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Патент USA US2107581

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Feb. 8', 193.8.
2,107,581
J. H. PARSONS vET AL
TOOL RETAINER
Original Filed Oct. 31, v1932
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" INVENTOR;
[Emmi/Z.’
"
Feb. 8,1938.
'
'
J. H. PARSONS El‘ AL
TOOL
_
2,107,531
RETAINER
Original FiledyOct. '31, 1932
I
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR
$707211 27G, Pafsons
BY
‘Patented Feb. 8, 1938
2,107,581 '
I UNITED - STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,107,581
TQOL RETAINER
John 1]. Parsons, Bloom?eld Hills, and Lawrence
8. Lamb, ,Groase Pointe Park, Mich.
muting». owner a1, 1932, Serial No. 840,488
Renewed July 9, 1937
' 12 Claims.
.31
This invention relates to tool-retaining de
vices, such as are commonly used to retain
punches, dies, drills and the like in their hold
ers. It is usually desired that'tools of this class
be interchangeable in their holders, and various
means have in the past been employed to re
(Cl. 164-118)
the tool shank and the retainer itself are in
stalled.
'
,
'
Another object is the provision of an improved
tool retainer so designed that the retainer block
need not be specially hardened.
Another important object islthe incorporation
movably secure them. Such/previously used re- - in such a retainer construction of indicating
talning means have been unsatisfactory for a
number of reasons. Those so designed as to re
tain the tools with adequate ?rmness necessi
tated the expenditure of too much time and
trouble in attaching and removing the tools.
while many of those designed to permit rapid
interchanging of the retained tools have not pro
means enabling easy determination by the oper
ation as to whether ornot the tool is properly
locked in the retainer.
7
_A still further object is the provision of im
proved pilot means insuring insertion of the
tool in the retainer in the‘ proper manner.
'
Another object is the provision of an im
vided ‘adequate security. Some such retainers proved retainer block construction enabling 15
designed for quick action provide adequate se - mounting interchangeably retained tools on
curity for circular punches, for example, but not.
for punches and dies of irregular contour, or for
drills or other rotating tools. Other quick ac
tion retainers do not prevent lengthwise move
ment of the retained tool in the holder, although
adequately looking it against rotative movement,
‘which is also undesirable. ~
closer centers.
I
‘
Another object. is the provision of means for
interchangeably mounting a series of tools in an '
velongated retainer without the necessity of re
grinding each tool socket or other aperture after
a hardening‘ operation to correct inaccuracies
so introduced, but in which an unhardened re- 7
_
In other interchangeable retaining systems the
tainer is used with inserted sockets or the like
hi 5 shanks of the tools must be provided with a de‘
individually hardened, together with improved
pression or depressions of special or elaborate
means for sup
rting tools of unusual length.
con?guration requiring special milling cutters or
Other obiec's and advantages will be apparent
grinding wheels to form, so that prospective from the following description whereinrefer
users far from a source of supply of tools having ence is made to the accompanying drawings il
such-shanks frequently dare not employ them; lustrating preferred embodiments of our inven 30
as in order to do so safely they would have to tion, and wherein similar reference numerals
carry on hand a prohibitively expensive reserve designate similar parts throughout the ‘several
supply, or special cutting or grinding equipment,
to prevent the danger of a tool breakage stop
LI ping production.
:
The primary object of the present invention
is to provide a tool retainer subject to none of
the foregoing brie?y summarized shortcomings
and defects, and which, while permitting instan
~10 taneous removal and insertion of a tool in the
views.
-
'
y
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view taken sub-'
stantially longitudinally through a punch retain
er incorporating the principles of our invention,
showing a punch secured therein, and also frag
mentarily showing a punch holder, stripper plate,
a piece of sheet stock being worked upon, and 40
retainer, retains the tool with such ?rmness as
to prevent any possibility of either rotative or
a die;
endwise movement of the tool with respect to
tainer removed from the backing plate and
punch holder, \taken substantially on the line
2-4 of Figure l and looking in the direction of 45
the retainer.
'
'‘
Another object of this invention is the produc
tion of such a retainer which is of simple and in
expensive construction. and which is utilizable
in conjunction with tools and holders of conven
tional designs now'in use, merely necessitating
slight alterations thereof, to effect which altera
tions special machinery is not required.
