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Патент USA US2107171

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Feb. 3, 1938.
J. E‘ WALLING
2,107,171
SIGNALING SYSTEM FOR RAILROADS
Filed NOV
& 1936
Alvin
hi2
I
Patented Feb. 1, 1938
2,107,171
UNITED STATES PATEN?
FFI€E
2,107,171
SIGNALING SYSTEM FOR RAILROADS
Joseph E. Willing, Rochester, N. Y., assignor to
General Railway Signal Company, Rochester,
N. Y.
Application November 6, 1936, Serial No. 169,517
9 Claims.
This invention relates to signaling systems for
railroads of the so called coded track circuit
type, and more particularly to a system in which
the tra?lc governing apparatus is controlled by
energy from the track rails without the use of
line wires.
It is proposed in accordance with this inven
tion to provide a simpleand elfective organization
10
of relays and circuits for controlling the oper
ation of wayside signals upon the approach of
a train; more speci?cally an approach lighting
relay is provided which picks up when a train
enters its block, stays up as the train progresses
through the block despite the inclusion of a cod
‘ ing contact in series with the relay, and releases
upon the train entering the next block in ad
vance.
Variousadvantages, purposes and character
istic features of this invention will appear as the
20 description progresses, reference being made to
the accompanying drawing, showing, solely by
way of example and in no manner in a limiting
sense, one form which the invention may assume.
Referring to the accompanying drawing, the
invention is shown applied to a stretch of single
track over which traffic moves in the direction in
dicated by the arrow. The rails 4 of thetrack
Way are divided in insulated joints 5 into a plu
rality of track sections or blocks, the complete
apparatus for only one signal location being
shown in the drawing.
In considering the organization of parts associ
ated with each block in accordance with this in
vention, corresponding devices for the blocks l
and 2 shown are given corresponding numbers
with distinctive pre?xes. Each track section is
provided with a code following track relay OFT
connected across the rails at the entrance end
of the block and a two winding approach light
40
ing relay AL having its upper winding connected,
in series with a track battery B, a limiting re
sistance LR and a front contact 6 of a coded re
peating relay CPR, across the exit end of the
block.
The code following relay CFT operates suitable
decoding means to selectively energize code re
sponsive or decoder relays R188 and R15. This
decoding means may take any suitable form but
as shown comprises a transformer l, with its
primary having a mid tap connected to one ter
minal, (—), of a suitable source of direct cur
rent, the terminals of said primary being con
nected to the other, (+), terminal of the same
source of direct current through front and back
bi on contacts 8 of the code following relay CFT. The
(Cl. 246—41)
two secondaries of transformer 'i are connected
through double wave recti?ers 9 to the respective
decoder relays R'EE and R183, with condensers 11]
in the input circuits of these recti?ers propor
tioned to allow maximum uni-directional current
for the energization of the decoder relays to ?ow
when the code following relay CFT is energized
and deenergized at the rate of 75 and 180 times
per minute respectively, all in a manner char
acteristic of decoding means of this type, as shown
and described, for example, in the patent to W. D.
Hailes, No. 1,852,409, dated April 5, 1932, for a
Locomotive equipment.
The decoder relays R15 and R180 for each
block control the indications of a wayside block 15
signal S at the entrance to the corresponding
wayside block, a signal of the color light type
being illustrated, with control circuits governed
by front and back contacts l1 and 52 of said de
coder relaysv These decoder relays also control
through their contacts 13 and M a yellow and
green repeater relay YGP which relay, in turn,
controls the operation of the coding apparatus
associated with the block to the rear.
The coding apparatus at the exit end of each .
25
block comprises two coders or modulators of suit
able construction, arranged to intermittently close
contacts at the different code rates; and since it
is assumed that the track circuit is to be oper
ated by direct current each coder is preferably .
in the form of a device having an oscillating
and vibrating member operated by electro-mag
nets operated by direct current and actuating
contacts, as distinguished from a coder driven
by a polyphase or synchronous motor such as is - 35
commonly used where alternating current is
available. One form of oscillatory coder of the
type contemplated is disclosed, for example, in the
patent to P. N. Bossart, No. 1,858,876, dated May
17, 1932. For convenience in explanation it is
assumed that two codes, of rates of '75 and 180
per minute, will be used, which however are mere
1y typical for this purpose. These codes are pro
duced by coders or modulators, diagrammatically
illustrated as comprising magnets M75 and M180
respectively operating contacts C75 and C180.
The operating characteristics of the approach
lighting relay AL at the exit end of each block
are so adjusted or selected that, with no train
present in a block, the track circuit current-flow- "
ing from battery B through the upper winding of
relay AL and the code following relay CFT in
series is not sufficient to attract the armature of
this relay. However, when a train enters a track
section the shunting sheet of the Wheels and
2,107,171
axles increases the current through the upper
winding of relay AL to the extent that this relay
attracts its armature.
