Патент USA US2107320код для вставки
Feb. 8, 1938. G. F. zELLHoEFER " 2,107,320 REFRIGERATION Filed Deo. 5, 1955 r 2 _Sheets-Sheet 2 w N N INVENTOR.` GMW/v F. 25u H05/’5R ATTORNEY. Patented Feb. s, '193e 2,101,32tf- ' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ~ 2.107.320 asr'mGEasrxoN Glenn F.. Zellhoefer, Bloomington, Ill. Application December 5, 1935, Serial No. 53,027 a claims. v(on. «sz-11s) This invention relates to improvements in re frigeration and more particularly to an absorp tion type of refrigeration apparatus. _ ` "I'he absorption type of refrigeration apparatus ' plication Serial No. '756,9'7'7,~ filed December 11, 1934 which has matured into Patent No. 2,040,895, granted May19, 1936, in an absorption refrigera tion system, a problem yarises in separating the 5 lincludes a gaseous refrigerant and a liquid sol- . solvent from the refrigerant before the gaseous 5 vent adapted-to form a solution with the gase _ refrigerant is discharged into the condenser dif ous refrigerant, and the-apparatus therefore in ferent from the conventional commercial am cludes an absorber in which the solution is formed, monia-water absorption apparatus. a heater within which the 'gaseous refrigerant The boiling point of the specified solvent‘is be 10 is boiled off or expelled, a rectifier through which tween 410° F. and 435° F. at atmospheric pres- 10 the expelledgaseous refrigerant passes on its sure, and the boiling point of the specified re way to a condenser wherein the refrigerant is> frigerant is between 49° F. and 50° F.- at atmos converted into a liquid, a cooling coil _or evapo pheric pressure. At 230° F. the vapor pressure of rator into which the liquid refrigerant is dis- , the solvent is approximately 20mm., and at 180° _ F. the- vapor pressure is approximately 1.5 mm. 15 gaseous state absorbing heat from the atmosphere From-this data it is seen that if the vapors of the 16 charged under reduced pressure to retur'n to the surrounding the cooling element, and means for solvent are cooled, after leaving the heater, to circulating the solution from the absorber to the , 180° F., it will -theoretically condense out essen . heater and returning both the solvent after the 20 refrigerant has been expelled in the heater and ' i the refrigerant vapors from the evaporator to the absorber. ‘ ‘ I v The rectifier is provided to free and. return to tially all of the solvent vapors under the operating _ conditions of the apparatus, which is ordinarily 20 between 25 and 30 lbs. o f pressure in the heater. This improved rectilìey is so constructed as to _ >provide sufficient eliminator surface 'through the heater such of the vaporous solvent or solu which the vapors pass and chill the vapors to _ gg tion in vapor form that may be carried over with ~ between 140° F. and 180° F. after they leave the 25 the boiled-offer expelled refrigerant before en tering the condenser. It is an object of this in vention to provide an improved rectifierfor- the purpose above stated. l ‘ ‘ heater, and then provide an additional elimi nator surface to insure thatV no particles of con--y densed solvent vapors carry over with the refrig S so erant vapors into the condenser. ' _With this and other objects in view, reference The embodiment of this invention illustrated 30 is made to the accompanying sheets of drawings >includes a cylindrical heater I mounting a plu-Y illustrating a form ofvthis improved rectiiler for rality of steam pipes 2 arranged between mani an absorption refrigeration apparatus Awith the folds 3 and t at the opposite ends of the heater understanding that minor changesmaybe made with the manifold 3 connected to the source of 3; withoutA departing from the scope thereof. steam,- not shown, by pipe 5. It is preferable to 35 In the drawings: I . ' - I ~ . mount the- manifold #i at a lower level than mani- ` Figure l is a view in> vertical transverse section ' fold -3 so thatthe condensate'` will drain from the taken through the end of an absorption‘refrigera >pipes Z-thereinto and from which the condensate tion> heater embodying the improved rectifier. as is removed by the pipe t leading from the bottom 40 on the 'lines i-i, Figure 2, showing'the nearI of said manifold. The manifolds 3 and ¿i are 40 manifold in elevation and with parts broken away. positioned within the heater sothat approximate Figure 2 is a view in central vertical longitudi ly one-third of the pipes 2 are above the longi nal section taken-on the line 2_2, Figure l. ' " . tudinal center-line and the pipes are preferably The heater and rectiñer illustrated form a provided with a plurality of closely spaced radi 4g part oi' the system of an absorption refrigeration ating fins in the form of plates l. ‘ I 45 apparatus auch as 'generally disclosed inthis ap A bank of nozzles for spraying the solution or plicant's ,prior co-pending application _Serial No. 