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Патент USA US2107524

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Feb. 8, 193$.
‘ G‘ CROMBlE; 5R
Filed Feb. 12, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Feb. 8, 1938.
Filed Feb. 12, 1936
2_Sheets-Sheet 2
GEORGE (moms/A 5/?’
Patented Feb. 8, 1938
. 2,107,524
George Crombie, Sn, Denver, 0010., assignor to
The Stearns-Roger Manufacturing Company,
Denver, Colo.
Application February 12, 1936, Serial No. 63,581
12 Claims.
(Cl. 72—101)
‘ My invention relates to ?re wall construction,
and more particularly to that ‘type of construc
tion in which an inner expansible ?re wall is
anchored. to an outer cover wall and its support
ing structure.
In the construction of boiler settings and the
like, difficulties are encountered in anchoring the
component parts of the structure due to the fact
that the inner'?re wall is subjected to tempera
ture variations of such magnitude that the ma
terial composing the wall is subjected to a wide
range of expansion and contraction.
Various constructions and devices are now in
use for anchoring a ?re wall of this type to an
outer wall. The chief difficulty with the means
now available for this purpose is that costly parts
and fastening devices are employed, with the re
sult that in constructing a wall of a given size, of
this character, the cost of materials used is much
greater than the cost of materials which could
be used if such fastenings were not employed.
In addition to the foregoing, where special fas
tenings and brick construction are used, addi
tional time is required in ?xing the same in posi
tion in the Wall, with the result that in a wall
of this type, of any given size, the labor cost for
building the same is materially increased.
It is an object of'the present invention to pro
vide a ?re wall construction which is effective in
30 anchoring the inner ?re wall to an outer wall, free
for the required amount of expansion, and which
can be constructed at practically the same cost
as a ?re wall in which fastening devices have
been omitted.
Another object of the invention resides in the
provision of a special tile construction effective
for positively holding special castings, when in
place in a wall.
A further object of the invention is the provi
~10 sion of a special casting to be anchored in a ?re
wall, which is so constructed as to permit a cir
culation of _ air about its entire surface when in
place in a ?re wall, to prevent excessive heating
of the same, and which cooperates» with a fasten
' ing device anchored inacover wall to effectively
maintain the said walls in substantially uniform
spaced relation while permitting a free up-and
down and lengthwise movement of either wall, by
expansion and contraction produced by tempera
50 tures to which the wall is subjected.
Still another object of the invention resides in
a novel ?re wall construction by which an inner
?re wall is positively anchored to an outer cover
wall, and which is easily built and durable in use.
A still further object of the invention is the
provision of a combined supporting and anchor
ing device which is slidably attached to the col
umns or beams supporting an outer cover wall.
Still other objects reside in novel steps and
treatments, and novel combinations and arrange- 5
ments of parts as will more fully appear in the
course of the following description. To give a
better understanding of the invention, reference
is made to the accompanying drawings in the
several views of which like parts have been sim- l0
ilarly designated, and in which
Figure 1 represents a perspective view of a por
tion of a boiler setting or the like, to which my
invention has been applied;
Figure 2 is an end elevation of a wall embody- 15
ing the construction illustrated in Figure 1, and
showing the manner of applying the fastening
devices to the walls in section;
Figure 3 is a perspective view of the tile con
struction used for anchoring the fastening devices 20
in the ?re wall;
Figure 4 is a plan view of the casting used in
connection with the tile of Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a section taken along line 5—5,
Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective View of
a portion of a boiler setting or the like, employing
an insulated metal cover wall, and having com
bined anchoring and supporting elements con
necting the inner ?re wall with the supporting 30
beams of the metal wall; ‘
Figure '7 is a fragmentary vertical section
through a wall similar to the wall of Figure 6,
illustrating the manner of applying the fasten
ing devices, and corresponding in position to the 35
lines 'l—'l of Figure 8;
Figure 8 is a section taken along line 8-8,
Figure 7;
Figure 9 is a fragmentary perspective view of
another embodiment for anchoring the cover wall 40
of Figure 1 at the corners;
Figure 10 is a fragmentary plan view of an ex
pansion joint used in the present construction;
Figure ,11 is a plan View of another embodi- 45
ment of a casting used in the wall construction
illustrated in Figure 6.