Each relay AL is provided with a stick circuit
including its lower winding, its own front contact
l5 and a front contact I6 of the YGP relay for
the block next in advance. The relays AL and
YGP also provide for approach lighting of sig
nals S.
The various circuits are shown conventionally,
10
with the symbols (+) and (—) indicating the
opposite terminals of the battery, or other suit
able source of direct current. The details of these
circuit connections are more conveniently con
15 sidered in describing the operation of the system.
In explaining the operation of the system upon
the approach of a train to display the proper
wayside indications, it will be assumed that the
parts located at the exit and entrance ends of ad
20 jacent blocks I and 2 respectively are in the posi
tions and conditions shown in the accompanying
drawing, which positions they will assume pro
vided a block is unoccupied and the two blocks
next in advance are unoccupied.
Assuming that no trains are present, under
these conditions, coder MISll at the exit end of
each block is energized, thereby operating its
coding contact CI8il to intermittently energize
the code repeater relay CPR. The intermittent
30 energization of relay CPR operates its contact
35
B-to apply energy from battery B at the 180 code
rate to the rails at the exit end of the correspond
ing block. This code energy operates the code
following relay CFT at the entrance end of the
block to pick up its associated decoding relay
R180 which in turn picks up relay YGP. The
closure of front contact I] of relay YGP starts
the coder MIBU to apply the 180 code to the block
in the rear, .and this procedure is repeated at the
remaining blocks in the rear and therefore, with
no trains present, each track circuit will be sup~
plied with energy at the 180 code rate.
It will also be noted that with no trains present
the signals G will be dark due to the fact that
the signal lighting circuit for each signal is open
at back contact IQ of relay YGP and front con
tact I8 of the approach lighting relay AL of the
block in the rear.
Thus, when a train enters block I for example,
with the conditions as described above, the shunt
ing effects of the train’s wheels and axles in
creases the current through the upper winding
of approach lighting relay IAL to the extent that
this relay attracts its armature and the relay is
held energized through its upper winding during
55
occupancy and while front contact 6 is closed,
and also through its stick circuit, previously de
scribed regardless of contact 6. The closure of
front contact I3 of relay IAL completes a circuit
60 for lighting the green lamp at signal 28. This cir
cuit may be traced from (+) battery, the front
contact II of relay 2RI8E], the G lamp, front
contact I8 of relay IAL to (—) battery.
When the train in question enters block 2 the
65 approach lighting relay EAL (not shown) picks
up and the same operation for lighting the green
lamp at signal its (not shown) is repeated, and
70
as the train progresses through the several blocks
the same action occurs at each block, provided
in each case twov blocks in advance are clear.
Considering the operation of the apparatus
when a train enters a block, as block 2 for ex
ample, the shunting effects of the wheels and
axles deprives the code following relay ZCFT
of energy causing it to close its back contact 8.
This applies steady energy to the primary of
transformer '1", thereby deenergizing decoding re
lays 2RI80 and 2315 and the opening of front
contacts I4 and I3 break the energizing circuits
for relay ZYGP. When relay 2YGP releases and
closes its back contact I9, a circuit is completed
for lighting the red lamp at signal 23. This clr—
cuit may be traced from (+) battery, back con
tact II of relay 2RI8B, back contact I2 of relay
2Rl5, the red lamp of signal 28, back contact I9 10
of relay ‘ZYGP to (—) battery.
The deenergization of relay ZYGP and the
subsequent closing of its back contact Il energizes
coder IMl?» through an obvious circuit to operate
the coding relay ICPR for applying energy at the 15
75 code rate to block I in a manner similar to that
previously described for applying the 180 code
rate. The code following relay ICFT at the en
trance end of block I will now operate at the 75
code rate to pick up the code relay IR'I5 (not
shown), and hence energize its associated relay
EYGP (not shown) to apply the 180 code rate
to the block to the rear of block I, all in a man
ner previously described. It is evident from the
foregoing that if no trains are present all the
blocks to the rear of block I will be supplied with
energy at the 180 code rate.
When a train moves out of block I and occupies
block 2, the current through the upper winding
of the approach lighting relay IAL is reduced to 30
its normal value, and as the relay ZYGP of block
2 is deenergized, its stick circuit is broken at con
tact 55 of said relay ZYGP. The IAL relay will
then release its armature which will remain in its
release position until the next train approaches;
in other words, the coded track circuit energy
supplied by battery IB is insu?icient to pick up
the armature of relay IAL or hold its armature up
when the relay’s stick circuit is broken. Also, it
is evident that when a train leaves block I, the .40
signal IS (not shown) at the entrance thereof
will become dark, providing the block next in
the rear is unoccupied, due to the fact that the
signal lighting circuit is broken at back contact
I9 of relay YGP (not shown) and front contact
I8 of relay AL of the block next to the rear of
block I.