I
_A further important object is the provision of
‘such retaining means installable in less space
than those heretofore used, and without regard
to the relative hardnesses of the metal in which
,
’
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the punch re
- the
arrows;
.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary top plan view with
the backing plate in place, taken as if on line
3-3 of Figure 1;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary top plan view of 50
the punch and detent;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary detail section simi
lar to Figure 1 in the‘ parts shown, but i11ustrat-,
ing the punch released, or before being secured;
Figure 6 isa similarly taken fragmentary sec 55
2
' tiontof a somewhat modi?ed punch retainer in
stallation incorporated with a sheet metal shear
ing device also fragmentarily shown with a piece
of stock being worked upon;
Figure 7 is a similar sectional view of another
modi?ed form showing novel means for support
under the influence of the spring 3|. In order
to position the detent 33 and prevent its sliding,
from the recess 26, it may be formed with rear
wardly projecting ends 34 engaging the'sides of
the wedge 32, as shown in Figures 2 and 3. The ' CR
locking surface 35 of the detent may be partly
ing unusually long tools, together with a novel ‘ cylindrical, so that it contacts the locking surface
' piloting device carried by the stripper plate;
24' or’ the punch shank groove along a straight
Figure 8 is a top plan view of a plurality or“ line, and the lower surface of the detent which 1
10 retainers of this form arranged :in series, show=
overhangs the socket may be angularly cut ,out, 10
ing .- the holder in. one ‘instance prepared‘ for the
as at 36, to form a cam surface engageable by
retainer and tool which are not yet installed;
Figures 9 and 10 are top and side views respec
the chamfered upper end of the punch shank by’
' 'tively of the tool socket bushing;
15 , Figure 11 is a top plan Vi8W,'&1SO with the
which the detent may be forced clear of the
socket as the punch is inserted when the wedge
is ‘released.
.
'
'j
backing plate removed, of another series-mount
ing arrangement for punches, four of which are
the rear face of the detent 33 is such that the
shown installed;
wedge cannot be forced upwardly by pressure in
'
The angle between the wedge member 32 and
Figure 12 is a top plan view of’ a plurality of _ thedirection of the arrow 31 exerted through
our improved retainer blocks of different sizes the detent. While~as above pointed out, the sur
arranged in interfitting relation; and .
Figure 13 is a similar-view showing another
arrangement.
_
Referring now to the drawings: Reference
character 20 represents the main block or body of
a punch retainer, utilized as illustrative of a
typical application of our invention. A cylindri
cal bcre 2| is formed therein adapted to receive
a punch shank, as the shank 22 of the punch.23.
A transverse groove is formed in and adjacent
the upper end of the shanld of the punch, as
indicated at 24, Figures 1 and 5. The preferred
form of this groove vis clearly shown in the
drawings, from which it will be observed that a
35 generally plane anguiarly arranged surface 24'
forms its upper wall. The top edge of the punch
may also be chamiered, as at 25, to: facilitate
' its insertion in the retainer.
A depression is formed in the top of the re
40 tainer block 20 adjacent the upper extremity of
the tool shank socket 2|. This depression may
take the form of a simple miiied slot 26 disposed
transversely of the hiock, as shown in Figures 1
and 2." Terminating in the slot 26 and vertically
45 arranged beside the punch socket 2| is a bore
21 havinga' reduced upper portion". Vertically
reciprocable in the aperture 2'|—28 is a stem 29,
carrying a cupped collar and spring abutment,
member 30 at its lower extremity which is of such
as to slidably ?t within the larger portion
5.0 size
21 of the vertical aperture and may extend down
wardly from the open lower end of the aperture
to form a plunger for convenient manipulation.
