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Патент USA US2107492

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Feb. 8, 1938.
1.. A. MEKLER
I 2,107,492
METHOD OF HEATING FLUIDS
forigjmal Filed Jan. 6, 1a“.
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
LEV A. MEKLER
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ATTORNE
Feb. 8, 1938.
2,107,492
|_. A. MEKLER
METHOD OF HEATING FLUIDS
original Filed Jan. 6, 19372‘
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INVENTOR
LEV A. MEKLER
BY
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ATT'ORNE
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Patented Feb. 8, 1938
2,107,492
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,107,492
METHOD OF HEATING FLUIDS
Lev A. Mekler, Chicago, 111., assignor, by mesne as
signments, to Universal Oil Products Company,
Chicago, 111., a corporation of Delaware
Application January 6, 1932, Serial No. 584,966
Renewed August 15, 1935
1 Claim. (Cl. 196—47)
This invention relates to the heating of ?uids heating element. The advantage of the heating
and particularly refers to an improved method element arrangement provided by the present in
for supplying both radiant and convection heat vention resides in the fact that it may be easily
to any ?uid undergoing treatment and particu— divided into two substantially equivalent heating
larly to hydrocarbon oils undergoing conver
elements, each of which are subjected to sub- 5
stantially the same heating conditions in cor
As a feature of the invention the ?oor, the side responding portions thereof, thus permitting
sion.
7
walls and the roof of a furnace are provided with
?uid conduits adjacent thereto, thus utilizing the
10 maximum interior surface of the combustion
zone as radiant-heat absorbing surfaces without
subjecting the ?uid conduits to the danger of
overheating by direct ?ame impingement. This
same feature of the invention, which provides
15 ?uid conduits for the transmission of radiant
heat to the ?uid undergoing treatment in various
portions of the furnace, has the additional ad
vantage of providing different rates of heating in
said various portions of the fluid conduit so that
;20 by arranging for passage of the material under
going treatment through the various portions of
the conduit or heating element in the proper se
quence any desired heating curve may be ob
tained. , For example, the fluid may be heated
{25 gradually and at an increasing rate from a mini
mum temperature at the entrance of the ?uid
into the heating element to a maximum tem
perature at its discharge from the heating ele
ment or the ?uid may be subjected to a high
80 rate of heating upon entrance into the heating
element, and may thence be subjected to a more
gradual rate of heating in subsequent portions
of the heating element reaching its maximum
temperature, if so desired, at some point in the
35 heating element substantially remote from the
point of discharge. It will be understood that
numerous other heating curves of any desired
type may be obtained, the foregoing being given
only for the purpose of illustration.
40
The arrangement of the heating element or
?uid conduits along the ?oor, side walls and roof
of the furnace is particularly advantageous in
heating two streams of ?uid, under substantially
the same conditions, to substantially the same
45 ?nal temperature. This expedient of splitting
the stream of ?uid supplied to the heating ele
ment has been found desirable in installations
where relatively large quantities of material are
treated in a single furnace structure, as it per
50 mits the use of tubes or conduits of relatively
small cross-section, ordinarily employed on ac
count of their strength relative to tube or con
duits of larger cross-section, without materially
increasing, or, in some cases, actually reducing
,55 the pressure drop, due to friction, through the
treatment of two streams of ?uid under more
nearly identical conditions than is possible in
ordinary types of furnaces.
10
Another advantage of the present invention
resides in the location of the convection heating
element in the path of combustion gases from
the combustion zone of the furnace to a stack but
outside the main furnace structure, thus re- ,15
placing the bridge-wall type of construction with
a more economical furnace structure.
The attached diagrammatic drawings illus
trate one form of furnace structure embodying
the principles of the present invention. Figure 20
1 is a side elevational view of the furnace, shown
substantially in cross-section. Figure 2 is a
cross-sectional plan view of the same furnace
and Figure 3 is a sectional elevation taken along
line 3-3 in Figure 1. Figures 4, 5, 6 and '7 illus- , 25
trate several types of ?ow which may be em
ployed in the furnace illustrated.
Referring particularly to Figures 1, 2 and 3,
the main portion of the furnace comprises a
?oor l, front wall 2, rear wall 3, roof 4 and side 30
walls 5 which may be of any type of construction
and ordinarily comprise refractory material such
as ?rebrick backed by common brick or other in
sulating material and, if desired, encased in an
outer shell of steel.
