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Патент USA US2107267

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Filed March 14"., 1936 _
1' Ln.
2/ ,
Patented Feb. 8, 1938
Carl P. Astrom, East Orange, N. J.
Application March 14, 1936, vSerial No. 68,954
4 Claims. (01. 22-81)
This invention relates to ladles and particu
larly to ladles of the tubular open top type such
as are used for the handling and transportation
of molten materials in and around steel plants.
For the handling of molten materials, espe
cially molten iron and steel, various types of
ladles have heretofore been suggested and used.
Qne type of widely used ladle comprises essen
tially a tubular shell or body, bottom and trun
10 nions secured at diametrically opposed points
upon the shell or body at or near the upper
or open end thereof. Ladles of this type are
frequently designed so as to have the capacity
to receive large quantities of molten metal and
15 are hence of large size and great weight. The
structure of the ladle must be such that it is
able not only to resist the outward pressure of
the metal which the ladle contains when charged
but also to resist distortion due to the applica
20 tion of lifting forces to the trunnions. As is
well-known, the outwardly projecting trunnions
to which the crane‘ hooks are attached tend to
tilt upwardly when lifting forces are applied
thereto and to twist or distort those portions
25 of the shell of the ladle to which they are se
ladle to oppose distortion of the shell when lift.
ing forces are applied at the trunnions. As a
result of making use of the outwardly directed
forces developed by the contained molten, mate
or other
of theliquid,
shell to
of resist
the ladle
may becertain
of considerably lighter section than would other~
wise be necessary, without sacri?ce of effective
strength and with substantial savings in ?rst cost.
Likewise, substantial savings are also realized l0
throughout the useful life of the ladle due to
the fact that less power than otherwise neces
sary need be used to lift and transport it, whether
it be full or empty.
the invention are set forth by way of example "
and still further forms may readily be devised.
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a side view of one form of ladle
embodying the invention;
vated and to distort the tubular shell of the ladle,
30 this being due to the fact that the center of
gravity of the load is intermediate the trunnions.
Various expedients have heretofore been resorted
to to render ladles of this type entirely rigid
under the action of lifting hooks applied to the
35 trunnions but in each instance where a satis
factory degree of rigidity has been obtained it
has been obtained by greatly thickening certain
portions of the walls of the container or by
providing the container shell with circumferen
40 tially extending reinforcing or supporting mem
bers of very substantial design, the weight of
the ladle being thereby rendered much greater
than would be necessary were it only required
to provide a shell of sufficient rigidity to with
45 stand the internal pressure of its liquid contents.
It is the object of the present invention to
provide a ladle of great strength and rigidity
but which at the same time is lighter and less
expensive to construct and manipulate than
ladles of the same capacity of other types here
tofore designed or suggested, In carrying out
the invention various mechanical expedients may
be resorted to but each embodiment of the inven
tion is so constructed as to make use of the
55 internal pressure of the liquid contents of the
Figure‘ 2 is likewise a side elevation of the same
ladle but viewed from a different point, 90°re
moved from the point from which the ladle shown
in Figure 1 is used;
Figure 3 is a section on line 3—3 of Figure 1; .25
Figures ll and 5 are views similar to Figures 1’
cured. Likewise, the application of lifting forces
to the trunnions tends to cause the trunnions to
move toward each other when the ladle is ele
In the accompanying drawing two forms of "15
and 2 but illustrate a second form of ladle con
structed in accordance with the invention;
Figures 6 and '7 are diagrammatic views, Fig
ure 6 illustrating diagrammatically the condition , 30
of the ladle shell when empty and resting upon‘ ‘
its bottom, and Figure '7 illustrating the same
shell when charged and elevated by the trun
Each form of the ladle illustrated includes a,_35
tubular shell, this shell being closed at one end‘
by a bottom member, the opposite- end being
open. In Figures 1, 2 and 3 the tubular shell
is indicated generally at H] and is seen to com
prise diametrically opposed, relatively thick plates 40
and diametrically opposed, relatively thin ‘
plates !2, intermediate the plates ll, the adja—
cent edges of the plates II and i2 being welded
together in a suitable manner.
The bottom is
indicated at IS, the edge of this bottom being. 45
welded to the inner face of the shell adjacent
the lower end thereof.