A shunt circuit is provided for the upper wind
ing of the approach lighting relays AL which is
closed through a back contact 29 of the relay r
YGP of the block in advance. This shunt circuit
insures the armature of relay AL, as IAL, releas
ing and staying released as soon as the train
occupying block I has entered the next block.
Otherwise with the stick circuit for the relay I AL - >
broken at contact I6 of relay L‘YGP, energy at
the 75 code rate would cause intermittent pick
up and release of relay IAL until the train in
question had completely vacated block I.
The invention as illustrated provides for the 60
control of the indications of wayside signals, but
the same coded track circuit energy may be uti
lized for a train control or cab signal system.
When a train enters a block, a code relay CPR (i5
continues to operate, thereby maintaining cod
ing of the track rail current, even though such
coded current is unnecessary for the purpose of
controlling the indication of the wayside signal
at the entrance to the occupied block, this sig
nal indicating stop. As shown, the track rail
current is pulsed or interrupted uni-directional
current and locomotive equipment can be used
which is adapted to respond to such rail current,
in the manner disclosed, for example, in the
2,107,171
‘patent to W. ‘D. Hailes, 'No. 1,914,329, granted
June 13, 1933.
If desired, alternating current of a suitable
frequency, such as 100 cycles, may be superim
posed on the pulsed'direct current for train con
“trol or cab "signal purposes and in this'connec
tion the back contact 6 of the code relay CPR
may be utilized to provide a substantially closed
track circuit, that is, one closed all the time ex
10 cept when contact 6 is moving from one point
to the other, it being understood that the alter
nating current ‘would ‘be applied between con
tact 6 and the track rails.
These and various other adaptations and ap
15 plications of the invention have not been speci?
cally illustrated, but it should be recognized that
the approach control means of ‘this invention
may be utilized in connection vwith various types
and ‘forms of systems employing coding appa
20
ratus.
.
The above rather speci?c description of one
form of the present invention is given solely by
way of example, and is not intended, in any man
ner whatsoever, in a limiting sense.
It is also
to be understood that various modi?cations,
adaptations, and alterations may be employed in
practicing the invention without in any way de
parting from the spirit or scope of the invention
except as limited by the appended claims.
30
What I claim is:—
'
1. An approach control system for coded track
circuits comprising; in combination with a plu
rality of track sections each having a signal; a
source of current and a coding device for con
35 trolling the supply of current to the track rails
of the corresponding section from said source to
conform with distinctive codes each comprising
a plurality of current impulses, a series relay for
each track section included in series with its
40 source of current and effectively energized by
the increase in the current above that normally
supplied to the track rails caused by the pres
ence of a train; said relay when effectively ener
'3
conform with distinctive codes, a series relay for
each track section included in series with its
source of current and effectively energized bythe
increase in the current above that normally sup
plied to the track rails and caused by the pres- L
ence of a train, said relay when effectively en
ergized automatically initiating operation of the
signal next in advance, and a stick circuit for
each of said relays controlled by tra?ic condi
tions in advance to remain closed regardless of 10
the application of code to its track section.
4. An approach control system for coded track
circuits comprising, in combination with a plu
rality of track sections each having a signal, a
source of current and a coding device for con
trolling the supply of current to the track rails
of the corresponding section from said source to
conform with distinctive codes, a series relay for
each track section included in series with its
source of current and effectively energized by
the increase in the current above that normally
supplied to the track rails and caused by the
presence of a train, said relay when effectively
energized automatically initiating operation of
the signal next in advance, a signal repeating’: ‘
relay energized except when the signal is at stop,
and a stick circuit for each of said series relays
including a front point of the signal repeating
relay for the track section next in advance,
whereby said series relay is maintained energized :30
in spite of intermittent deenergization of the
track circuit by said coding device.
5. An approach control system for coded track
circuits comprising, in combination with a plu
rality of track sections each having a signal, ac35
source of current and a coding device for inter
rupting the supply of current to the track rails
of the corresponding section supplied from said
source to conform with distinctive codes, a series
relay for each track section having one winding 40
included in series withits source of current and
effectively energized by the increase in current
above that normally supplied to the track rails
gized automatically initiating operation of the
and caused by the presence of a train, said re
signal next in advance; and a stick circuit for
lay when eifectively energized automatically ini
tiating operation of the signal next in advance,
a signal repeating relay energized except when
each of said relays controlled by traffic in ad
vance thereof for maintaining said relay ener
gized While said source of current is, between
code impulses, temporarily disconnected from
the track rails.
