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Патент USA US2107509

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Feb. 8, 1938.
J_ D‘ SEGUY
2,107,509
CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
Filed May 10, 1953
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Patented Feb. 8, 1938
2,107,509
UNiTED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,107,509
CGNVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
Jean Delattre Seguy, Chicago, Ill., assignor to
Universal Oil Products Company, Chicago, Ill.,
a corporation of Delaware
Application May 10, 1933, Serial No. 670,375
6 Claims. (Cl. 196-—49)
This invention particularly refers to an im
ucts, such as gas oil of the desired quality may
proved process and apparatus for the conversion be recovered, when desired, as well as permitting
of relatively high-boiling hydrocarbon oils for
the production‘ of. high yields of lower boiling
5 products wherein the raw oil charging stock is
?rst subjected to relatively mild conversion con
the production, when desired, of good quality
residual oil, suitable, for example, as fuel. By use
of the two-stage method of. conversion provided 5
by the present invention, the ?rst or relatively
ditions, high-boiling and low-boiling conversion
products arbitrarily separated, the low-boiling
mild stage produces high yields of intermediate
products subjected to more severe conversion in
second stage to produce high yields of good
10 a conjointly operated cracking system while said
high-boiling conversion products are subjected to
less severe conversion conditions than those im
posed upon the low-boiling products in, the same
conjointly operated cracking system.
15
A more speci?c embodiment of the present in»
vention may comprise subjecting a relatively
high-boiling hydrocarbon oil such as heavy crude
petroleum, topped crude, fuel oil or the like to
relatively mild conversion in a heating coil, intro
20 ducing the heated oil into a vaporizing chamber
wherein the low-boiling products, comprising a
substantial proportion of the gas oil produced,
are separated from the higher boiling products
which remain unvaporized in this zone, subject
25 ing a portion of said low-boiling products to
oils, such as gas oil, for further conversion in the
quality motor fuel. More severe conversion con- 10
ditions may be employed for the production of
the motor fuel in the second stage than permis- _
sible, without excessive yields of coke and gas, in
the conversion of higher boiling oils such as sup
plied to the ?rst cracking stage of the process. 15
By this method of operation a product of better
motor fuel characteristics, particularly with re
spect to anti-knock value, may be produced than
could be accomplished by cracking the heavy
charging stock in one operation. Also by the 20
method ofv operation of the present invention the
high-boiling products of the ?rst cracking stage
are subjected to further conversion under milder
conversion conditions than those employed for
more severe conversion conditions of elevated
the treatment of lower boiling products, whereby
additional yields of good quality motor fuel and
temperature and superatmospheric pressure in a
minimum yields of coke and gas are produced.
separate heating coil, introducing the heated oil
into a separate vaporizing chamber, preferably
invention will be more apparent with reference
30 maintained at substantially reduced pressure
relative to that employed in the heating coil,
Other advantages and features of the present
to the accompanying diagrammatic drawing and 30
the following description thereof. The drawing
wherein the vaporous and residual conversion
products are separated, subjecting the vapors to
fractionation whereby their insufficiently con
illustrates one speci?c form of apparatus em
vaporizing chamber.
not illustrated, prior to its introduction into
heating coil 5. The hot conversion products are
discharged from heating coil 6 through line 8 50
and valve 9 into vaporizing and separating cham
bodying the features of. the present invention and
the description of the drawing includes a more
35 verted components are condensed as re?ux con
detailed description of the operation of the 35
densate, subjecting fractionated vapors of the process as it may be practiced in the apparatus
desired end-boiling point to condensation, col
illustrated.
