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Feb. 8, 193$. ‘ G‘ CROMBlE; 5R ' 2,107,524 FIRE WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 12, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet l 1TH I HM /5 ‘* Q] INVENTOR. GEORGE C/POMB/E, 5R. ATTORNEY. Feb. 8, 1938. G, CRQMBIE, 5R 2,107,524 FIRE WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 12, 1936 ‘ 2_Sheets-Sheet 2 GEORGE (moms/A 5/?’ Patented Feb. 8, 1938 . 2,107,524 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,107,524 FIRE WALL CONSTRUCTION George Crombie, Sn, Denver, 0010., assignor to The Stearns-Roger Manufacturing Company, Denver, Colo. Application February 12, 1936, Serial No. 63,581 12 Claims. (Cl. 72—101) ‘ My invention relates to ?re wall construction, and more particularly to that ‘type of construc 5 tion in which an inner expansible ?re wall is anchored. to an outer cover wall and its support ing structure. In the construction of boiler settings and the like, difficulties are encountered in anchoring the component parts of the structure due to the fact that the inner'?re wall is subjected to tempera ture variations of such magnitude that the ma terial composing the wall is subjected to a wide range of expansion and contraction. Various constructions and devices are now in use for anchoring a ?re wall of this type to an 15 outer wall. The chief difficulty with the means now available for this purpose is that costly parts and fastening devices are employed, with the re sult that in constructing a wall of a given size, of this character, the cost of materials used is much greater than the cost of materials which could be used if such fastenings were not employed. In addition to the foregoing, where special fas tenings and brick construction are used, addi tional time is required in ?xing the same in posi tion in the Wall, with the result that in a wall of this type, of any given size, the labor cost for building the same is materially increased. It is an object of'the present invention to pro vide a ?re wall construction which is effective in 30 anchoring the inner ?re wall to an outer wall, free for the required amount of expansion, and which can be constructed at practically the same cost as a ?re wall in which fastening devices have been omitted. Another object of the invention resides in the provision of a special tile construction effective for positively holding special castings, when in place in a wall. 7 A further object of the invention is the provi ~10 sion of a special casting to be anchored in a ?re wall, which is so constructed as to permit a cir culation of _ air about its entire surface when in place in a ?re wall, to prevent excessive heating of the same, and which cooperates» with a fasten ' ing device anchored inacover wall to effectively maintain the said walls in substantially uniform spaced relation while permitting a free up-and down and lengthwise movement of either wall, by expansion and contraction produced by tempera 50 tures to which the wall is subjected. Still another object of the invention resides in a novel ?re wall construction by which an inner ?re wall is positively anchored to an outer cover wall, and which is easily built and durable in use. A still further object of the invention is the provision of a combined supporting and anchor ing device which is slidably attached to the col umns or beams supporting an outer cover wall. Still other objects reside in novel steps and treatments, and novel combinations and arrange- 5 ments of parts as will more fully appear in the course of the following description. To give a better understanding of the invention, reference is made to the accompanying drawings in the several views of which like parts have been sim- l0 ilarly designated, and in which Figure 1 represents a perspective view of a por tion of a boiler setting or the like, to which my invention has been applied; Figure 2 is an end elevation of a wall embody- 15 ing the construction illustrated in Figure 1, and showing the manner of applying the fastening devices to the walls in section; Figure 3 is a perspective view of the tile con struction used for anchoring the fastening devices 20 in the ?re wall; Figure 4 is a plan view of the casting used in connection with the tile of Figure 3; Figure 5 is a section taken along line 5—5, Figure 4; Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective View of a portion of a boiler setting or the like, employing an insulated metal cover wall, and having com bined anchoring and supporting elements con necting the inner ?re wall with the supporting 30 beams of the metal wall; ‘ Figure '7 is a fragmentary vertical section through a wall similar to the wall of Figure 6, illustrating the manner of applying the fasten ing devices, and corresponding in position to the 35 lines 'l—'l of Figure 8; v Figure 8 is a section taken along line 8-8, Figure 7; Figure 9 is a fragmentary perspective view of another embodiment for anchoring the cover wall 40 of Figure 1 at the corners; Figure 10 is a fragmentary plan view of an ex pansion joint used in the present construction; and ‘ Figure ,11 is a plan View of another embodi- 45 ment of a casting used in the wall construction illustrated in Figure 6. Referring ?rst to Figure 1, the reference nu meral I2 designates an inner ~?re wall con structed of suitable materials such as ?re brick, 50 or the like. Adjacent and in spaced relation to the ?re wall is an outer cover wall l3 constructed of ordinary brick. At various intervals along the length of wall l3, structural members in the form of‘ anchoring columns M are located. 