The body of the pin 29 slides in the upper reduced
55 portion 28 of the aperture, and the compression
spring 3| housed within thelarger portion 21 of
the aperture encircling the pin, and in the cupped
member 30, seats at its upper end against the
the detent it engages, so that
released by upward movement
her, a retained tool may be
socket by merely pulling the
when the detent is
of the wedge mem
removed from the 30
same downwardly,
the detent'member being thereby forced laterally
in the direction of arrow 3‘! and out of the tool
socket. The wedge is moved upwardly by pushing
upwardly upon the plunger 30, either manually, ‘
or if it is inaccessible, by 'means of a suitable tool
(not shown). The plunger, of course, may or
may not project from its aperture 21, depending
upon the clearance available in the particular
tool installation. If the plunger cannot project, 110
any pointed or suitably sized member may be
inserted in the aperture to enable forcing the
plunger inwardly. In order to ‘permit insertion
of the punch the detent is ?rst released, so that
it is free to move laterally, by pushing the wedge
32 and associated parts upwardly, after which the
shank of the punch may be inserted in the socket,
the chamfered surfaces 25—36 cooperating to
force the detent out of the socket, permitting full
insertion of the tool, after which release of the 50
upward pressure against the plunger 30 permits
the wedge 32 to move downwardly, forcing the
‘detent 33 back into the punch socket, and into
engagement with the slot 24 in. the punch shank.
The tool is thereupon locked against removal,
since no amount: of force in the direction 31 gen_
erated by downward pull upon the tool is suili
cient to force the'wedge 32 upwardly. It will
shoulder formed by the reduced portion 28 of the ‘ be noted that the engagement of the locking sur
face 35 of the detent with the inclined surface 24’
ber 30 to urge the pin downwardly. Secured to of the punch shank slot tends to force the punch
. aperture and bears at its other end-against mem
‘the upper vextremity of the pin and arranged
transversely thereof is the wedglng‘cam member
32, which is housed within the depression formed
upwardly within its socket, and thus'maintains
by the slot 26, and of course also serves as a
cation. or “slopping” of the punch shank in the
socket, which might, upon subjection of the tool
to hard and rapid usage, result in peening of the
upper end of the punch shank, or crystallization
of the metal subjected to the percussion thus
stop to limit downward movement of the pin 29.
Also within the depression formed by the slot
‘ 2G, slidably ?tting between the bac?ng plate and
the bottom of the slot and arranged between the
70 wedging member 32 and the punch socket 2|, is
i the locking detent 33, the central portion of
which, since the punch socket and the depression
the top of the punch in engagement with the top
of the socket, preventing longitudinal recipro
generated. The top of the punch socket and re
tainer recess 26 may if desired be closed by a
backing plate, as 39, secured to the top of the
plate 20 in any suitable fashion, as. by the same
screws 40 which-secure the retainer block to the
75 the wedge 32 as the latter is forced- downwardly -. punch holder 4|. In the backing plate is formed
26 intersect, normally projects into the socket,
being forced thereinto by the cam-like action of
20'
face 32' of the wedge 32 and the rear [surface 33’
of the detent 33 are arranged at a wedging angle,
so that'the wedge cannot be urged upwardly by
lateral pressure exerted through the detent, the
inclined engaging surface 24" of the punch shank
aperture is not arrangedat a locking angle rela
tively to the portion of the locking surface 35 of
GO
$1.
3.
2,107,581
/
a clearance ‘slot or aperture 42 wherein the wedge shearing blade and the retainer block, through
member \32 is permitted to move upwardly, as the thin wall of which between the blade and punch shank the detent must project, make it im
shown in\ Figure '5.
_
'
,
Preferably the shank of the tool is ?attened as possible to hold the aperture through which the
at 43 immediately above the locking slot, and the detent works ‘to close limits, or to hold the two
\detent'is movable rearwardiy only far enough to sections of the aperture in exact alignment. If
permit full insertion of the tool when this ?at then the design of the interchangeable retainer
43 is aligned with the detent, which thus also .is such as is commonly the case, that the detent
serves as a pilot preventing improper insertion of
and its aperture must fit to close limits, such an
the tool with the locking groove disaligned with
installation islmpossible.
the detent.
construction on the other hand, the detent works
through what may be termed a clearance: slot
only. The size limits of these parts are rela
tively unimportant and need not be close. The
locking means may be installed in the body of
the blade in the manner shown in Figure 6, with
the detent member 332 projecting through ‘an
__
'
Although only parts of the illustrative punch
press appear in the drawings, it will be seen that
in Figure 1 a "button” die is shown arranged for
cooperative reception of the punch. The die,
whether of this or any other removable type, may
of course also be positioned by one of our im
proved retainers, although a showing thereof
is not included, inasmuch as it would serve merely
20 to unnecessarily elaborate the drawings.
.