lecting the resulting distillate and gas, returning
Referring to the drawing, the raw oil charging
reflux condensate produced by fractionation of stock to- be treated is supplied through line I and
40 the vaporous conversion products to the last valve 2 to pump 3 by means of which it is fed 40
mentioned heating coil for further conversion, . through line 4 and valve 5 to heating coil 6
together with said low-boiling fractions from the wherein it is subjected to the desired relatively
?rst described cracking operation, and commin
mild conversion temperature, preferably at
gling the unvaporized high-boiling fractions from superatmospheric pressure, by means of heat
45 the ?rst described cracking operation with the supplied from a furnace ‘l of any suitable form. 45
hot conversion products passing from the last
The charging stock may of course, be pre
mentioned heating coil to the reduced pressure heated when desired in any well known manner,
The present invention permits the ultimate
50 conversion of relatively high-boiling oils into
high yields of desirable low-boiling products, such
as motor fuel of high anti-knock value, without
the excessive production of undesirable products
ber H] which may be operated at substantially
such as coke and gas and also permits a ?exi
let from heating coil 6 but is preferably operated
at reduced pressures in order to assist vaporiza- 55
55 'bility of operation whereby intermediate prod
the same pressure as that maintained at the out
2,,
2,107,509
tion. The vapors’from chamber H], comprising ;; sired conversion temperature, preferably more
the low-boiling conversion products and prefer :5 severe than that employed in heating coil 6 and,
ably including a substantial proportion of the preferably at a substantial isuperatmospherici
products within the boiling rangerof gas oil, pass
through line H and valve l2 to condensation in
condenser l3, the condensate being withdrawn
therefrom through line L3} and. passing, in part,
pressure. The heated oil is discharged from heat
ing coil 25 through line 33 and valve 34 into
vaporizing chamber 35,iwhich is preferably main
tained at a substantially reduced pressure rela
when desired, through valve 15 in this line to tive to that employed at the outlet from the
storage or to
desired further treatment. heating coil, accomplished by the manipulation
However, at least a portion of this product is of pressure control valve 34, whereby the heated 10
preferabiy diverted from line it through line l6 5 conversion products are cooled and their vapor
valve l‘! to pump l8by means of which it is ization in chamber 35 assisted;
tied through line i9, passing preferably, all or in
' part, through valve 28 in this line into fraction
Simultaneous with the introduction of heated
oil from heating coilli25 into" chamber 35, the
15 ator 2! or, when desired, from line l9 through
high-boiling conversion’ products from heating
line 22, valve 23 and line 24 direct to heating a coil 6 which remain unvaporized in chamber in
coil 25.
V
f
are withdrawn therefrom through line 36 and
7* Ordinarily, although relatively mild conversion valveetl to pump 38 by means of which they are
conditions are preferably employed in heating fed through line 39 and valve 66 into line 33,
coil 6, some materials within the boiling range; commingling therein with the highlylfheated oil
of gasoline will normally'be produced in the first: from heating coil 25, serving to cool the hot coh
:V'conve'rsion stage of the process and these will' version products further thanithat accomplished
vary in 'quality and quantity with the nature of’ ‘ by reduction, of the pressure imposed thereon, the
the charging stock and the conversion conditions heavy oil from chamber 38 being thereby heated
25 to which it is subjectech When" this motor fuel to a milder *conversion temperature than that 25
" product is of good character itmay be collected, employed in heating coil 25.
39
together with the other motor'fuel conversion
Residual 'oil remaining unvaporized in chamber
products of the process of similar end-boiling
point, liy'supplying the distillate from condenser
35 may be ‘withdrawn therefrom through line" 4|
and valve d2 to cooling and storage or to any de
E3 ‘to fractionator 2!, as previously described.
1 However, when these fractions of the distillate
' product from chamber it) are of inferior motor
fuel quality, particularly with: respect’ to their
,
35,
sired, furtherrtreatment.
The vaporous conver
sion products pass from chamber 35 through line
133 and valve lid to fractionation in fractionator 2!
wherein their insufiiciently converted components
anti-knock value, the distillateg'may be supplied are condensed and returned, as previously de
directly to heating can 25, by means already , scribed, to further conversion in heatingrcoil 25. 35
" "described, wherein it may be subjected to further
Fractionated vapors of the, desired end-boiling 7
conversion under conditions suitable to effect a
point, preferably comprising conversion products
" substantial improvement in itsanti-knock value.
within the boiling range of gasoline and of high
Line 23 containing valve 21, communicating
anti-knock value, are withdrawn, together with
uncondensable gas produced by the operation,
40 through line iii with pump it, permits the intro
ess. This oil from an externalsource, which may
from the upper portion :of the fractionator
through line 45 and valve 56 to be subjected to
condensation and cooling in condenser 41. The
be considered secondary charging stock, prefer
resulting distillate and gas passes from condenser
, "duction of suitable oil'from any desired external
source'to the second crackinggstage of the proc
45 ably comprises an oilgsimilar in cracking char
4'! through line ll?iand valve 497t0 collection in
v'acteristics"toflthe distillate from the ?rst and
previously deseribedcracking stage of the process
and may be supplied, all or in part, eitherito
fractionator 27;! or to heating coil 25 or, in part,
to- both, as. described in connection with the in?
receiver 50. Uncondensable gas may be released
vtroduction of the distillate from condenser l3
lated portion of the rdistilitate'from receiver 50
into this portion of the system. The low-boiling
charging oil for the second cracking stage of the
from the receiver through line H and valve 52.