55 2,107,524. 2 In Figure 1' the column M has been illustrated in the form of an I-beam of structural steel acting as the corner support for the wall. While no anchoring has been shown for the beam 84, it will be understood that it is ?xedly anchored by setting in cement or in otherwise fastening it to the structure in which the boiler setting is being built. neck 21 are of channel section which is clearly shown in Figure 5. When the casting 22 is ?tted in the adjoining recesses 2| of the blocks 20a and 2%, air from the space 29 between the walls I2 and i3 is free to circulate across the upper and lower faces of the portions 25 and 21, and across the recessed At selective elevations above a floor l5 or other 10 base on which the structure is supported, brace beams l6 are built into the wall l3. These beams are preferably of the usual structural steel angle iron construction of L-section, and are disposed end 28 of portion 25. The other end portion 26 of casting 22 is pro vided with a slot 31), disposed transversely to the lengthwise axis of neck 21. A tie bar 3| having upstanding tongues 3la and 3th at its ends, co-n nects casting 22 with a beam It. The tongue 35a. is inserted through one of the slots ll of the with one flat side between courses of the brick wall I3, and with the other side of the beam flush with the outer face of the wall E3. The faces of the members l6 disposed between the courses of brick are provided at selective intervals with lengthwise extending slots IT. beam, and the tongue 3“) projects upwardly through the slot 30 in casting 22. Additional courses of brick are then built over the beam l6, and its adjoining brick course. with the result that the wall i3, beam 15 and tie 3! become a unitary The I-beams M which serve as the corner sup structure. ports for wall 13 are provided on the outer face of the innermost ?ange with an angle iron sec tion l8v suitably fastened thereto as by welding, riveting or the like. The wall I3 is built against 25 and in alinement with the face of the angle sec tion projecting outwardly from the flange of I-beam l4. Hook members IS, in the form of ?at metal barshaving an offset extension, are suitably fastened on the outer face of beam I5 adjacent the angle irons IS, with the extension portion of the same overlapping and bearing against the projecting section of the angle iron 18. From the foregoing, it will be apparent that 35 the wall l3 will at all times be held against angle 20 _ - Similarly, additional courses are built over the course of tile 20, and the wall l2, tile 23 and cast ing 22 also become a unitary structure. It will be observed that the slots 30 are of much greater length than the width of tongue 3%. While Figure 1 shows the tile course as consisting of a row of adjoining tiles 25, it will be understood that if less anchoring is required, any selected num ber of ?re bricks may be placed between two of 30 the tiles 20. It will be noted that in the wall construction illustrated in Figures 1 and 2, the bottom course of bricks in the wall l3 consists of a row of head iron l8, in alinement with the projecting portion of the same, while being free for lengthwise move ment as the fastening hook I9 is free for length wise movement relative to the section of angle iron l8, which it bears against. It is also ap 40 parent that the fastening l9 and wall I3 are free to slide along this section in an up-and down direction. The wall VI 2, at the same elevation as the beams l6, has a course of refractory tile 20 in place of 45 the usual ?re brick of the wall. This tile course consists of two complementary sections 20a and 201), each provided at one end with a specially shaped recess 2 l , whose function will be explained hereinafter. These tile sections are preferably of the same length as the ?re brick, but of greater width, and of a thickness approximating the thickness of a usual ?re brick. When placed in the wall, the sections 20a and 2022 are disposed with the recesses 2| in adjoin 55 ing relation, and are ?xed in position by apply ing mortar or cement between the adjoining faces. Castings 22, preferably formed of a metal or alloy possessing heat-resisting properties, such as cast iron, are ?tted in the recesses 2| at the ers H on which six rows of stringers S are placed. Headers H are likewise placed immediately above and below the beam Hi. The