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Патент USA US2107675

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Feb. 8, 1938.
Filed July 3l, 1937
2 Sheè’ßS-Sheet l
Feb. 8, 1938.
Filed July 31, 1937
2~ Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Feb. 8, 1938
Eugene A. McKelvy, Ardmore, Pa.
Application July 31, 1937, serial No. 150,843
5 Claims. (Cl. 263-51)
The principal objects of the present invention
and having its ends inclined toward each other
are first: to obtain improved results in the. in the opposite direction, upwards in the drawings,
checkerbrick or checkerwork of regenerative
chambers of heating -and melting furnaces of all
5 kinds, and in hot blast stoves used in blast fur
nace equipment by the use of slightly modified
substantially standard sizes of brick, in novel
scale and showing two of the bricks of Fig. 1 in
superposed relation with their surfaces of corre
sponding area in contact with each other.
intricate shapes of fire clay brick; second: to
structure built up of the bricks referred to and l0
showing at the upper left hand portion a course
of bricks which is superposed on the course of
brick shown at the remaining portion of the fig
ure; the latter part of Fig. 4 being a section on
the line 4-4 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 5-5
of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a. view similar to Fig. 4 showing a
different bond in the bricks; and
ily be used to replace present checkerwork in
any stoves now in use; fifth: to provide, when
20 desired, “a basket weave" locked brickwork of
Fig. 2 is an end view of the brick shown in Fig. 1.
I Fig. 3 is a perspective view drawn to a reduced 5
arrangement and even of only one size, and of
simple design as distinguished from the use of
increase the heat transfer efficiency and also the
heating surface in respect to other constructions
of the type referred to and having fiues of the
same average size; third: to provide for the con
struction of f'lues of any size by a slight change
in the dimensions of the brick; fourth: to pro
vide a checkerbrick construction which can read
or a “skewed" brick.
rigid construction and one in which there will be
much less shifting of checkerwork than in any
other present construction with which I am fa
miliar; sixth: to insure turbulence in the flowing
gases; seventh: to provide for ease in cleaning
the fiues; eighth: to facilitate the job of brick
laying; ninth: to enable quick repair with stand
ard size brick in an emergency; tenth: to facili
tate the use of fillers whenever the same may be
30 required; eleventh: to provide for iiues of any
desired size and walls of any practical thickness;
twelfth: to provide for by-passing gas when de
sired; thirteenth: to permit of zoning when de
sired; fourteenth: to provide bricks of a shape
that can be manufactured without special equip
ment; and fifteenth: to permit the bricks by
reason of their shape to be made of super-re
Other objects of the invention will appear from
40 the following description at the end of which the
invention will be claimed.
Generally stated the invention consists of a
checkerbrick structure comprising a plurality of
Fig. 4 is a top or plan view of a basket weave
Fig. '7 is a sectional elevation taken on the 20
line 1_1 of Fig. 6.
Referring more particularly to Figs. 1 to 5, the
bricks employed may well be designated arched
skewed bricks, meaning that their faces I are
inclined towards each other in one direction and
their ends 2 are inclined towards each other in
the opposite direction. From this it results that
the area of one of the other surfaces 3 exceeds
the area of the other surface 4. The surfaces 3
and 4 may be referred to as top and bottom surfaces and for clearness the surface 3 will be called
the bottom surface. These bricks are laid in
basket weave construction and they provide fiues
5 generally square in cross section. The fiues are
of alternately increasing and diminishing cross
section in the respective courses. Referring to
Fig. 5 at a and considering the courses from
the bottom upward the flues are of decreasing
cross section, whereas at b they are of increasing
cross section and this is true of all four walls
defining the flue.
The invention also comprises the improvements
to be presently described and finally claimed.
In the following description reference will be
made to the accompanying drawings forming
part hereof and in which,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a brick having
its faces inclined towards each other in one direc
55 tion, downward in Fig. 1, or an “arch” brick,
'I'he gradually and uniformly diminishing and
increasing cross section of the fiues is in a sense
arched and skewed bricks built up in “basket , a squeeze area causing small squirts, which keep
46 weave” or other bond construction and providing
in the structure fiues of alternately increasing
and diminishing cross section.
the flowing gases and air swirling, so that they 45
come in contact with all faces of the brickwork
forming the fiues and there is no dead center in
the column of air or gas passing thru the fiues.
,The inclined surfaces of the brickwork in the fiues
form impact planes against which the gases and 50
air are thrown rather than merely rushing by as
they do in a straight wall construction.
The construction and mode of operation of the
modification shown in Figs. 6 and 7 are as above
described except that a basket weave structure 55
2,107,675 '
is not employed but the bricks are bonded as
shown in the drawings in staggered relation.
The -construction 'described is particularly
adapted for use in hot blast stove construction in
which apparatus, adjacent to a blast furnace,
the brick work is heated by burning gases and
then called upon to give- up the heat for raising
the temperature of the air blast on its way to
the blast furnace. The construction can be
10 used in stoves of all sizes and in the one- two
three- and four-pass types.
every 9" in the flue, filling to a large extent the
enlarged flue at these points and not requiring any
bottom support since it is held in position by the
inclined sides of the checkerwork. Such'a filler
block is indicated at X in Figure 6.
