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Патент USA US2107231

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Feb. 1, 1938.
l’ 2,107,231 l*
, Filed Feb. 2, 1937
Patented Feb. 1, 1938
Joseph R. Bittner, Philadelphia, Pa., assigner to
Griflìth Tool Works, Philadelphia, Pa., a part
nership composed 0f Paul A. Griiïìth, Edward
J. Griñith, Charles F. Griiñth, and William
K. Wilson
Application February 2, 1937, Serial No. 123,653
z claims.
This invention relates to improvements in
wrenches, and more particularly to wrenches of
the general character shown in U. S. Patent No.
One object of the invention is to provide a
Wrench of this type which shall be more efñcient
functionally and more durable than the wrenches
of the prior art.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
Wrench of generally improved structural charac
teristics and one that is more susceptible to
manufacture at a reasonably low expense.
The invention further resides in certain struc
tural and mechanical details hereinafter de
15 scribed and illustrated in the attached drawing,
in which:
(Cl. 81-97)
embracing the opposite faces of the shank. Reg
istering apertures 3 and 9o; are provided in the
shank and in the extensions 8, 3 of the jaw for
reception of a pin l I which positively secures the
jaw 2 to the shank. It will be noted that the
outer extremity I2 of the shank at the inner
side is provided with an outwardly curved sur
face I3 which ñts a reversely curved seat I4 on
the jaw 2, thereby affording an extended bear
ing between the shank and the jaw directly op 10
posing the line of normal thrusts. The afore
described construction provides a highly eñlcient
detachable jaw assembly of great strength, and
has the further advantage of facilitating the
process of manufacture.
The carrier 3 is of U-shape, as illustrated, and
Figure 1 is a side View of a wrench made in ac~
embraces the rear side and both faces of the
shank, The jaw t is pivotally mounted upon a
pin I5 which extends between and is riveted in the
tural details;
flanges of the carrier. At its inner end the jaw 20
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary front view of the ll is provided with a tail extension I3, which is
adapted to bear against the inner side of the
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3-3, Fig. 1;
shank I, and this tail I6 is provided with a round
Fig. 4 is a detached perspective View of the rela- ' ed portion I‘I which as hereinafter described
tively ñxed jaw element;
functions as a floating fulcrum for the jaw 25
Fig. 5 is a View in perspective of the terminal against the shank. The pawl 6, in the present
end of the shank to which the relatively fixed instance, is pivotally mounted intermediate its
jaw is attached;
ends upon a pin I8 which extends between and is
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrat
riveted in the ñanges of the carrier 3. The upper
ing a function of the wrench, and
extension I 9 of the pawl is provided at its inner 30
Fig. 7 is a similar View illustrating a further . side with a projecting boss 2l which supports the
detail of operation.
outer end of a coiled spring 22, the inner end of
With reference to the drawing, a wrench made this spring bearing against the tail portion I6
in accordance with my invention comprises a of the jaw 4. When thus interposed under com
shank I, a relatively fixed jaw 2 at one end of the pression between the upper end I9 of thepawl 35
shank, and a carrier 3 which is slidable longi
lever and the tail I6 of the jaw, the Spring exerts
tudinally of the shank and upon which is mount
pressure to resiliently force both the tail I6 and
ed a relatively movable jaw 4. The inner side of the pawl 6 against the inner side of the shank.
the shank I, i. e., that side from which the jaws By pressing the extension I9 of the pawl, as shown
40 2 and 4 project, is provided with a series of
in Fig. 7, the pawl proper is retracted from the 40
ratchet teeth 5, and mounted on the carrier 3 teeth of the shank I and the carrier 3 is thereby
is a pawl B which by engagement with the teeth freed for adjustment on the shank. Preferably
5 of the shank is adapted to maintain the carrier the teeth 5 of the shank are so formed that the
in adjusted position longitudinally of the shank. pawl 6 may slide over these teeth when the car
cordance with my invention, a portion of the
wrench being cut away to disclose certain struc
The sliding movement of the carrier on the shank
away from the fixed jaw is limited by means for
example of a screw I 0 in the carrier and a screw
engaging pin Illa on the shank.
In the present instance, and in accordance with
my invention, the end of the shank I to which is
attached the relatively ñxed jaw 2, is provided
rier 3 is forced upwardly on the shank toward 45
the jaw 2.