practice is again repeated for the next rise of the wall, and so on. While the foregoing has been found to give excellent results, it will be understood that any arrangement of courses may 40 be employed and the fastening devices of the present invention utilized therewith. The ?re wall I2 is preferably started with a course of headers H and then alternate stringers S and headers H are used until the elevation for 45 tile 2i) is reached. A row of headers H is prefer ably disposed above and below the tile course and the‘ foregoing practice is also repeated for successive rises. In certain types of wall construction, the I-beams M will be replaced by an angle-iron column Ma. (Figure 9) and‘ the brace~beams it in this embodiment will be provided with slots 32 adjacent their ends. The angle-iron is aper tured at 33 to receive a bolt 34, which extends through the slot 32 and is fastened with a nut (not shown) or other suitable fastening. The slots permit lengthwise movement of beams It relative to angle-irons Ma. and a limited up-and 60 down movement. The wall construction illustrated in Figures 6, 7 and 8 is similar to the construction hereinabove time the sections 20a. and 201) are installed in the described, and shows the application vof the wall. fastenings to a metal cover wall 35. The recesses 2| comprise an inner rectangular section 23, and a narrowed entrance portion 24, extending to- the outer endof the block centrally thereof. ' _ A casting 22 comprises two widened ends 25, and 26 respectively, connected by a narrower neck 21.-' The end portion 25 and neck 21 are 70 shaped in conformity with the sections 23% and 24 respectively, of recess 2|, and are of a dimension permitting them to snugly ?t in the said recessed portions. The outer end of the portion 25 is re cessed as indicated at 28, and the portion25 and This wall consists of an outer cover plate 35a of sheet metal or the like, and an inner cover plate 351) of the same or a similar material. The walls 35a and 3519 are spaced to admit a layer of asbestos or other suitable refractory insulation 70 36 to be disposed therebetween. The insulation 35 in wall 35 is effective in pre venting the outer cover plate 35a from being sub jected to the temperature variations encountered in the air space 29 between the outer wall 35 and the inner ?re wall l2, and as a result, the plate 75 2,107,624 35a-may'be fastened to columns I4 by riveting, welding or in‘ any other suitable manner. cient to receive the ?ange 31b of column 31. The inner plate 35b is subjected to temperature The ?re wall I 2 in the present construction has variations through a wide range and to accom a course of tile 20 at a suitable elevation com modate the resulting expansion and contraction, prising complementary tile sections 20a and 28b, the plate 35b is, preferably formed of a suitable expanded metal. held in spaced relation by a plate 46 which ex tends beyond the outer face of wall l2 and ter minates short of the inner face of the same. The space between the tiles 20a and 2% adjacent the At intervals along wall 35, supporting columns 31 in the form of I-beams, suitably anchored at the base by any we1l~known method, are provided. inner face of wall I 2 is ?lled with a suitable re The walls 35a and 3517 are fastened in any suitable manner to the outer ?ange 31a and the inner fractory insulation, such as asbestos, as indicated at 41. The plate 46 is preferably of metal and is illus ?ange 31b respectively of columns 31 intermedi ate the columns M. with courses of tile 20 at selective elevations in ' .In Figures 7 and 8, the wall anchors or fasten 20. ingsare illustrated. A casting 2211' similar to the casting 22 of Figure 4 is used to anchor the ?re wall I 2 to the cover wall 35. This casting con sists of an anchor portion 25a, a narrowed neck 21a and a fastening portion 26a. The portion 25a ‘~ is provided with a recess 28a similar to the recess 28 of casting 22, and the neck 21a is similar to the neck 21 of casting 22, except that it is of greater length. The channeled construction of portion 30 25a and neck 21a corresponds to the channeled construction of casting 22, but terminates inter mediate the ends of neck 21a as shown in Figure 11. ‘The portion 26a has a T-shaped recess 38 ex 35 tending inwardly from its outer end with the greatest width of the recess of a dimension suffi cient to receive the ?ange 31b of column 31. Thecolumns 31 have their ?anges 31b recessed at any selective elevation as indicated at 39 in Figure 7 to narrow the width of the ?ange sul? ciently to permit the portion 26a of a casting 22a to be disposed with the inner boundary of recess 38 bearing against ?ange 31b, after which the casting may slide downwardly to the elevation of the tile course 20 with the portion 26a embracing " the flange 31?). The anchor portion 25a of casting 22a is then ?tted in the complementary recesses 2| of tiles 20a and ‘20b. 60 7 ' If 1 desired, this method of fastening may be used’ alone, and it will be readily apparent that the walls I2 and 35 will be held in ?xedly spaced relation, while the wall |2 will be free for up and down movement relative to wall 35 by expansion and contraction. The casting 22a ?ts ?ange 31b loosely enough to permit limited lateral movement, and also ?ts the recess 2| loosely enough to permit some additional lateral movement. 