Where oblong flues are preferred-as they have
frequently been in the past, the described check
erwork lends itself to that construction. In
stead of the basket weave bond the bricks are
staggered, overlapping at the ends, to give the 10
desired length of flue, Figs. 6 and 7. In this
While large flues are used when dirty gas is
burned and very small ñues when entirely clean
gas is used there seems to be a happy medium
15 where a flue of 3" x3” is indicated, which an
swers all purposes in this construction for both
(clean and dirty gas. In a hot blast stove where
a 3” x 3" ñue is desired the construction of bas
ket weave of bricks of the desired shape pro
20 vides a locked brickwork of rigid construction
and one in which there will be comparatively lit
case one brick is laid directly upon the one be
low it butv reversed so that they form perfect
alignment. The angle of bevel of the sides and
ends can be increased or diminished, thus giving
any corrugated effect desired with the thought
of increasing or decreasing turbulence. In this
staggered bond the bricklaying is a little more
difficult since the lapped joints must all be of
the same size and in a course, one row will have 20
the long ydimensions upand the next row the
short dimensions up. 'In the course above the
same brick are used but reversed, so that'once
the bottom course has been laid out the brick
laying then becomesA almost as simple as in the 25
for the entire construction. The brick is skewed ' basket vweave construction, and as in that case
on each end from the large dimension to the only the one brick is required for the entire sys
small, so that the finished checker brick is (9" x tem.
8") X41/2 (2x3). One course is laid withthe
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art
30 large end down and the course above with the .
'to which the invention relates that modifications 30
tle shifting of the checker-brick in respect to
-usual constructions.
For a 3”X3" flue a standard 9*’x3" No. 3
25 arch with skewed ends is employed and it serves
small end down in the well known basket weave
construction. 'I'he brick are soV tapered and
skewed as to fit one into the other one.
The re
sulting vertical flue course has a 21/2" opening
at the bottom and 41/2" above the flue with an
opening of 31/2" x 31/2'l and the next course 41/2"
above the opening is back to 21/2” x 21/2” and so
on all thru the construction. This makes an
average flue dimension of 3"X3". Asstated
40 above, if a larger or smaller ilue is desired, the
dimensions of the same brick can be changed
and it will still remain a modified 9" straight in '
commercial use as well known to the manu
facturers and`users of fire brick.
Of course this
45 description is given by way of explanation rather
than limitation. It has been established that
the wall thickness for the best storage of heat
in checkerbrick construction is somewhere be
tween 2" and 3" thick, that is the dimension of
50 the walls in the described construction and it
makes for increased storage capacity over other
designs now in use and with which I am fa
miliar. Where walls are less than 2” in thick
ness there is not the storage capacity for heat
55 although they are more quickly heated up and
in walls where the thickness is over 3” there is
a lost area in the center of the wall which is of
little value. In addition to the better storage
capacity the described construction provides an
60 increased heating surface due to the batter of
the side walls. In the described construction
the flues present plane surfaces and can be
readily cleaned if clogged as by dirty gas. The
fact that one simple brick shape can be used
65 reduces the cost of the construction and lends
itself to quicker repair with ordinary brick in
case of an emergency.
Where the basket weave construction is em
ployed with rectangular bottom brick it lends
70 itself to a simpler steel grid bottom construc
tion now in vogue than any of the intricate
shapes now on the market and with which I
am familiar. In cases where not enough stove
capacity is available a sphere or ellipsoid or
75 spheroid or other odd shaped filler can be used
may be made in details of construction and ar
rangement lwithout departing from the spirit of
the invention which is not limited as to such
matters or otherwise than the prior art and the
appended claims may require.
I claim:
1. A checkerwork brick, structure for regen
erative chambers comprising a plurality of re
fractory brick of the 'form of an oblong hexa
hedron having end surfaces of equal area in 40
clined towards each other in one direction and
having side faces of equal area inclined toward
each other in the opposite direction and having
the other two faces parallel and of unequal areas,
said brick built >up in bonded construction and
providing in the structure vertical fiues of pro
gressively increasing and diminishing cross sec
2. A checkerwork brick structure for regen
erative chambers comprising a- plurality of re
fractory brick of the form of an oblong hexa
hedron having end surfaces of equal area in
clined towards each other in one direction and
having side faces of equal area inclined toward
eachother in the opposite direction and having
the other two faces Aparallel and of unequal
areas, said brickvbuilt up in basket weave con
struction with their inclined ends and inclined
sides in contact with each other and providing
in the structure vertical fiues of'progressively 60
increasing and diminishing square cross sec
3. The construction substantially as described
in claim 1 and provided with fillers held in posi
tion by the inclined walls which define the de 65
scribed cross section of the flue.
4. A checkerbrick construction comprising a
plurality of -bricks each of the form of an ob
long hexahedron having end faces of equal area
and inclined toward each other in one direc 70
tion and having side faces of equal area in
clined toward each other in the opposite direc
tion and having the two other faces parallel and
of unequal areas, and said brick built up with
parts of their inclined side faces in contact with
each other, providing Ilues of progressively in
creasing and diminishing oblong cross sectional
5. A refractory brick of the form of an oblong
hexahedron having end faces of equal area and
inclined towards leach other in one direction
and having side faces of equal area and inclined
toward each other in the opposite direction and
having the other two faces parallel and of un
equal area.
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