Referring ?rst to Figure 1, the reference nu
meral I2 designates an inner ~?re wall con
structed of suitable materials such as ?re brick, 50
or the like. Adjacent and in spaced relation to
the ?re wall is an outer cover wall l3 constructed
of ordinary brick. At various intervals along
the length of wall l3, structural members in the
form of‘ anchoring columns M are located.
In Figure 1' the column M has been illustrated
in the form of an I-beam of structural steel
acting as the corner support for the wall. While
no anchoring has been shown for the beam 84,
it will be understood that it is ?xedly anchored
by setting in cement or in otherwise fastening
it to the structure in which the boiler setting
is being built.
neck 21 are of channel section which is clearly
shown in Figure 5.
When the casting 22 is ?tted in the adjoining
recesses 2| of the blocks 20a and 2%, air from
the space 29 between the walls I2 and i3 is free
to circulate across the upper and lower faces of
the portions 25 and 21, and across the recessed
At selective elevations above a floor l5 or other
base on which the structure is supported, brace
beams l6 are built into the wall l3. These beams
are preferably of the usual structural steel angle
iron construction of L-section, and are disposed
end 28 of portion 25.
The other end portion 26 of casting 22 is pro
vided with a slot 31), disposed transversely to the
lengthwise axis of neck 21. A tie bar 3| having
upstanding tongues 3la and 3th at its ends, co-n
nects casting 22 with a beam It. The tongue
35a. is inserted through one of the slots ll of the
with one flat side between courses of the brick
wall I3, and with the other side of the beam flush
with the outer face of the wall E3. The faces of
the members l6 disposed between the courses of
brick are provided at selective intervals with
lengthwise extending slots IT.
beam, and the tongue 3“) projects upwardly
through the slot 30 in casting 22. Additional
courses of brick are then built over the beam l6,
and its adjoining brick course. with the result that
the wall i3, beam 15 and tie 3! become a unitary
The I-beams M which serve as the corner sup
ports for wall 13 are provided on the outer face
of the innermost ?ange with an angle iron sec
tion l8v suitably fastened thereto as by welding,
riveting or the like. The wall I3 is built against
25 and in alinement with the face of the angle sec
tion projecting outwardly from the flange of
I-beam l4. Hook members IS, in the form of
?at metal barshaving an offset extension, are
suitably fastened on the outer face of beam I5
adjacent the angle irons IS, with the extension
portion of the same overlapping and bearing
against the projecting section of the angle
iron 18.
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that
35 the wall l3 will at all times be held against angle
- Similarly, additional courses are built over the
course of tile 20, and the wall l2, tile 23 and cast
ing 22 also become a unitary structure. It will
be observed that the slots 30 are of much greater
length than the width of tongue 3%. While
Figure 1 shows the tile course as consisting of a
row of adjoining tiles 25, it will be understood that
if less anchoring is required, any selected num
ber of ?re bricks may be placed between two of
the tiles 20.
It will be noted that in the wall construction
illustrated in Figures 1 and 2, the bottom course
of bricks in the wall l3 consists of a row of head
iron l8, in alinement with the projecting portion
of the same, while being free for lengthwise move
ment as the fastening hook I9 is free for length
wise movement relative to the section of angle
iron l8, which it bears against. It is also ap
parent that the fastening l9 and wall I3 are
free to slide along this section in an up-and
down direction.
The wall VI 2, at the same elevation as the beams
l6, has a course of refractory tile 20 in place of
45 the usual ?re brick of the wall. This tile course
consists of two complementary sections 20a and
201), each provided at one end with a specially
shaped recess 2 l , whose function will be explained
hereinafter. These tile sections are preferably
of the same length as the ?re brick, but of
greater width, and of a thickness approximating
the thickness of a usual ?re brick.
When placed in the wall, the sections 20a and
2022 are disposed with the recesses 2| in adjoin
55 ing relation, and are ?xed in position by apply
ing mortar or cement between the adjoining
Castings 22, preferably formed of a metal or
alloy possessing heat-resisting properties, such
as cast iron, are ?tted in the recesses 2| at the
ers H on which six rows of stringers S are placed.
Headers H are likewise placed immediately above
and below the beam Hi.
The practice is again repeated for the next rise
of the wall, and so on. While the foregoing has
been found to give excellent results, it will be
understood that any arrangement of courses may 40
be employed and the fastening devices of the
present invention utilized therewith.