60 a ' a As a result of the foregoing, the fastening ar rangement of this embodiment of the invention functions in all essentials in the same manner as the fastening devices illustrated in Figure 1. The fastening device illustrated in Figure 6 may be used in conjunction with the casting 22a, or as‘ the only fastening element for holding the wall |2 at a ?xed distance from wall 35. ‘The device comprises a cantilever arch 40 pro vided at one end‘with an anchor portion 45 which is slotted as indicated at 4| in Figure 7. The opposite end of arch 40 bears a plate 42 projecting column, and the portion 43 is positioned in regis ter with recess 39. The arch is next allowed to 20 with the portion 43 embracing ?ange 31b, until the upper end of the arch is at the elevation of the tile course 20. Plate 46 is then ?tted in slot 4|, the anchor portion 45 is ?tted in recesses 2| and bolted to 25 plate 46 as shown at 48. The arch thus becomes effective in maintaining the spaced relation between walls l2 and 35, as Well as providing a support for the portion of wall l2 resting on plate 46. 30 To limit any further downward movement of the arch, suitable bolts or rivets 49 are fastened in ?zange 31b to provide a stop inthe path of plate 4 . I In the case of high refractory walls subjected to intense .heat, a considerable expansion and softening occurs under the load, and when the wall is'cooled, this expansion is followed by a settling, which if repeated a number of times, fre quently results in a collapse of the wall. 40 The arch 40 being freely slidable in an upward direction will accommodate any expansion to which the wall is subjected, but after the wall has cooled, the arch is only free to descend until the plate 42 engages the stops 49. 45 In Figure 10 an expansion joint for the corners of ?re wall I 2 has been illustrated. The ?re brick are arranged in offset ‘relation to bring the spaces between adjoining bricks 5| and 52 into register with the face of an abutting brick 53 so that there 50 is no direct passage from the inside to the outside of wall l2. 7 This arrangement permits the bricks extending in one direction to be spaced from the bricks ex tending in another direction, and the space thus provided is staggered or stepped in form. This space is ?lled with any suitable refractory insula tion which possesses yieldable properties, such as asbestos for example. It will be apparent that the foregoing expan— 60 sion joint will accommodate any expansive move ment of the respective stretches of wall |2, and at the same time will effectively prevent escape of the heated gases inside wall l2 into the air space 29 exteriorly of the same. It will be noted that in all the foregoing con structions, the ?re wall i2 is free to move in a lengthwise and up-and-down direction Within any range in?uenced by expansion due to the temperatures to which it is subjected, and at the 70 below the arch. The upper end 43 of plate 42 is widened and contains a T-shaped recess 44 ex 75 tending inwardly from its outer end, with the 10 trated as being as long as the Width of three of the tiles 2D. The length‘ of the plate may be varied 15 to meet different requirements, and the tile may be built into a brick course, if desired. The arch 40 is placed against ?ange 31b of the The ?re wall |2 in Figures 6, '7 and 8 is con structed in the manner hereinbefore described the same. 3 greatest width of the recess of a dimension sul? Likewise, where necessary, provision is made to accommodate expansion of the cover wall. The anchor portion of the fastening element is 75 4- 2,107,524 so devised that its entire surface may be constant ly subjected tn the cooling in?uence of circulating air currents. The walls of the present invention are simply and easily constructed, and are durable when assembled. The fastening devices are so easily installed that they may be set in place without occasioning loss of time, so that the labor cost of erecting such walls is not appreciably greater " 10 plate embedded in said stationary wall with an upturned end extending through the slot in the beam and having a tongue at its projected end extending through the slot in the plate. 