'refrigerant mixture over the heater steam pipes 736,232, filed July 20,19%. whichshas matured 2 is provided in spaced-apart relation from the into PatentNo. v2,0lîiliß06, granted Nov. 24, 1936. top 'of the heater l by mounting a plurality of I so _It hasïbeen discovered when dichloromonoñuoro methane, or a“ chemical of similar _characteris tics, is used as the refrigerant.'and monoethyl >ether of diethyleneglycol acetate, or a chemical of similar characteristics, as the solvent,.as dis closed in this applicant’s prior co-pending ap nozzles t upon a series of parallel pipes 9 ex- 50 tending longitudinally of the heater from a mani fold illat one end‘thereof connected by pipe il to the source> of refrigerant mixture or solution . supply, n_ot shown. The rectiñer proper is formed of a cylindrical 55 percent of solvent 'vapors which are precipitated casing I2 preferably arranged _longitudinally out in passing over the cooling'coil so that there remains at a temperature of 140° F. to 180° F. above the top of the heater I'of the same length but of considerably less diameter than the heater and in free communication with the interior of the heater, as by the plurality of large cylindrical approximately 115 to 1/4_of 1 per cent of solvent in the refrigerant vapors leaving the rectifier I2, which will not appreciably detract from opera- .\ ‘ conduits I3 spaced a short _distance apart. A' plurality of eliminators .are provided preferably 'tion of -the evaporator. 'rhecuminator mustrated and described nere between _the bankof nozzles and the top of the heater, and below and above a central longitudi nal coil of pipe for circulating 'a cooling r‘nedium -,through the rectifier to reduce the temperaturev in causes any refluxing that takes place to‘utilize> the otherwise wasted heat of .the hot- vapors to re vaporize a part of the\ gas that dissolves in the ‘ solvent that has been eliminated from the refrig erant vapors as it gravitates downward to the of the refrigerant vapors before the gaseous re frigerant passes through the discharge opening Il of the rectifier to be conducted by a pipe, not heating coil. ’ - < _ ` - \,When solvents' having sufficiently higher boil shown, to the condenser. The cooling coil pref ing points are employed, the rectiñer cooling coils- erably includes a plurality of parallel rows -of pipes I5 bent back upon thereabove, as shown, with their respective ends connected to manifolds I5 may be omitted and the vapors collecting in the chamber 23l at the ltop of the'heater I may be conducted by one or more conduits directly to Ißand I1 in communication with the supply and ' the condenser. Such solvents may be dimethyl 20 20 return lines ofthe circulating fluid, not shown._ ether of tetraethylene glycol, diethyl ether of , The pipes I5 are preferably provided with a plu rality of closely spaced radiating fins i`n the form of plates I8.> It is also preferable to'provide- a `baille plate I9 at the end of the heater to direct .25 the spray from the end nozzle 8 upon the pipes 2 of the heater and a baille plate 20 at the .end of the rectifier I2 spaced apartfrom the discharge end to direct the refrigerant vapors over the cool ing coil. . tetraethylene glycol, and methyl ethyl ether of tetraethylene glycol which have a vapor pressure of less than 3 mm. at 240° F. thereby insuring less than 1 per cent of solvent in 500 parts -oi’ refriger - ant even though no cooling coil is used, but ade quate illuminating surfaces ' must be employed. 'I'hose solvents are in other respects just as good or better than the ethyl ether of diethylene glycol but inherently more expensive under the present The elirninators are preferablycomposed of a 30 plurality -of small spherical bodies 2I of glazed refractory material held in close contact with _ _ methods of production. When a cooling coil is _each other -between expanded metal plates 22. ' used in the rectifier, the temperature of the coil is controlled kin accord It is preferable to construct the elirninators in - ance with .the characteristics of the solvent em- ~ ployed to insure the precipitation of the solvent vapor._._ This may be accomplished in any'con pipes 9 and with the top expanded metal platev ventional manner as byïproviding a charged bulb of the vapors 22 spaced apart from` the top of the heater to element set in a well in theconduit condenser to control a ’ form a chamber 23 