The ?re wall I2 is preferably started with a
course of headers H and then alternate stringers
S and headers H are used until the elevation for 45
tile 2i) is reached. A row of headers H is prefer
ably disposed above and below the tile course
and the‘ foregoing practice is also repeated for
successive rises.
In certain types of wall construction, the
I-beams M will be replaced by an angle-iron
column Ma. (Figure 9) and‘ the brace~beams it
in this embodiment will be provided with slots 32
adjacent their ends. The angle-iron is aper
tured at 33 to receive a bolt 34, which extends
through the slot 32 and is fastened with a nut
(not shown) or other suitable fastening. The
slots permit lengthwise movement of beams It
relative to angle-irons Ma. and a limited up-and
down movement.
The wall construction illustrated in Figures 6,
7 and 8 is similar to the construction hereinabove
time the sections 20a. and 201) are installed in the
described, and shows the application vof the
fastenings to a metal cover wall 35.
The recesses 2| comprise an inner rectangular
section 23, and a narrowed entrance portion 24,
extending to- the outer endof the block centrally
_ A casting 22 comprises two widened ends 25,
and 26 respectively, connected by a narrower
neck 21.-' The end portion 25 and neck 21 are
70 shaped in conformity with the sections 23% and 24
respectively, of recess 2|, and are of a dimension
permitting them to snugly ?t in the said recessed
portions. The outer end of the portion 25 is re
cessed as indicated at 28, and the portion25 and
This wall consists of an outer cover plate 35a
of sheet metal or the like, and an inner cover
plate 351) of the same or a similar material. The
walls 35a and 3519 are spaced to admit a layer of
asbestos or other suitable refractory insulation
36 to be disposed therebetween.
The insulation 35 in wall 35 is effective in pre
venting the outer cover plate 35a from being sub
jected to the temperature variations encountered
in the air space 29 between the outer wall 35 and
the inner ?re wall l2, and as a result, the plate 75
35a-may'be fastened to columns I4 by riveting,
welding or in‘ any other suitable manner.
cient to receive the ?ange 31b of column 31.
The inner plate 35b is subjected to temperature
The ?re wall I 2 in the present construction has
variations through a wide range and to accom
a course of tile 20 at a suitable elevation com
modate the resulting expansion and contraction,
prising complementary tile sections 20a and 28b,
the plate 35b is, preferably formed of a suitable
expanded metal.
held in spaced relation by a plate 46 which ex
tends beyond the outer face of wall l2 and ter
minates short of the inner face of the same. The
space between the tiles 20a and 2% adjacent the
At intervals along wall 35, supporting columns
31 in the form of I-beams, suitably anchored at
the base by any we1l~known method, are provided.
inner face of wall I 2 is ?lled with a suitable re
The walls 35a and 3517 are fastened in any suitable
manner to the outer ?ange 31a and the inner
fractory insulation, such as asbestos, as indicated
at 41.
The plate 46 is preferably of metal and is illus
?ange 31b respectively of columns 31 intermedi
ate the columns M.
with courses of tile 20 at selective elevations in
.In Figures 7 and 8, the wall anchors or fasten
ingsare illustrated. A casting 2211' similar to the
casting 22 of Figure 4 is used to anchor the ?re
wall I 2 to the cover wall 35. This casting con
sists of an anchor portion 25a, a narrowed neck
21a and a fastening portion 26a. The portion 25a
‘~ is provided with a recess 28a similar to the recess
28 of casting 22, and the neck 21a is similar to the
neck 21 of casting 22, except that it is of greater
length. The channeled construction of portion
30 25a and neck 21a corresponds to the channeled
construction of casting 22, but terminates inter
mediate the ends of neck 21a as shown in Figure
‘The portion 26a has a T-shaped recess 38 ex
35 tending inwardly from its outer end with the
greatest width of the recess of a dimension suffi
cient to receive the ?ange 31b of column 31.
Thecolumns 31 have their ?anges 31b recessed
at any selective elevation as indicated at 39 in
Figure 7 to narrow the width of the ?ange sul?
ciently to permit the portion 26a of a casting 22a
to be disposed with the inner boundary of recess
38 bearing against ?ange 31b, after which the
casting may slide downwardly to the elevation of
the tile course 20 with the portion 26a embracing
" the flange 31?).
The anchor portion 25a of casting 22a is then
?tted in the complementary recesses 2| of tiles 20a
and ‘20b.