Trunnions are indicated at M, these trunnions
being secured to the plates H at points adja
cent the upper ends of these plates, preferably 50
having their inner ends tightly ?tting in circular
apertures formed in the plates and being ?rmly
secured in such positions by welding. Encircling
the trunnions and positioned just outside of the
ladle shell are cast metallic trunnion supporting, 55
pads I5 also welded to plates II, respectively,
be of considerably less thickness than would-be
these pads being designed and intended to assist
in rigidly securing the trunnions to plates II.
struction is therefore to provide a ladle which is
otherwise required.
The net result of the con
Encirclingthe shell I0, and disposed in parallel
highly resistant to strain and deformation while
horizontal planes, are the two bracing ribs I6,
these ribs being welded to the surface of the
shell and also to the trunnion pads I5. It will
given capacity. It will be appreciated that the
be perceived from Figures 1 and 2 that the stiff
ened elements or plates I I, while extending com
10 pletely to the bottom of the ladle, do not extend
all the way to the top, terminating just above
the trunnions I4. The portion ll of the shell
which lies above the upper edge of each of the
stiffened elements or plates II is relatively thin,
15 as shown in Figure 2, and may comprise portion
of either or both plates I2 or a separate plate,
welded to the upper edge of the plate II imme
diately below.
In the form of the invention shown in Figures
20. 1, ,2 and 3, the diametrically opposed plates II
are relatively thick as compared with the plates
I2, and are substantially rectangular as shown
in Figure 1. The thickness of these side plates
will vary with the size and capacity of the ladle
25 but in every instance should be such as to sub
stantially resist deformation between the trun
nions and the bottom I3 when lifting forces are
applied to the trunnions. In other words, inas
much as the lower edges of these plates or stiff
so ened elements II are secured to and held in
spaced relationship by the bottom I3 of the ladle,
the bottom edges are therefore relatively immov
able and the elements I I have such thickness that
no substantial deformation thereof occurs when
the ladle and its contents are lifted by crane
hooks. Each of the plates I2, therefore, performs
not only the function of retaining the lining of the
ladle and resisting the outward pressure of the
molten contents when loaded, but likewise func
tions as a relatively stiff and und-istortable beam
anchored at its lower end to the bottom I3 and
movable, if movable at all, only about its lower
edge when transverse distortion of the ladle shell,
between the trunnions, occurs.
As is well-known, all metallic structures when
subjected to load will distort through measurable
amounts and in the diagrammatic Figure 7 of the
drawing a ladle such as the one illustrated in de
tail in Figures 1, 2 and 3 is shown as being dis
torted to a greatly exaggerated extent under
load, the undistorted ladle being diagrammati
cally illustrated in Figure 6. Thus, due to the
application of lifting forces, the trunnions have
moved slightly toward each other, carrying with
them the upper edges of the beam-like relatively
stiff plates II, which plates or‘ beams will have
only insigni?cant distortions due to their heavy
construction. .The amount of inward de?ection
of the upper ends of the plates II will be greatly
60 minimized, however, due to the outwardly di
rected and opposing pressure of the contained liq
uid, the pressure of the liquid being effective to
resist or oppose the inward deflection of the plates
II over the entire areas of these plates, as will
be readily apparent.
This being the case, it is readily apparent that,
in order to reduce the distortion‘ due to lifting to
the absolute minimum, it is only necessary to
brace the upper ends of the beam-like plates II
apart by metallic members of much lighter weight
at the same time having a minimum weight for a
beam-like plates II may be formed in various
shapes, that the members chosen for bracing the
upper edges of these plates apart may be formed
differently and that the lower edges of the plates
may likewise be braced apart by means other
than the bottom I3. The lining of the ladle is
indicated by the chain lines I3 and this lining
may be of conventional character.