The distillate is withdrawn from this 'zone
through line 53 and valve 5Q to storage or to any
desired further treatment. :When desired, a regu
process, when supplied to fractionator 2|, as illus
may be recirculated, by well known means not
shown in the drawing, to the upper portion of
fractionator 2! to assist fractionation of the va
55 trated and described} serves to assist fractiona
pcrs in this zone and maintain the desired vapor
50
tion of the vaporous conversion products with
outlet temperature from the fractionator, there
which it is. directly commingled in the fraction- ' by controlling the end-boiling point of the final
ator by means of which the charging stock: is light distihate product of the process.
preheated. Any charging stock introduced into
The conditions in chamber ii! are preferably
60 fractionator 2i, as well as vaporous conversion
products supplied to this zone, boiling above the
end-boiling point of the desired overhead stream
of fractionated vapors comprising’the light dis
tillate product ‘of the process, are condensed as
65 ‘re?ux condensate within the fractionator and
: collect within its lower portion fromwhich they
are withdrawn through line 28 and valve '29 to
pump 30 by means of which they are supplied
such that the vapors leaving said chamber will
contain a major portion or all of the gas oil frac-,'
tions and will be substantially freeof heavier
fractions. When desired, separation of the heav
ier products from the gas oil and lighter vapors
in chamber i ii may be improved by providing said 65
chamberwith fractionating ‘means of any well
known. form such as baffles, perforated pans,
bubble trays, cooling coils, reboiling coils and the
through line 24 and valve 3| to- heating coil 25, like, not shown. ‘
_
.
The conversion temperature-to which the high—
70 commingling, in'line 26, with any charging stock
supplied thereto through line 22 and valve 23, as ’ boiling charging stock for the ?rst described
cracking stage of the process is subjected in the,
previously described,
Heating coil 25 is located within a furnace32 ' heating coil’ may-range, for example, from 758 to .7
' of any suitable form, by means of whichthe oil
300° F., or thereabouts, preferably with arlow
supplied to the heating coil is brought to the de
superatmospheric pressure measured at the out 75,
2,107,509
let from the heating coil of from 150 pounds, or
thereabouts, per square inch down to substan
tially atmospheric pressure. A pressure substan
tially equalized with or reduced relative to that
employed in the heating coil may be utilized in
' the succeeding vaporizing chamber. A higher
conversion temperature, preferably within the
range of 900 to 10500 F., is preferred at the out
let from the heating coil of the second conversion
10 stage of the process, preferably with a substantial
superatmospheric pressure measured at this point
of from. 200 to 800 pounds, or more, per square
inch. The heated products from this heating
coil are preferably cooled by pressure reduction
and by the introduction of high-boiling conversion
products from the separator of the ?rst conver
sion stage of the process to a temperature of the
order of 800 to 900° F., or thereabouts, and a
substantially reduced pressure of from 100 pounds,
20 or thereabouts, per square inch down to sub
stantially atmospheric pressure is preferred in
the vaporizing chamber of this stage of the proc
ess and this pressure may be substantially
equalized or somewhat reduced in the succeeding
“ fractionating, condensing and collecting portions
of the system.
As an example of one speci?c operation of the
process of the present invention, as it may be prac
ticed in an apparatus such as illustrated and above
described, the charging stock is a Mid-Continent
topped crude of about 23° A. P. I. gravity which
is subjected in the heating coil of the ?rst con
version stage to an outlet temperature of approxi
mately 765° F., at a superatmospheric pressure
3.
ing zone to produce gasoline therefrom,v then
commingling the thus heated distillate with
residue from the ?rst-named cracking treatment,
separating vaporous from unvaporized reaction
products, and fractionating and condensing the
separated vapors.
2. A process for producing motor fuel which
comprises subjecting hydrocarbon oil heavier
than gas oil in a heating zone to relatively mild
cracking conditions of temperature and pressure 10
such as to produce gas oil therefrom, separat
ing the thus treated oil into a residue heavier
than gas oil and a distillate containing the gas
oil, passing such distillate through a second heat
ing zone and heating the same therein to higher 15
cracking temperature than the oil in the ?rst
mentioned heating zone to produce gasoline
therefrom, then commingling the thus heated
distillate with residue from the ?rst-mentioned
cracking treatment, separating vaporous from 20.
unvaporized reaction products, fractionating the
separated vapors to condense insufficiently
cracked fractions thereof, returning resultant re
?ux condensate to said second heating zone in
admixture with an additional quantity of said
distillate, and ?nally condensing the fractionated
vapors.
3. A process which comprises subjecting
heavy hydrocarbon oil in a heating zone to rela
tively mild cracking conditions of temperature 30
and pressure, separating the heated oil in a sep
arating zone into vapors and unvaporized oil and
sure is substantially equalized in the succeeding
vaporizing chamber from which liquid conversion
‘condensing the vapors, simultaneously passing a
lighter oil through a second heating zone and
heating the same therein to higher cracking tem 35
perature than the heavy oil in the ?rst-mentioned
heating zone, then discharging the thus heated
products are withdrawn at a temperature of about
675° F., the vaporous products from this zone
introducing to this zone unvaporized oil from
of about 50 pounds per square inch.