If 1 desired, this method of fastening may be
used’ alone, and it will be readily apparent that
the walls I2 and 35 will be held in ?xedly spaced
relation, while the wall |2 will be free for up and
down movement relative to wall 35 by expansion
and contraction.
The casting 22a ?ts ?ange 31b loosely enough to
permit limited lateral movement, and also ?ts the
recess 2| loosely enough to permit some additional
lateral movement.
As a result of the foregoing, the fastening ar
rangement of this embodiment of the invention
functions in all essentials in the same manner as
the fastening devices illustrated in Figure 1.
The fastening device illustrated in Figure 6 may
be used in conjunction with the casting 22a, or as‘
the only fastening element for holding the wall |2
at a ?xed distance from wall 35.
‘The device comprises a cantilever arch 40 pro
vided at one end‘with an anchor portion 45 which
is slotted as indicated at 4| in Figure 7. The
opposite end of arch 40 bears a plate 42 projecting
column, and the portion 43 is positioned in regis
ter with recess 39. The arch is next allowed to 20
with the portion 43 embracing
?ange 31b, until the upper end of the arch is at
the elevation of the tile course 20.
Plate 46 is then ?tted in slot 4|, the anchor
portion 45 is ?tted in recesses 2| and bolted to 25
plate 46 as shown at 48.
The arch thus becomes effective in maintaining
the spaced relation between walls l2 and 35, as
Well as providing a support for the portion of
wall l2 resting on plate 46.
To limit any further downward movement of
the arch, suitable bolts or rivets 49 are fastened in
?zange 31b to provide a stop inthe path of plate
In the case of high refractory walls subjected
to intense .heat, a considerable expansion and
softening occurs under the load, and when the
wall is'cooled, this expansion is followed by a
settling, which if repeated a number of times, fre
quently results in a collapse of the wall.
The arch 40 being freely slidable in an upward
direction will accommodate any expansion to
which the wall is subjected, but after the wall has
cooled, the arch is only free to descend until the
plate 42 engages the stops 49.
In Figure 10 an expansion joint for the corners
of ?re wall I 2 has been illustrated. The ?re brick
are arranged in offset ‘relation to bring the spaces
between adjoining bricks 5| and 52 into register
with the face of an abutting brick 53 so that there 50
is no direct passage from the inside to the outside
of wall l2.
This arrangement permits the bricks extending
in one direction to be spaced from the bricks ex
tending in another direction, and the space thus
provided is staggered or stepped in form. This
space is ?lled with any suitable refractory insula
tion which possesses yieldable properties, such as
asbestos for example.
It will be apparent that the foregoing expan— 60
sion joint will accommodate any expansive move
ment of the respective stretches of wall |2, and
at the same time will effectively prevent escape
of the heated gases inside wall l2 into the air
space 29 exteriorly of the same.
It will be noted that in all the foregoing con
structions, the ?re wall i2 is free to move in a
lengthwise and up-and-down direction Within
any range in?uenced by expansion due to the
temperatures to which it is subjected, and at the 70
below the arch. The upper end 43 of plate 42 is
widened and contains a T-shaped recess 44 ex
75 tending inwardly from its outer end, with the
trated as being as long as the Width of three of
the tiles 2D. The length‘ of the plate may be varied 15
to meet different requirements, and the tile may
be built into a brick course, if desired.
The arch 40 is placed against ?ange 31b of the
The ?re wall |2 in Figures 6, '7 and 8 is con
structed in the manner hereinbefore described
the same.
greatest width of the recess of a dimension sul?
Likewise, where necessary, provision is made
to accommodate expansion of the cover wall.
The anchor portion of the fastening element is 75
so devised that its entire surface may be constant
ly subjected tn the cooling in?uence of circulating
air currents.
The walls of the present invention are simply
and easily constructed, and are durable when
The fastening devices are so easily
installed that they may be set in place without
occasioning loss of time, so that the labor cost of
erecting such walls is not appreciably greater
" 10
plate embedded in said stationary wall with an
upturned end extending through the slot in the
beam and having a tongue at its projected end
extending through the slot in the plate.
5. In ?re wall construction, a tile in a ?re wall,
having a T-shaped recess, an anchor wall spaced
from the ?re wall, a headed wall-tie anchored
in the recess and projecting therefrom, ‘and
means secured to the anchor wall slidably con
than it would be if brick construction were em
ployed throughout.
The tiles and castings are constructed from
comparatively inexpensive materials and do not
add appreciably to material cost.
