operator
the bushingV N, a normally compressed ~ valve `serves as a fulcrumfor the lever i4. When the
' returning spring 5I being interposed between said intake valve has closed, a condition of equilibrium
collar 56 and an end plug il of the valve casing is established in the system, the forces tending to
rotate thel pedal lever about the foot> as a ful
to retain the collar 56 seated against -the bush
-ing end constituting a valve seat 51. A duct 62 ~ crum, being balanced by the counteracting force
is provided tol connect the motor and chamber of the clutch mechanism.. The clutch or brake
_ isthus held in _its applied position, the >valve be 10
10 Il defined by the ilange 4l and piston 38, and
the valve casing is also'provided with anA outlet ing in the so-called lapped condition.
If‘it is desired to further release the clutch
i6 to receive a conduit 61 extending either to a
source of air pressure (Figures 1 and 2) such as or apply the brake, it is merely necessary to again
the conventional compressor 0i or to the vacuum move the foot~ forwardly- whereupon pivot I5
'15 producing intake manifold ‘I of the engine (Fig
ure 1).
To the valve piston is secured a connecting rod
-18 by means of wrist pin 1i which rod is ad
again becomes a fulcrum, the valve being again
cracked to thus admit an additional amount of
air under pressure and eii'ect a further increment
of power input.
When it is desired to re-engage the clutch -or
justably secured toV a yoke 12 pivotally secured
at 13 to the inner end of the operating lever> i4. Y release the brake it is merely necessary to reduce
The end of the leveris furthermore forkedat the manual pressure _on the pedal lever which will
its end to straddle a projecting stub _portion 14 effect a. momentary venting of-the valve to at
on the clutch shaft. The clearance between the mosphere with a `conseqiient reduction of air
outer furcation 1l of the fork and the stub shaft pressure in the motor. Y This eilects an increment
is- of a'degree to permit the complete cracking of releasing movement to the 'clutch or brake
of the valve.
Vmechanism. The Yabove action is due to the self
lapplng effect of the valve but for ordinary pur-V
poses a graduated release is not desired, in which
the clutch engaged. If a pressure is now exerted
case the manual pressure is completely removed
from the pedal lever effecting an immediate a'nd
The ilgures of the drawings disclose the oper
ating mechanism in its oif position, that is, with
'30 on the foot pad at the end of the pedal lever the
latter will tend to rotate counterclockwise about
the pivot I5 as a fulcrum, thus exerting a force
tending to rotatecrank arm i6 and the clutch
shaft in the same direction and at the same time
transmitting a force to the right on push rods 2l
and 1l of the power unit and valve respectively.
Movement of the valve push rod 18 causes a
movement of the pistonl 38 in the right until the
valve seat at ii rests against the end of the stem
e-to the
40 50, thus closing the atmospheric
motor through the stem 5l. Further motion of
piston 38 to the right carries the valve member
52 with it and moves the intake portion of the
valve or collar 56 away from its seat 51. This
action serves to admit air imder pressure from
the reservoir i3 to chamber il and thence
through passage 62 to the motor'where the pres
sure iluid acts on diaphragm 32 causin'g the lat
ter. to exert a force to the left on connecting rod
24. A pressure differential is also set up be
tween the chamber $4 and the outer face of the
` piston 38 tending to force it and the push rod
1li to the left.
complete venting of the motor with the conse
quent quick' return of the parts to their original
position. -
In case of complete failure oi’ the power` motor,
the brake or clutch is manually" operated by the
lever il which fulcrums on the stub shaft 1I.
Concurrent manual and power operation may also
be effected with the lever fulcruming on shaft 1I.,
the motor and operator imparting a load on the
lever> above, the fulcrum. This condition may
exist when the maximum pressure of the ii'uid
motor is inadequate.
It is evident from thé above description that
during the normal operation of the mechanism,
that is with the motor at maximum eillciency, the
lever il functions intermittently as a lever of the
iirst and second class, the most appreciable fac
tors of the power input, namely the additive ef- _,
feet of the fluid motor and valve being offset by
the manual effort of the driver. in maintaining
rotational equilibrium about -the pivot I5. The
reactionary eñect of the valve and motor gives
the much desired "feel" by 'which the dover is »
We have then three forces acting on pedal
lever ilv about the pivot l5 as a fulcrum; the
counteracting force of the operato , through his
apprised at all times during the operation of the
mechanism, of the degree of power operation.
In other words, the greater the push upon the
lever M_ from the connecting rods 2l and 1l the
` equilibrium and the forces from the push rods greater the reaction upon the driver’s foot.