In the form of the invention illustrated in
Figures 4 and 5 the shell 20 is of uniform thick~
ness throughout and the trunnions 21 are attach
ed by radially extending arms 22 to the spaced
vertically extending beams 23, respectively, and to
the cross bracing 24 and the circumferentially ex
tending ring 25, the several parts being prefer
ably welded to each‘ other and to the shell 20 of
the ladle. The beam members 23 extend to the
bottom of the ladle, which is indicated at 26 and
preferably also extend to the top, although they 25
may terminate short of the top if desired. The
effect of the beams 23 is to render the diagram
matically opposed sides of the shell 29 to which
they are immediately attached substantially un- , _
distortable and to cause these opposed portions of '30
the shell to move, if they move at all, when the
welded ladle is lifted by the trunnions, about the
points of intersection of these portions with the
portion 26. This inwardly swinging movement of ._ ,
the opposing sides of the ladle shell is resisted by
the outwardly acting pressure of the metal, ex
actly as in the case of the first form of the in
vention described, and the pressure of the molten
metal is therefore made use of to resist and‘
minimize distortion of the metallic parts of the‘ 40
ladle. Hence it is possible to make the ladle shell
20 of minimum thickness for any speci?ed capac
ity of ladle and the transverse upper bracing
means, whether it be a ring such as indicated at .. ,
25, or other bracing device, may be very consider 45
ably reduced in size and weight.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art
that the two forms of the invention described in
detail and illustrated in the accompanying draw- g
ing are set forth by way of example only and that, '50
in adapting the principle of the invention, to
ladles-intended to perform the different functions
which they are required to perform in and around
steel plants, various types of speci?c structures .
may be evolved and used.
An improvement which I ?nd useful when ap
plied to all designs of ladles of the open topped
type is also illustrated in the drawing. This
improvement comprises the slag and molten metal
deflecting member 30, a narrow plate encircling
the ladle shell and suitably secured thereto at
points above and spaced from the upper rib or
ring I6. Member 30 is downwardly and outward
ly inclined as shown and prevents any hot slag 65
or metal spilling over the upper edge of the ladle
from falling upon and overheating the upper ring
I6. Devices of this general character have been
employed heretofore but, when used, have been
mounted upon the upper rings instead of upon 70
than would be required were the pressure of the
metal not made use of to resist this distortion.
the bodies or shells of the ladles with which they
are associated. ‘By mounting the deflecting mem
The circumferentially extending strengthening
ribs I6, therefore, may be relatively light in
cross-section and the intermediate plates I2 may
heating of the ring does not occur even though ,
ber 30 above the ring, and spaced therefrom,
the de?ecting member itself may become highly
heated, thus preventing overheating and weak
ening of the upper ring.
Having thus described the invention, what is
having a closed end and an open end, a bottom,
a tubular shell or side Wall comprising opposed
claimed as new and desired to be secured by Let
ters Patent is:
1. A ladle comp-rising a tubular metallic shell
having a bottom and an open top, the tubular
longitudinally extending trunnion supporting
plates extending from the bottom toward the 5
open end, and intermediate plates welded to said
?rst mentioned plates and to the bottom, and
opposed trunnions attached, respectively, to the
said trunnion supporting plates at points remote
from the bottom, the trunnion bearing plates be 10
ing sui?ciently stiif to substantially resist dis
wall of the shell having vertically extending
trunnion carrying portions on opposite sides
10 thereof and intermediate portions connecting the
trunnion carrying portions, the trunnion carry
ing portions having their lower ends attached to
and spaced apart by the bottom and being indi
vidually substantially resistant to flexure under
15 the in?uence of lifting forces applied at the trun
nions, and the intermediate portions, not sub
jected to such forces, being of lighter construc
2. A ladle of the built-up type comprising a
tubular shell open at the top and having a bot
tom closure, diametrically opposed trunnions ad
jacent the top of the shell, relatively thick di
ametrically opposed plates to the upper ends of
which the trunnions are attached, respectively,
said plates comprising portions of the shell and
having their lower ends secured to the bottom,
said plates being substantially inflexible under the
influence of lifting forces applied at the trun
nions, and other plates of lighter construction
3. In a built-up welded ladle of tubular type
connecting the aforementioned plates.
tortion thereof at the trunnions and intermedi
ate the trunnions and bottom due to the appli
cation of lifting forces at the trunnions, and in
termediate plates being of lighter section.
4. A ladle of the built-up type comprising a
tubular shell open at the top and having a bot
tom closure, diametrically opposed trunnions ad
jacent the top of the shell, and members to which
the trunnions are rigidly secured, respectively, 20
extending vertically downwardly from the trun
nions to the ladle bottom, the lower ends of said
members being rigidly maintained in ?xed spaced
relationship by the bottom structure, and said
members being subtantially inflexible under the 25
in?uence of lifting forces applied at the trun
nions, the other portions of the ladle, not sub
jected to such forces, being of lighter construc
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