This pres
40 being condensed and supplied to the fractionator
of the second conversion stage of the process from
which the major portion thereof is withdrawn,
together with reflux condensate formed in this
zone, to the heating coil of this portion of the
system. A conversion temperature of about 930°
F., and a superatmospheric pressure of about 550
pounds per square inch is maintained at the out
et from the second heating coil. The unvaporized
oil from the ?rst conversion stage of the process
is introduced into the stream of heated oil from
the second heating coil after the pressure there
on has been reduced to approximately 40 pounds
per square inch which is maintained in the suc
lighter oil into a second separating zone and also
the ?rst-named separating zone, separating the 40
resultant mixture in the second separating zone
into vapors and residue and introducing the for
mer to a fractionating zone, introducing to the
fractionating zone condensate formed by the con
densation of the ?rst mentioned vapors and frac 45
tionating the second mentioned vapors in con
tact therewith independently of the ?rst-named
vapors, supplying liquid products from the frac
tionating zone to said second heating zone to
constitute at least a part of said lighter oil, and 50
?nally condensing the fractionated vapors.
4. A process for producing motor fuel which
comprises subjecting hydrocarbon oil heavier
ceeding vaporizing chamber. Residual liquid is
than gas oil in a heating zone to relatively mild
withdrawn from this zone to cooling and storage
and the vaporous products passed to the frac
tionator which is maintained at a pressure sub
cracking conditions of temperature and pressure
such as to produce gas oil therefrom, separating
stantially equalized with that in the vaporizing
chamber. This operation may produce, per barrel
of topped crude supplied to the system, about 56%
of motor fuel having an anti-knock value equiv
alent to an octane number of approximately '75,
about 37% of residual oil suitable for use as fuel
and about 600 cubic feet of uncondensable gas.
I claim as my invention:
1. A ‘process for producing motor fuel which
comprises subjecting hydrocarbon oil heavier than
gas oil in a heating zone to relatively mild crack
ing conditions of temperature and pressure such
as to produce gas oil therefrom, separating the
the heated oil into vapors and a residue heavier
than gas oil, subjecting the vapors to condensa
tion to form a condensate containing the gas oil,
introducing such gas oil condensate into a frac 60
tionating zone containing cracked vapors and
fractionating the latter in contact with the con
densate to condense insu?iiciently cracked frac
tions thereof, passing the resultant mixture of
re?ux condensate and gas oil condensate from 65
the fractionating zone through a second heating
zone and heating the same therein to higher
cracking temperature than the oil in the ?rst
mentioned heating zone to produce gasoline
therefrom, separating the resultant vapors and
thus treated oil into a residue heavier than gas
oil and a distillate containing the gas oil, passing
such distillate through a second heating zone and
introducing the same to the fractionating zone
for fractionation in contact with said gas oil con
heating the same therein to higher cracking tem
perature than the oil in the ?rst-mentioned heat
uncondensed in the fractionating zone.
5. A process for producing motor fuel which
densate, and separately condensing the vapors‘
2,107,509‘
comprises subjecting >- hydrocarbon oil‘ heavier
than gas oil in a heating‘ zone to relatively mild
for fractionation'in contact with said gas oil
cracking conditions- of'temp'erature and pressure
such as toi‘produce gas’ oil therefrom, separating
Vapors uncondensed in the fractionating zone.
6. A process for producing motor fuel which’
the heated oil into vapors and a residue heavier
than gas oil, subjecting the vapors to condensa
tion to form a condensate containing the gas oil,
introducing such gas oil condensate into a frac
tionating zone containing cracked vapors and
fractionating the latter in contact with the con
densate to condense insu?i'ciently cracked frac
tions thereof, passing the resultant mixture of re
?ux condensate and gas‘ oil condensate from the
fractionating zone through a second heating zone
15 and heating the‘ same therein to higher cracking
temperature “than-the oil in the ?rst-mentioned
heating Zone’ to produce gasoline therefrom, then
commingling a substantial quantity of said resi
due» with-the thus- heated mixture, separating
20 I vaporous from unvaporized reaction products and
introducing the former to the fractionating zone
condensate,
and separately condensing the
comprises subjecting hydrocarbon oil heavier 5
than gas oil to relatively mild conversion condi
tions of temperature and pressure such as to
produce therefrom a major proportion of gas oil
and a minor proportion of gasoline, separating
gas oil and gasoline hydrocarbons thus formed
from residual oil heavier than gas‘oil and heat
ing the same independently of and to higher
cracking temperature than said heavy oil to pro
duce additional gasoline from the gas oil and to
increase the anti-knock value of said gasoline 15
hydrocarbons, then commingling the thus heated
gas oil and gasoline hydrocarbons with said
residual oil, separating the resultant mixture into
vapors and residue, and fractionating and con
densing the vapors.
'
'
JEAN DELA'I'I'RE SEGUY.
20
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