24 «and 1l of the power unit and valve respet- _
It may be desired however, to dispensé with
tively; When the additive eiïect of these three the reactive eiîect of the fluid _motor in which
forces is sumcientl to overcome the static friction case the connecting rod 2l is pivoted directly to
of the parts and also the static load of the clutch~ thepivotal mounting i5. 'I'his structurels dis
spring, the angular movement of the clutch closedinli'lgure'i. Itmayalsôbedesiredto
throw out crank II ensues, thus disengaging the employ the well-known vacuum of the intake
manifold of the motor as a meansV for obtaining
foot, tending to maintain the lever in rotational
"clutch spring only partially compressed such as
toeil'ect a slipping clutch.l or if a brake cross
the necessarypresure diñerential for effecting
fluid pressure operation of the motor. With this
-shaftisbeinsachlßœdin linen of the clutch. and
means fox- actuating the motor a modified form
of valve is necessary and one embodiment'of such
.by the operator retaining his
foot momentarily stationary, whereupon air will
valve`is disclosed in Figure 6. This structure
70 partial application of the brake is desired, this
conünue to enter by the valve seat 51 until it
embodiesavalvecasingll rigidlysecuredtothe
motor housing, the casing being provided with a '
forces diaphragm I2 to the left suillciently` to bracket 80 pivotally'- mounting a lever 82. The
valveroduisp_ivotallysecuredtooneendofu move' thelower end of lever I4 to the left per~
v said lever, the other end having a loose connec
tion with the wrist pin oi’ a valve piston Il.
A valve member It, slotted in its central por
tion at I8, is constructed at its ends to form in
take and exhaust valves respectively. With vthe
valve mechanism inoperative. that/is, with the
.clutch engaged, the position of the parts is as
disclosed in Figure 6, the exhaust valve being
slightly open or spaced from its seat in the hub?
10 portion of the valve pistonll.
Upon actuation of the valve through'the move
subjected to the pressure of the fluid conducted
to and from said motor and thereby offering a re
sistance to said relative pivotal movement _in a
degree proportional to the power required to op
erate said vehicle controlling member,
2. Powerl operating mechanism comprising in 10
combination’ with an angularly movable member
ment of rod ‘III and lever l2 the valve piston 8l
to be actuated, a shaft -ior mounting one end of -
is moved to the left ñrst closing the exhaust valve
and thereafter moving the valve member 86 bod
ily to the left to open the intake valve at its seat
89. The leit kside of the servo motor is then
said member, a manually controlled lever mem
ber pivotally mounted intermediate the ends
thereof on said “actuated member, one end ofsaid 16
lever member having a lost motion .connection
if placed in circuit, through the Aintermediary'ot
port 90," valve chamber 9,2 and -duct 94, with the
induction source to' create a'vacuum in the motor,
movement, and a pressure responsive element as- v
sociated with said yvalve means anddirectly and
non-yieldingly connected with said one end of
the lever, said pressure-responsive element being
with said shaft, a iluid motor operatively con
nected with said actuated member, ôand a valvel
structure directly 'connected `to _said lever mem
the said source- preferably being the intake mani-_ b'er and operated during relative pivotal move 20
'ment o! the latter with respect to said actuated
Should the valve controlling pedal il be held member~ to take up said lost motion. said valve
constant, the valve mechanism automatically lapsv controlling the ilowof ñuid to and from the mo
Ioldïoi the’ehgine. "
by virtue of the pressure differential acting on the > tor and adapted to maintain iiuid therein to hold A
valve piston together with thel eil’ect of the motor
connecting rod movement as previously de
scribed. This lapping eñect is manifested by the
movement of the valve piston together with the
valve member ß bodily to the right to seat the
30 intake valve without however opening the ex
haust valve.
Further increments of clutch release pressure
may be had by continuing the application of the
valve to again open the intake valve. Upon re
lease of the pedal i4, the intake valve seats and
the exhaust valve opens to admit air under at
mosphericvpressure to the heretofore evacuated
left side of the motor, thereby establishing an
equilibrium of pressures in the servo motor to
engage the clutch.
With this structure, the' effect on the clutch
mechanism isv exactly the same as with the air or
pressure operated valve mechanism heretofore
described. The rod 24 is placed under compres
said angularly movable member in a predeter
minedposition, said valve including a pressure
responsive element directly and ynon--yieldingly
connected to said lever 4member and subjected
to the pressure of the fluid conducted to and from .
said motor and thereby oii'ering a resistance to. 80
said relative pivotal movement in a degree pro
portional to the power required to actuate said ’
angularly, movable member.'