The fasten
15 ings utilize essential elements of the wall con
struction such as corner columns l4 and sup
porting columns 31.
Repairs and replacements are readily effected,
and one stretch of the wall can be removed and
20 repaired, if necessary, without disturbing the
remainder of the wall.
The various materials, shapes and'sizes desig
nated throughout the description as preferable
are not essential and may be varied in many re~
25 spects while retaining the essential features of
the invention.
Likewise, the arrangements of brick courses
and location of fastenings are only illustrative
of what may be done, as it will be apparent that
30 each construction will require certain individual
Changes and modi?cations may be availed of
within the spirit and scope of the invention as de
?ned in the hereunto appended claims.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is: I
1. The combination with a ?re-wall having a
plate ‘anchored therein with an edge of the same
projecting beyond the wall, of a second wall in
spaced relation thereto, a cantilever arch having
a slot at one end to admit the projecting portion
of the plate, a support for the second wall, and
means on the arch engaging the support for main
taining the said walls in substantially uniform
spaced relation.
2. In wall construction of the character de
scribed, the ccmbination with a tile having a
hollowed portion comprising a relatively narrow
entrance and an enlarged portion beyond the en
trance, of an anchor-element comprising an en
larged body ?tted in the enlarged portion of‘ the
recess and a narrow neck on the body extending
thru the entrance, the body and neck being chan
neled to admit a circulation of air across their
3. The combination with a ?re wall, having a
plate anchored therein with a portion of the same
projecting beyond the ?re wall and slotted, of a
relatively stationary wall in spaced relation there
. .60
to, a slotted beam in the latter wall, and a tie
plate embedded in said stationary wall with a
hooked end extending through the slot in the
beam and having a tongue at its projected end
extending through the slot in the plate.
4. The combination with a ?re wall, having a
plate anchored therein with a portion of the same
projecting beyond the ?re wall and slotted, of a
relatively stationary wall in spaced relation there
to, a slotted beam in the latter wall, and a tie
nected for vertical movement with said project
ing portion.
6. In ?re wall construction, a tile in a ?re wall
having a T-shaped recess, an anchor wall spaced
from the ?re wall, a headed wall-tie anchored
in the recess andv projecting therefrom, and 15
means secured to the anchor wall slidably con
nected for vertical movement with said project
ing portion, there being a channel extending
from the recess to the exterior of the wall for the
circulation of air across an embedded surface of 20
the tie.‘
7. In ?rewall construction, an anchor wall'
spaced from a ?re wall, a wall-tie anchored in
the ?re wall and projecting therefrom, and an
anchor member embedded in the anchor wall 25
with a side thereof bearing against said wall,
the anchor member being interconnected with the
projection of the wall-tie.
8. In ?re wall construction, an anchor wall
spaced from the ?re wall, a. wall-tie anchored in 30
the ?re wall and projecting therefrom, an angle
iron anchored in the anchor wall with a side
thereof bearing against the wall, and a link con
ne'cting the projectionv of the‘ tie to the angle
9. In ?re wall construction, an anchor wall
spaced from a ?re wall, a wall-tie anchored in
the ?re wall and projecting therefrom, an angle
iron anchor on the outer face of the anchor wall
and having a side embedded in the wall, a link 40
connecting the projection of the tie to the angle
iron, a vertical structural member adjacent the
outer surface of the anchor wall, and a clip on
the angle-iron overlapping the member for ver
tical movement therealong, and to prevent sep
aration of the angle-iron from the member.
16. In a?re wall, a recessed tile, and a wall-tie
anchored in the recess and projecting therefrom,
there being a passage from the recess to the ex
terior ofthe wall along a surface or" the tie, for
circulating air across the same.
11. In a ?re wall, a recessed tile in a ?re wall,
a channeled and headed wall-tie anchored in the
recess and projecting therefrom, an anchor wall
spaced from the ?re wall, and a hooked element 55
connecting the anchor wall with the tie, there
being a transverse slot in the projected portion
of the tie for the reception of the hook of the
element to permit limited relative horizontal
movement between the walls.
12. The combination with a ?re wall, of a wall
tie anchored therein and projecting therefrom,
having a transverse slot in the projected portion,
an anchor wall spaced from the ?re wall, and
an element connected with the anchor wall hav
ing a projection inserted into the slot to loosely
tie the walls in spaced relation.
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