thereabove which communi L from‘the rectifier to the cates with the rectifier I2 through conduits I3. fluid valve in the cooling fluid line to the rectifier It is also preferable to provide the eliminators xcooling coil adjusted to produce the desired tem _ ‘ above and\beiow the cooling coil I_I in the rectifier perature therein. Due to the relatively dense .vapor of the speci. I2 ywith thelower expanded metal plate 22 of the ned refrigerant and the low surface tension of ' Y lower eliminator and- the upper expanded metal there is' a tendency for par plate 22 ofthe upper eliminator spaced apart the specified solvents, to be carried along _in the ‘ ‘l from the adjacent' rectifier -walls to provide a ticles of the solvent chamber 24 at the bottom in `communication with ' stream of outgoing refrigerant v/apors in leaving theheater with the bottom expanded metal plate 35 22 supported upon the top of the parallel> solution ' the chamber 23 above the heater' eliminator and ' _ the heater on the way to the condenser. _ ‘ a chamber 25 above the upper eliminator in com 50 that even with one lower boiling -point solvent. 50 such as ethyl ether of' diethylene glycol, the amount of cooling required to insure a satisfac munication with the rectifier discharge IL ~ If sufficient elimination of solvent‘from there frigerantvaporsfis not effected, the solvent is car tory separation of solvent and refrigerant is small ried over into the condenser and then into the provided any suspended particles of liquid solvent _ evaporator, where a very small percentage of sol ' are separated from the gaseous refrigerant before 55 vent- will hold in_solution a relatively large amount the -refrigerant is subjected to cooling; On the other hand, a failure to satisfactorily separate the suspended solvent liquid particles from the gaseous refrigerant before attempting to cool re-~ sults in waste of a very -large per cent of heat of refrigerant under the reduced pressure in the cooling coil orîevaporator, the fullvaporization of » the liquid refrigerant will not occur, and conse- - vquentlyfïtliere is a'ïlosslof cooling effect. _ . It has been found in practice with the use of the refrigerant .and solvent specified if the nozzles B lfor spraying the refrigerant mixture or-solution necessary` to operate the equipment. _ What I claim is: @are located approximately 2% to 3 inches above - . >The characteristics of these chemicals are such s l' ' l.> In a heater or generator forv an absorption _' _ev heating coils 2, the'refrigerant vapors passl refrigeration apparatus, employing a volatile. 65 through"‘_th£_e_ spray and _into the eliminator above the nozzle'bank. In leaving this eliminator, the refrigerant will carry with it approximately'21/2 chemically stable, halogenated hydrocarbon.. forming a dense vapor irrithe'heater, as the re frigerant, and a solvent therefor having a low per cent of _solvent in the form of line spray and vapor. The chamber 23 at the top-of the heater affords ample space for equalization of flow of said` vapors- through said first eliminator and through the conduits I3 into the _chamber 24 to pass through the eliminator ori-_the under side of the cooling coil'. Iriïleaving _second elimi 75 nator, the'vapor willfcarry approximately 1 to 11/4* surface tension,_`the combination of means within _ the heater f_or'freeing such vaporous-solvent and solution _fì'OirLthe 'vaporous refrigerant distilling from the solution and allow the freed solvent _ and solution to descend by gravity into the heater, , - - - said means including an eliminator spaced apart ' from the top of the heater comprising a plurality 75 3 2, 107, 320 of closely spaced spherical bodies of `glazed refrac tory material. - precipitate out such vapors of solvent or solution that may be carried over with the refrigerant 2. In a heater or generator for an absorption vapors, an eliminator spaced apart from the top refrigeration> apparatus, employing a volatile, of .the heater comprising a plurality of closely chemically stable, halogenated hydrocarbon as spaced spherical bodies of glazed refractory ma the refrigerant, and a solvent therefor, means for eliminating the vapors of the solvent and solution from the vaporous refrigerant inpassing from the heater,_ including a rectifying chamber arranged 10 above and in free communication withl the top of the heaterïand a cooling coil arranged with said chamber, the temperature of which is suñlclent to' terial. 3. The structure of claim 2 wherein eliminators are spaced apart from the top and bottom of said chamber and arranged on both sides of said cool ing coil. „ GLENN F. ZELLHOEFER.