It will be seen that close size IlmitsJneed not be
observed in forming the lockill? Parts or the aper
tures in which they move, and that the detent 33,
wedge 32 and rod 2! may be formed of bar stock
which is rolled in manufacture to the desired
cross section, and then out oil to the desired
lengths.- The retainer block 20 may be of low
carbon steel, which is copper-plated before ?nal
reaming of the punch socket 2i and detent slot
30 26, after which it may be case-hardened upon
only these surfaces from which the copper-‘plat
ing has been removed.
The apertures 44 are
With our improved
/
aperture (undesignated) in the front of the block
20’. The plunger 302 by means of which the
punch is released is then also easily accessible 20
from the front of the tool, making this a desir
able method of installation even though there
might be room for the retainer in the block 202
behind the punch. Analogous parts to those
shown and described in connection with ‘the first
embodiment will be seen to have been. given like
‘reference numerals with the addition of prime
exponents. Their similar funotioningwill‘ be
easily understood, and detailed repetition of the
description of these parts will accordingly be 30
omitted as unnecessary.
>
-
Figure '7 shows another somewhat modified
, preferably of reamer drill size, and the block. form particularly adapted for use in connection
being unhardened, it may in assembly upon the
with long punches which project farther from
35 tool be positioned upon the punch holder, the
the holder than is usual. Such a punch is shown
at 233. In this embodiment 'the punch socket
is formed of an individually hardened and ground
bushing 2|3 which may be press ?tted in the un
hardened retainer block 203 and provided with
a ?ange as 43 at itsupper end which serves to
holes drilled in the latter by means of a full sized
drill, using theblock as a template, and both
apertures then reamed at once, thus making dis
alignment virtually impossible.
40
By reason of the lateral engagement of the
‘rearward extensions 34 of the detent with the
sides of the wedge member, the detent is‘posi
additionally position it when clamped beneath
the backing plate 393 upon assembly of the re
' tively positioned against lateral displacement
tainer upon the‘ punch holder in the manner
without the necessity of employing any other shown. The socket bushing 2|3 projects down‘
guides except the backing plate and the bottom ' wardly from the retainer block to form a support
of the slot 26. Thus the slot may be opened at for the elongated punch shank, as clearly shown
its ends, and thus also a plurality of detents and in the drawings. The top of .the socket bushing
wedge members may be arranged in a single is cut away as. at 4'! (Figures 9 and 10) to permit
elongated ‘slot when a series of punches is em ' the detent member 333 to enter the locking groove
243 in the tool shank. If a stripper plate as 48
ployed.v Note in this connection the typical se
ries arrangement shown in. Figure 8, in which which is rigidly fixedto the bed or table of the
the single elongated slot 26=is designed to ac
machine is employed, it may carry a pilot bush
commodate a piurality‘of detents 333 and inter
ing as 49 adapted to serve as a guide for the socket
?tting wedge members 323, the former of which
bushing 2 is, to properly align the punch with the
die 50, and thus prevent damage to either in
engage a. plurality of punches as 233 having their
sides carrying the retaining grooves exposed to
the slot. The series arrangement shown in this
view will presently be described in greater detail.
In Figure 6 is shown an illustrative embodl- '
60 ment typifying the ease with which our improved
retainer is installable in tool assemblies now con
sidered impossible of adaptation to interchange
able retainers. In this construction, which will be
recognized as typical, aforming or shearing blade
65 45 is carried by the press adjacent the punch
23"’, the punch retainer block 20' being thereby
necessarily limited in size; vIf, as in the construc
tion shown, one of the seeming screws as 4!!2 lies
immediately behind the punch, it becomes a dif
70 ficult matter toginstall an interchangeable re
tainer of any of the types now known, as if an
attempt is made to put ordinary retainers in the
body of the blade member 45 in the manner in
which our improved retainer is shown installed,
75 the differences of hardness of the metals, of the
event of any sloppiness in the punch holder-a
common condition. The remaining analogous
parts have been given like reference numerals
with cube exponents.
-
.