2. An approach control system for coded track
circuits comprising; in combination with a plu
rality of track sections each having a signal; a
source of current and a coding device for con
trolling the supply of current to the track rails
of the corresponding section from said source to
conform with distinctive codes; a series relay for
each track section included in series with its
source of current and effectively energized by
60 the increase in the current supplied to the track
rails caused by the presence of a train; said re
the signal is at stop, a stick circuit for another
winding of each of said series relays including a
front point of the signal repeating relay for the 50
track section next in advance, and a shunt con
nected across the said one winding of each series
relay and closed upon the opening of the said
stick circuit, whereby each of said series relays
is assured of being deenergized when its stick
circuit is opened.
6. An approach control system for coded track
circuits comprising, in combination with a series
of track sections each having a signal, a source
of current and a coding device for controlling the 60
supply of current to the track rails of the corre
sponding section from said source to conform
lay when effectively energized automatically
initiating operation of the signal next in advance;
with distinctive codes, a series relay for each
and a stick circuit for each of said relays, to
track section included in series with its source
maintain it energized in spite of interruption of
the track circuit by said coding device, con
trolled by tra?‘ic- conditions in advance to remain
closed unless the block next in advance is oc
of current and effectively energized by the in
crease above normal of the current normally sup
plied to the track rails caused by the presence
of a train, said relay when effectively energized
cupied.
automatically initiating operation of the signal
3. An approach control system for coded track
circuits comprising, in combination with a plu
rality of track sections each having a signal, a
source of current and a coding device for con
next in advance, a signal repeating relay ener 70
gized except when the signal is at stop, a stick
circuit for each of said series relays including a
front point of the signal repeating relay for the
trolling the supply of current to the track rails
of the corresponding section from said source to
track section next in advance, and a shunt con
nected across the series relay and closed through 75
4
2,107,171
a back point of the signal repeater relay of the
opening said track circuit to characterize a code,
section next in advance, whereby each of said
series relays is assured of being deenergized when
its stick circuit is broken.
7. An approach control system for coded track
circuits comprising, in combination with a series
of track sections each having a signal, a source
of current and a coding device for controlling
the supply of current to the track rails of the
10 corresponding section from said source by inter
mittent interruptions of the track circuit to con
form with distinctive codes, a series relay for
each track section included in series with its
source of current, said series relay normally as
suming its deenergized condition and assuming
its energized condition upon increase of the track
circuit current caused by the presence of a train,
said relay when in its energized condition auto
a series relay included in series with each source
adjusted to normally assume a deenergized con
dition and to assume an energized condition upon
matically initiating operation of the signal next
20 in advance, a stick circuit for each of said relays
controlled by trai?c conditions in advance to re
main closed unless the block next in advance is
occupied, and a shunt connected across the series
relay and closed upon occupancy of the block
25 next in advance, whereby said series relay will
when once in its energized condition remain ener
gized in spite of intermittent interruption of
said track circuit during occupancy of said sec
tion so long as said block next in advance is
30 unoccupied but will be deenergized upon occu
pancy of said block next in advance.
8. In a railwaysignaling system of the coded
track circuit type, the combination with a rail
way track divided into blocks by insulating joints,
a track circuit for each block including a code
following track relay and a source of current,
a coding contact in each track circuit at the
source end of such track circuit for intermittently
occupancy of the track circuit at least during
the period when the associated coding contact
is closed, means for holding said series relay
energized during open periods of said coding
contact and during unoccupancy of the block
next in advance and for shunting said series 10
relay during occupancy of the next block in ad
vance, and a signal at the entrance to the next
block in advance having a control circuit in
cluding a front contact of said series relay and
controlled by the track relay of the next block
in advance.
9. In a railway signaling system, the combina
tion with a railway track divided into blocks by
insulating joints, a track circuit for each block
including in series a track relay at the entrance 20
end and a source of current at the exit end, a '
series relay included in series with said source
and adjusted to be effectively energized only dur
ing occupancy of such block, a normally dark
signal at the entrance to each block, a clear
circuit for each signal including a front con
tact of the series relay of the next block in the
rear and controlled by traflic conditions in ad
vance, and a stop circuit for each signal closed
independently of the condition of the series re- >
lay of the next block in the rear and controlled
by tra?ic conditions of the associated block,
whereby approach lighting is provided for the
signal when indicating clear and the stop signal
is lighted independently of the approach of a
train so that failure of the approach lighting’
control will not result in a dark stop signal.
JOSEPH E. WILLING.
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