_»35
Burners 6 supply fuel such as oil, gas, pulver~
ized solid fuel or mixture of these to the central
or ?ring duct 40 of the ?ring tunnels 1, air or
steam being supplied in part if desired through
the burners, the remaining desired quantity of 40
fresh air being supplied, preferably after pre
heating, to the mouth of the ?ring tunnels
through duct 8. Said remaining quantity of air
can be supplied as primary air passing through
the center passage of the tunnels 1 and/or as 45
secondary air passing either through the upper
duct 4| of the tunnel or the lower duct 42 of the
tunnel or both. The distribution of the primary‘
and the secondary air which affects the charac-Zv
ter of the flame produced is accomplished by 50
means of dampers 43 and 44.
The ignited combustible materials are dis
charged from the ?ring tunnels 1 into the com~
bustion zone 9.01‘ the furnace, passing toward the 55
2
2,107,492
rear wall of the furnace, upward, thence back ~ more clearly illustrated with reference to Figures
toward the front wall 2, the combustion gases Ll, 5, 6 and 7.
Referring particularly to Figure 4, which illus
passing out of the main portion of the furnace
trates one of the many types of ?ow which may
through convection zone Hi to ?ue H. Any de
sired portion of the hot combustion gases may be desirable for use in connection with the pres
ent invention, the stream of ?uid to be heated,
pass directly from ?ue H to stack l2 by regula
tion of damper I3. At least a portion or all of for example a hydrocarbon oil to be subjected to
these gases, however, preferably pass through conversion conditions, may be split into two sub
stantially equal portions A and B, prior to its in
preheater it, wherein fresh air, introduced there
troduction to the heating element. Streams A 10
to
by
means
of
fan
or
blower
l5
through
duct
l6
10
regulated by damper ii, is indirectly contacted and B may ?rst pass through convection bank 28
which is divided into two substantially equal
with the relatively hot flue gases, thus preheat
ing the fresh air and cooling the stack gases. banks 28’ and 28". The streams may thence
The desired quantity of the air, supplied by pass through lines 29 and 36 respectively, pref
15 blower l5, may pass from 'preheater I4, through erably placed outside of the combustion zone, into
duct l8, regulated by damper is, into duct l8 and the floor radiant bank 22, which is divided into
two substantially equal sections 22' and 22",
thence to the firing tunnels ‘l, where its dis
tribution may be further regulated by dampers stream A ?owing through section 22' and stream
t3 and is, while the cooled stack combustion B ?owing through section 22". Streams A and
20
20 gases pass through ?ue 2d regulated by damper B may thence pass through lines 3! and 32 re
spectively, also preferably placed outside of the
2! to stack 52 and thence to the atmosphere.
The heating element employed in a furnace combustion zone, stream A thence passing
of this type preferably comprises a number of through the radiant side wall bank 25 and stream
tubes connected in series by means of suitable B passing through the radiant side wall bank 26.
The streams may thence pass to the radiant roof 25
25 return bends or headers. A radiant heating ele
ment 22 comprising tubes 23 may be located along’ bank 21, which is also divided into two substan
the floor l of the furnace and that portion of tially equal sections 27’ and 27'', stream A pass
ing through section 21’ and stream B passing
the floor over which the tubes are placed is pref
through section 21", both streams passing thence
erably depressed below the level of the ?ring tun
30 nels ‘l to protect the heating element against out of the furnace to be combined, if desired, out 30
7
direct flame impingement. The tubes of the floor side of the furnace.
Referring now to Figure 5, the oil or other ma
bank 22 preferably extend across the furnace
between the side walls 5 and may be connected terial to be treated may enter convection bank
in‘series by means of return bends 25 preferably 26, passing through the tubes of this bank in 35
thence transferring through line 33, placed
35 located outside the combustion zone as illustrated series,
in Figure 3. Side wall radiant tube banks 25 and preferably outside of the combustion zone, to the
26 consisting of a series of tubes 23 connected in radiant floor bank 22, passing through the tubes
series by means of return bends 24, as illustrated of this bank in series, thence transferring through
in Figure 2, may be located along the upper line 3| , also preferably placed outside of the com~
bustion zone, to the radiant side wall bank 25,
portion of the sides 5 of the furnace and are pref
erably protected from direct impingement of the thence through the radiant roof bank 21 and
flame, by recessing that portion of the side walls through the radiant side wall bank 26', passing
adjacent to the tubes, as indicated in Figure 3. A through the tubes of banks 25, 2,1 and, 26 in
radiant roof bank Z'l, of tubes 23, also preferably series and thence out of the furnace to subsequent
45 connected in series by means of return bends 24, portions of the system.