As shown in Figure 8, the socket bushings 2i3 (it)v
formv a convenient means whereby a. number of
punches. may be arranged in an elongated se
ries in a retainer bar as 203 which may be of un
hardened metal. At the present time great dif
?culty isencountered in arranging a long series
of punches in a single bar carrying interchange
able retainers for cooperation with a similarly
arranged series of dies which are usually also
mounted in an elongated bar, as after drilling
the socket holes the bars must, be hardened, .70
throwing the punch and die sockets in their re
spective bars out of alignment, and each punch
and die socket must then be individually ground
and by such grinding aligned with the opposed
socket in the other bar-21, slow and expensive 75
time
operation.
with the’ improved construction
vshown, on the other hand, the punch retainer
bar may be left unhardened and the holes for .
thereof’abutting the detent, and being adapted
\when the tool is so‘ fully inserted and the detent
is projected to engage in the ‘slot in the _tool
the socket bushings 2|a drilled upon proper cen
shank.
ters, the bushings which are of course previously
hardened‘ and ground, (a simple production op
3. In a metal forming device, a holdena blade
like forming member carried thereby, a‘ tool re
.
eration upon such pieces) are then ‘press ?tted tainer block carried‘ by the holder adjacent the
into the bar, which is then completed insofar as blade and having a tool sockettherein, a channel
the arrangement of the punch sockets therein formed of registering openings in the blade mem
10 is concerned. The die bar is oi‘ course similarly
ber and retainer block, and tool locking means 10
formed, and it will be understood that the same carried by the blade member and including a
retaining means is preferably employed in con
.detent in the channel movableinwardly and out
junction with the dies (and that it is equally _ wardly of the socket.
adaptable to other tools as well). The detent
4. Injcombination with a tool having“ a trans
15 members as 333 and wedges as 323 may be housed
versely slotted shank, a tool retainer compris
in a single elongated slot 283 traversing the bar. ing a member socketed to receive the tool shank,
As indicated in Figure 11, more than ‘one tool a detent member projectableiinto, the socket to
as 234 may be held by a single detent, as 334, . engage the slot in the tool shank and movable
and punches, for example, may in this manner therefrom to release the same, a wedging mem
20 be positioned as close together as desired, or as
the‘ walls between the die sockets will] permit.
The punch shanks may even be somewhat ?at
tened on their meeting sides to permit closer
spacing if desired.
25
'
‘
Ourpreferred (contouring of the assembled re-'
tainer blocks and backing plates is best brought
out in plan 'view Figures 12 and 13, showing
typical nestings of punch retainers of‘ various
sizes, and bringing out the manner in which their
30 shaping permits arrangement of a plurality of
punches on close centers though mounted in
standardized retainers; As shown in Figure 12
the nose of each retainer block as 205 ‘is rounded
' . concentrically about the axis of thepunch socket
'
H5, and is ?lleted or flared outwardly as at 53 to
meet the side walls of the retainer only at a
point well back of the nose of the block and
punch axis. This back radius of the ?are .is
preferably greater than the nose radius of the
40 largest block, which assists the inter?tting of the
retainers, as shown, with a minimum spacing less
35
than is ordinarily obtainable.
'
'
While it will be apparent that the illustrated
embodiments of our invention herein disclosed
45 are well calcuiated to adequately ful?ll the ob
jects and advantages herein stated, it is to be
understood that the invention is susceptible to
,variation, modi?cation and change withinfthe
spirit and scope of the subjoined claims‘.
50
What we claim is:
ber arranged substantially behindethe detent’
member for looking they detent member in pro
jected position, and means for moving the'wedge
member to lock or release the detent at will, the
slotted area of the tool shank engaged'by the
detent being disposed at a large angle relatively
to the tool socket, whereby the detent urges the
toolfarther in’the socket as the detent is forced
toward the shank.
,
5.~ In combination withra tool retainer having
a socket therein, a tool having a shank insertable 30
in the socket, the shank being provided with a
transverse depression having an inclined face
arranged at a large angle relatively to the shank,
a detent member having a portion curved ‘about
an axis transverse to that of the socket and pro
jectable into the socket for‘ cooperative engage
‘ment with they inclined face of the depression
ing urged thereagainst urges. the tool shank in 40
wardly of the socket.
6. In a tool retainer‘, a block member having a
tool socket therein and a depression in its rear
surface adjacent and intersecting the socket, a
backing plate arranged over the depression and
having an aperture therein also overlying part
of the depression, a detent'member in the de
pression con?ned by the bottom thereof and by
the backing plate and slidable therebetween and
inwardly and outwardly of the tool socket, and an
actuating member for the detent movable trans
versely of the groove and backing plate and in
rear surface adjacent and intersecting the socket,
the aperture in the latter.