3. Power operated apparatus for motor ve'- ' `
hicles comprising a vehicle controlling element,
means for operating said element comprising lan
angularly movable arm directly connected at one
end thereof to- saidelement, a servo-motor hav
ing a power'operated member operatively con
nected with said arm at a point spaced from the
connection between the latter eand said element
_to effect angular movement of the'arm, valve
means for controlling the admission and exhaust , -
of fluid to and from said servo-motor and for
45 sion to actuate the clutch >from the servo motor ' maintaining ñuid therein to hold said >element in
a predetermined position, means for controlling
said valve means comprising a manually operable
lever pivotally mounted intermediate'I its ends on
said arm, means for directly and non-yieldingly
the driver-of the degree of clutch application.
While we have illustrated and described some- < connecting one end of said manually operable
lever to said valve means, means associated with
what in detail several embodiments of o_ur inven
tion. itis not our intention to limit the scopeïfof said last named end for positively limiting _the
the- invention to tlieseparticular embodiments or extent of pivotal movement oi' said manually op
otherwise than by the terms ~of the appended ' erable lever with respect to said arm, and- means
including a pressure responsive -element associ
ated with said valve means, connected with said
and it is furthermore to be noted that the vac
uum control valve structure provides the same
desired \“ieel" as heretofore described to apprise
1. Power operated apparatusî for motor ve
'connecting means and subjected to the pressure .
of the ñuid conducted to and from said servo
motor when said valve means is operated in re
sponse to relative pivotal movement oi' the man
cluding a motor having a movable power-oper
operable lever with respect to said arm, said
ated element' operatively connected with said, ually
pressure responsive element thereby offering' a`
hicles comprising 'a vehicle controlling member,
means for operating said member by power in
Y member, valve means for controlling the passage
of motive iluid to and from said motor and for
'maintaining .fluid therein to hold _said member in
65 a predetermined position, a valve operating lever
~ -pivotally- mounted intermediate the ends thereof
on said vehicle controlling member, one end of
resistance to said relative pivotal movement in a
degree proportional to the power required to op
erate said vehicle controlling element.
4. In a power controlling mechanism for motor
vehicles, a manually operable member, a vehicle
said fever being connected. with said valve means~ controlling element. a fluid motor operatively
connected to said element, means including a pair
to operate the latter during relative pivotal move
l members- for connecting’ 70
70 ment between1 said levei` and member, the other of pivotally-.conn
end of said lever being. adapted to_ be manually said manually operable member and element, and "
actuated to'eilfect said pivotal movement of said " valve means operable in response >to relative piv
lever with respect to said member, means posi ' otal' movement of one of said last namedmem- '
tioned adjacent the iirst named Iend of said lever bers withrespect to the other for controlling the
75 for limiting the-extent of said relative pivotal now ofl :duid to and 4from said motor and for
amd man 1o hold sind element
in a
positiomsaid valve means in
cluding a pressure-responsive element directly
intermediate its ends on said nrst member, means
for directly and non-yieldingly connecting'one
- and non-yieldingb connectedwithone of. said
end ot said manually operable lever to said valve
miro! members and subjected to the pressure of
the iiuid conducted to and from -said mòtorand
thereby oilering a resistance to,~ said relative piv-’
otal movement in a degree proportional to the
end for positively limiting the extent of pivotal
movement of said manually operable lever with
powìr’required toactuate said controllina‘ele
-. ing a manually operable lever pivotally mounted
means, means associated 'with said last-named
respect to said arm, and means including a pres
sure responsive element associated with -said `
valve means, connected with vsaid connecting
means and'subject to the' pressure of the iiuid
5. Power operated apparatus for motor ve
hicles comprising a vehicle controlling- elementi ' rconducted to and from said servo-motor when
means for operating- said element comprising a said valve means is operated in response to rela
'movable member, a ¿servo-motor having a power _-_tive pivotal movement of the manually operable
operated member Ioperatively connected with lever with respect to said iirst member. said pres
said movable vmember to eiiect movement oi the
sure-responsive element thereby oilerlng .a re
latter, valve means for controlling the admission sistance to -said relative pivotal movement in a
to opf
and exhaust of poweriiuid to »and from said -degree proportional tothe power
- - servo-motor and for maintaining duid therein to ' erate said vehicle controlling element. l
go’ hold said- elementin a predetermined position,
.Y -means for controlling saidvalve means compris
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