Referring now to Figure 6 wherein the stream
as illustrated in Figure 1, may be located adjacent
to the roof ll of the furnace. The tube ‘banks 22, of oil or other material to be heated is divided
25, 26 and 2f receivesubstantially radiant heat into two substantially equal streams A and B,
from the materials undergoing ‘combustion in stream A may flow through half of the convection 50
50 the furnace and from the radiant walls of the bank 28 which is designated as 28', thence
furnace.
'
Provision may also be made for imparting a
portion of the heat to the fluid undergoing treat
ment substantially by convection.- The convec
55 tion tube bank 28 is preferably located outside
the main furnace structure, as illustrated in the
drawings by convection zone l0, tubes 23’ of said
convection bank being within the path of fur
nace gases passing from combustion zone 9 to
60 ?ue ii. The tubes of the convection bank may
also be connected in series by means of suitable
return bends. 24, as illustrated in Figure 2.
It should be understood that theconvection
65
bank 28 as well as the ?oor bank 22 and the roof
bank 2‘! may be divided into two substantially
equivalent sections, side wall bank 25 being in
cluded in one section and side wall bank 25 in the
other, or that all the tubes may be connected
70 entirely in series. This will be illustrated more
clearly in connection with Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7
which will be described later. It will also be
understood that one or more than one row of
tubes may be utilized in any or all of the various
tube banks of the furnace. This will also be
through line 29, placed preferably outside of the
combustion zone, and through half of the radiant
floor bank 22, designated as 22’, thence through
line 3 I, also placed preferably outside of the com 55
bustion zone, through side wall radiant bank 25
and thence through half the radiant roof bank 21,
which is designated as 2'!’ and thence out of the
furnace. Stream B may pass through convection
bank 28", which comprises half of convection 60
zone 28, thence through line 30, placed preferably
outside of the combustion zone, through radiant
?oor bank 22", which is half of bank 22,thence
through line 32, placed preferably outside of the
combustion zone, and through the radiant side‘ 05
wall bank 26 to the radiant roof bank 21, passing
through half of this bank which is designated as
2?" and thence out of the furnace. It will be
noted that the flow illustrated in Figure 6 is the
same as that illustrated in Figure 4 except that 70
the radiant roof bank 21 comprises two rows
of tubes, the ?uid of each stream ?owing through
?rst half of the lower row of tubes and thence
through half the upper row of tubes in this
bank.
'
75
2,107,492
In Figure 7 the radiant tube banks 22, 25, 26
and 21 each comprise two rows of tubes. As in
Figures 4 and 6, the oil or other material to be
heated is divided into two substantially equal
streams A and B, which ?ow respectively through
substantially equal portions 28' and 28" of con
vection bank 28, passing thence through lines 29
and 30 respectively, placed preferably outside of
the combustion zone, thence through the upper
10 row of the substantially equal portions 22' and
22" respectively of the radiant floor bank 22,
thence through lines 3| and 32 respectively placed
preferably outside of the combustion zone,
through the outer row of tubes of side Wall con
15 vection bank 25 and through the outer row of
tubes of side wall convection bank 26, streams
' A and B thence passing respectively through sub
stantially equal portions of the lower row of tubes
of the roof convection bank 21' and 21", thence
20 through substantially equal portions of the upper
row of tubes of convection bank 21’ and 21" re
spectively, thence respectively through the inner
25
row of tubes of side wall convection bank 25 and
through the inner row of tubes of side wall con
vection bank 26, stream A thence passing through
3
line 35 through the lower row of tubes in floor
convection bank 22' and out of the furnace,
while stream B passes through line 36 and
thence through the lower row of tubes in floor
convection bank 22" and out of the furnace;
I claim as my invention:
A method for heating hydrocarbon oils in a
cracking process comprising subdividing the oil
to be heated into two streams, advancing each
stream through a bank of heating tubes wherein 10
the oil is heated by convection, thence passing
each stream through a bank of tubes disposed
adjacent the floor of the furnace wherein the
oil is subjected to radiant heat, thence advanc
ing one of said streams through a bank of tubes 15
adjacent one wall of the furnace and the other
of said streams through a bank of tubes adjacent
the opposite wall of the said furnace in each of
which banks of tubes the oil is subjected to ra
diant heat and ?nally passing each stream 20
through a bank of tubes adjacent the roof of
the furnace to be subjected therein to further
radiant heat treatment and thereafter combining
the separate‘ streams.
LEV A. MEKLER. 25
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