7. In combination with a tool having a shank,
a depression in the side of the shank, and a longi
55 detent member slidable in the depression be
tween and con?ned by the bottom of the latter
and the backing plate which thus cooperate to
tudinally' arranged guiding portion carried by the
shank and extending from the depression :to its
form a slideway, said detent member havingv an
end, a retainer comprising a block having a tool
inclined rear‘surface, an actuating member for‘. socket therein, a detent carried by the block and
60 the detent member movable laterally of the path movable inwardly and outwardly of the socket
of movement of the detent member having a but having a portion adapted to project partially
wedging portion within the depression engage
into thev tool socket when the detent is fully re
able with said inclined rear surface of the detent. tracted and engageable with the guiding portion
2. In combination with a tool having a shank,
65 a transverse slot in the shank and a ?at surface
above vthe transverse slot and extending the en
tire distance to the end of the shank, a retainer
including 'a retainer block having a socket there
' in adapted to receive the tool shank, a detent
70 carried by the
outwardly of
therefrom, the
into the socket
block and movable inwardly and
the socket. but not completely
detent being arranged to project
when retracted to the limit of its
travel a su?icient distance to prevent fuli inser
75 tion of the tool except with the ?at surface
LI
in the shank, whereby the detent engages the
tool shank along a transverse line, and upon be
1. In a tool retainer, a block member having
a tool socket therein and a depression in its
a backing plate arranged over the depression, a '
0
0
.of the tool shank while the tool is being inserted
to prevent insertion of the tool except with such
surfaces in desired relation.
'
8. In a metal forming device, a holder, 9. blade
like forming member carried thereby, a punch,
and means for removably supporting the punch
in the holder, comprising a retainer carried by
‘the holder having a socket therein for the punch
and arranged adjacent the blade, the blade mem
ber and retainer having aligned apertures there
in forming a channel intersecting the socket, and
punch locking means including a detent movable
2,107,581
in said channel in and outwardly of the socket
and operable from the opposite side of the form
ing member to that occupied by the socket.
9. In combination with a tool having a shank
and a transverse slot in the shank, a tool re
tainer comprising a, member socketed to receive
a tool shank, a detent member projectable into
5
members to force the detents into the sockets,
and engaging portions carried by the cam mem
bers and detents adapted to prevent displace
ment of the detent members .along the channel‘
without preventing the described actuative 5
movement of the detents.
"
11. In a tool retainer having a socket therein
the socket to engage an upper surface of the slot and a channel transversely intersecting the sock
in the tool shank, a wedging member for main
et and wider than the maximum width of that
10 taining the detent in projected position, said up
part ‘of the socket which it intersects, a detent 10
per surface of the slot in the tool shank being‘ar
member slidable in the channel" toward and
ranged at less than a wedging angle with respect from the axis of the socket and soiinwardly and
to the direction of projection of the detent mem
outwardly thereof, said detent extending into
ber, whereby the engagement of the detent and said portions of the channel wider than the in
15 said surface of the slot in the tool shank urges
tersected part of the socket and being supported 15'
the tool inwardlyof the socket as the detent by said portions when projected‘ into the socket.
is urged toward the shank, and means for re
12. In a tool retainer having a socket therein,
leasing the wedge member.
'
a detent member having a portion curved about
10. Means for removably supporting a plu
an axis transverse to the socket and projectable
rality of tools, comprising an elongated retainer
having a plurality of tool sockets therein and
extending substantially therethrough, a channel
extending along the opposite surface of the re
tainer from which the tools are intended to pro
26 ject and intersecting the sockets, a plurality of
detents arranged in the channel and so movable
transversely thereof that one may be projected
laterally into and substantially withdrawn from
each socket, an actuating cam member arranged
30 behind‘ each detent, means for moving the cam
thereinto, said detent having a supporting base 20
portion projecting at either end beyond the inter
sected portion of the socket and within the pe
ripheral line thereof whenyiewed from the side,
said detent having a substantially ?at inclined
rear surface, and a wedging cam arranged be
hind the detent and having a similarly inclined
flat surface in engagement therewith.
JOHN H. PARSONS.
'mwarmca s. 1m.
30
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