The spring 2| functions also through the tail
I6 of the jaw II and through the pawl E to main
tain the carrier 3 in a normal position as shown
in Fig. 1 wherein the carrier bears flatly against 50
the outer side of the shank. It is apparent, how
at each side with a transverse recess or Way l,
ever, that aside from this resilient pressure ex
see Fig. 5, which are adapted to receive spaced
extensions 8, 8 at the rear of the jaw 2, these ex
erted by the spring 2|, the carrier is free for lim
ited movement away from the outer side of the
tensions snugly ?ltting the ways ‘I and closely
Such movement of the carrier 3 with 55
respect to the shank is shown, for example, in
Fig. 6, wherein it will be noted that by reason of
a movement of the shank I around a pipe 23 en
gaged between the jaws 2 and 4 and in the direc
tion indicated by the arrow, the carrier has Vbeen
tiltedV upon the shank from its normal position,
this tilting occurring around the lower edge 3a of
the carrier as a fulcrum.
It is apparent that in
this tilting of the carrier 3 the pivot pin I5 sup
porting the jaw 4 has been moved toward the
relatively fixed jaw 2, and that the movable jawy
the inner side of the shank, results not only in
the aforedescribed reduction in the direct strains
imposed upon the pivot pins and in a more uni
form distribution of the strains, but also, by rea
son of the relatively great scope of movement of
the movable jaw toward the ñxed jaw, avoids al1V
tendency of the jaws to slip on> the pipe.
1. A wrench comprising a shank having a lat
eral jaw at one end projecting from the inner
side of the shank, said shank having teeth onr
4 has been correspondingly moved in the same
said inner side, a U-shaped carrier slidable on the
shank, said carrier embracing the outer side and
faces of the shank and being free for transverse
movement away from the said outer side, a mov
able jaw pivoted on said carrier for movement
toward and away from the shank and having a
It will be noted also that in this
movement of the jaw 4 from the normal position,
as shown in Fig.Y l, toward the position in which
it is shown in Fig. 6, there has been an additional
movement of the jaw 4 about its pivot I5, and that
accordingly the total movement of the `jaw 4 to
ward the jaw 2, during which the pipe 23 has been
clamped with increasing pressure, is compounded
of the movement of the jaw 4 about its pivot
and of the movement of the carrier 3 around the
fulcrum point 3a. It Awill ybe noted further that
at all times during this movement, the rounded
portion I1 of the tail I6 of the jaw 4 is in ñrm
contact with the inner side of theY shank. By
means of this compound movement, the effective
pressure of the jawsupon the pipe 23 isV mate
rially increased over what would, result from a
tail end portion extending beyond the pivot and
adapted to engage the innerA side of the shank, a
thumb lever pivoted intermediate its ends to the
carrier and formed at one end as a pawl for en
gagement with the teeth of said shank to retain
the carrier in adjusted position longitudinally of
the shank, and a spring interposed betweenV the
other end ofV said lever and thev edge of said mov
able jaw and exerting pressure »to force both said
tail and said pawl against the inner sideof the
shank and tending also to resiliently retain the
carrier in a normal position of engagement with
the outer side of the shank.
2. A wrench comprisinga shank having a lat
eral jaw atV one end projecting from the inner side
of 'the shank, said shank having teeth on said
inner side, a .U-shaped carrier slidable on the
Y sembly, and are not imposed solely upon the pins ' shank, said carrier embracing the outer side and "
simple movement of Vthe jaw on its pivot, and at
the same time the stresses imposed upon the jaw
4, the carrier 3, and the pawl 6, and upon the
pins I5 and I8 which support the said jaw andV
pawl, are in eiîect distributed throughout the as
faces of the shank and being free for transverse
prior devices wherein the carrier is mounted upon movement away from the said outer side, a mov
the shank so as to be incapable of any movement able jaw pivoted on said carrier for Vmovement
toward and'away from the-shank and 'having a
other than longitudinally ofthe shank.
In the latter type of assembly, i. e., where the tail end portion extending beyond _the pivot land 4.0V
carrier is ñxed against lateral movement on'the adaptedto engage the inner side of the shank,Ía
shank, the action of the movable jaw in gripping pawl movably mounted on the carrier and adapt
ed for engagement with the teeth of said shank
a pipe occurs necessarily on a relatively small
' radius, and as the jaw Wedges inwardly'under the to retain the carrier in adjusted position longi
tudinally of the shank, and resilient meansforl 45
45 pipe the strain», which falls entirely on the pivot
Vnormally retainàing the tail of said movable jaw
pin, isY severe.Y Ina wrench constructed in 'ac
and said pawl in engagement with the inner side“
Yc'ordanee with my invention, a part of the mov
of said shank,.said resilient means tending also able jaw action occurs on the relatively long radi
us Ycentering at the lower edge 3a Vof the'carrier, to resiliently retain thecarrier in a normal posi
and the action on the shorter radius is materially tion of engagement with the outer side of'the 50,
reduced.Y This 1fact, coupled with the continu
ous solid pivotal bearing of the movable jaw upon
Vwhich carry the jaw and the pawl as in those
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