5. In ?re wall construction, a tile in a ?re wall, having a T-shaped recess, an anchor wall spaced from the ?re wall, a headed wall-tie anchored in the recess and projecting therefrom, ‘and means secured to the anchor wall slidably con than it would be if brick construction were em ployed throughout. The tiles and castings are constructed from comparatively inexpensive materials and do not add appreciably to material cost. The fasten 15 ings utilize essential elements of the wall con struction such as corner columns l4 and sup porting columns 31. Repairs and replacements are readily effected, and one stretch of the wall can be removed and 20 repaired, if necessary, without disturbing the remainder of the wall. The various materials, shapes and'sizes desig nated throughout the description as preferable are not essential and may be varied in many re~ 25 spects while retaining the essential features of the invention. Likewise, the arrangements of brick courses and location of fastenings are only illustrative of what may be done, as it will be apparent that 30 each construction will require certain individual treatments. _ Changes and modi?cations may be availed of within the spirit and scope of the invention as de ?ned in the hereunto appended claims. What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: I ' 1. The combination with a ?re-wall having a plate ‘anchored therein with an edge of the same projecting beyond the wall, of a second wall in spaced relation thereto, a cantilever arch having a slot at one end to admit the projecting portion of the plate, a support for the second wall, and means on the arch engaging the support for main taining the said walls in substantially uniform 45 spaced relation. 2. In wall construction of the character de scribed, the ccmbination with a tile having a hollowed portion comprising a relatively narrow entrance and an enlarged portion beyond the en trance, of an anchor-element comprising an en larged body ?tted in the enlarged portion of‘ the recess and a narrow neck on the body extending thru the entrance, the body and neck being chan neled to admit a circulation of air across their surfaces. 3. The combination with a ?re wall, having a plate anchored therein with a portion of the same projecting beyond the ?re wall and slotted, of a relatively stationary wall in spaced relation there . .60 to, a slotted beam in the latter wall, and a tie plate embedded in said stationary wall with a hooked end extending through the slot in the beam and having a tongue at its projected end extending through the slot in the plate. 4. The combination with a ?re wall, having a plate anchored therein with a portion of the same projecting beyond the ?re wall and slotted, of a relatively stationary wall in spaced relation there to, a slotted beam in the latter wall, and a tie nected for vertical movement with said project ing portion. . 6. In ?re wall construction, a tile in a ?re wall having a T-shaped recess, an anchor wall spaced from the ?re wall, a headed wall-tie anchored in the recess andv projecting therefrom, and 15 means secured to the anchor wall slidably con nected for vertical movement with said project ing portion, there being a channel extending from the recess to the exterior of the wall for the circulation of air across an embedded surface of 20 the tie.‘ 7. In ?rewall construction, an anchor wall' spaced from a ?re wall, a wall-tie anchored in the ?re wall and projecting therefrom, and an anchor member embedded in the anchor wall 25 with a side thereof bearing against said wall, the anchor member being interconnected with the projection of the wall-tie. , 8. In ?re wall construction, an anchor wall spaced from the ?re wall, a. wall-tie anchored in 30 the ?re wall and projecting therefrom, an angle iron anchored in the anchor wall with a side thereof bearing against the wall, and a link con ne'cting the projectionv of the‘ tie to the angle iron. 35 9. In ?re wall construction, an anchor wall spaced from a ?re wall, a wall-tie anchored in the ?re wall and projecting therefrom, an angle iron anchor on the outer face of the anchor wall and having a side embedded in the wall, a link 40 connecting the projection of the tie to the angle iron, a vertical structural member adjacent the outer surface of the anchor wall, and a clip on the angle-iron overlapping the member for ver tical movement therealong, and to prevent sep aration of the angle-iron from the member. 45 16. In a?re wall, a recessed tile, and a wall-tie anchored in the recess and projecting therefrom, there being a passage from the recess to the ex terior ofthe wall along a surface or" the tie, for circulating air across the same. 11. In a ?re wall, a recessed tile in a ?re wall, a channeled and headed wall-tie anchored in the recess and projecting therefrom, an anchor wall spaced from the ?re wall, and a hooked element 55 connecting the anchor wall with the tie, there being a transverse slot in the projected portion of the tie for the reception of the hook of the element to permit limited relative horizontal 60 movement between the walls. 12. The combination with a ?re wall, of a wall tie anchored therein and projecting therefrom, having a transverse slot in the projected portion, an anchor wall spaced from the ?re wall, and an element connected with the anchor wall hav ing a projection inserted into the slot to loosely tie the walls in spaced relation. GEGRGE CROMBIE, SR.