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Патент USA US2107703

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Patented Feb. 8, 1938 v
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AND woon
Archibald John Hall, New Bastard, Nottingham,
England, assignor of one-third to William
Norton ?icking and one-third to Stephen
James Pentecost,‘ both of New Basford, Not
° tingham, England
No Drawing. Application June 27, 1936, Serial ‘
N0. 87,805. In Great Britain July 17', 1935
5 Claims. (Cl. 8--20)
This invention relates to the treatment of ma
or dispersed in liquid which is substantially inert
terials consisting wholly or, partly of wool and to the sulphuryl chloride and to the wool under
which'may be in the form of loose ?bres or in the conditions of its employment, preferably a
a manufactured form such as yarn and fabric
5 and has for its object to reduce or substantially
volatile organic solvent for sulphuryl chloride.
The conditions under which the wool must 5
eliminate their usual tendency vto felt when be treated with sulphuryl chloride to reduce to
washed in aqueous liquors. H
any desired degree its tendency ‘to felt may be
In describing this .invention the term felt is varied widely. For example, the temperature of
to be understood to refer to that property of treatment may be varied from hot to cold, the
10 ordinary wool which causes the individual fibres wool may vary from wet to dry, and the duration 10
to close upon each other in washing, or other of the treatment may be short or prolonged.
treatment in an aqueous liquor in which the
I have found generally that increase in the
wool material is repeatedly squeezed and rubbed, initial moisture content of the wool, increase in
so that the wool material becomes denser and the temperature oifv treatment, increase in the
15 more compact. ,This property of felting is re-. concentration or amount of sulphuryl chloride
‘ sponsible for the shrinkage which wool ‘yarns applied to the wool,. increase in the duration of 15'
and fabrics suffer when washed. .-Structurally, the treatment all independently enhance the
the raw wool ?bre comprises a central portion or‘
effect of sulphuryl chlqride‘i'n reducing the tend
cortex, with a coating protecting the same, this ? ency of wool to felt. For example, 100 lbs. (45
20 coating being visible as discontinuous- areas un
kilos) of air-dry wool fabric may be made sub 20
der the microscope and, being known as the “epi
thelial scales”. Edges of these scales project stantiallyv non-felting by treating it for one hour
‘from the general surface and cause a type of at 20° ‘C. with 50 gallons (227 litres) of white
interlocking during mechanical working or mill- ' spirit (which for the particular example has a
speci?c gravity of 0.81) containing 1 gallon (2%
25 ing, which results‘in a felting as the fibres can
.not slide one on another. It has heretofore been by volume) of sulphuryl chloride or by exposing
it in the wet state for about 5 minutes at 40° C.
proposed to avoid such‘ felting effects by chlori
nation, but a chlorination sufilcient to prevent to the vapour of sulphuryl chloride. In gen
felting caused a. resulting change in these epi
eral I_ prefer to treat the wool in its normal air
ao thelial scales to such an extent that the fabric dry state with sulphuryl chloride at room tem
formed from such ?bers has, suffered damage and perature. that is 15° to 20° C., but when desir
is harsh to the feel, and the cortex is in part able-I ?nd it easy by simple trials to establish
. exposed so that wear is rapid and wetting easy. I other conditions for achieving the same result.
Furthermore. the chlorinating agents'often had
In most cases, treatment of 100 lbs. (45 kilos)
as "the characteristic ‘of rapid action but were not of normal air dry wool for one hour at 15 to 20°
able to penetrate quickly throughout the mass ‘of C. with 50 gallons (227 litres) of a suitable sol
material treated-so that there was lack of uni
vent containing 1v gallon (2% by volume) of sul
formity both in respect to individual ?bres and
with respect to the ?bres as a mass.
I have discovered, and this discovery forms th
basis of my present invention, that the tendency
of wool to felt may be reduced by treating it
with sulphui'yl chloride. After such treatment
it is desirable to remove unchanged sulphuryl
phuryl chloride almost entirely eliminates the
tendency of wool to felt so that it is thereby made
. substantially 'unshrinkable.
As solvent it is possible to use any liquid which
is substantially inert to sulphuryl chloride and
which does not harm the wool, and it is prefer- -
46 chloride and its decomposition products to an
able that it should be cheap and easily removed 45
extent such that the wool will not deteriorate ‘from the wool after treatment by washing with
during subsequent- storage. In order to secure water or voiatilizatlon. Among the solvents found
uniform treatment of the wool material I have
‘ foundit convenient to apply the sulphurylchlo
50 ride in the forxnof its vapour or whilst dissolved
satisfactory are white spirit, (a petroleum frac
tion {much used‘in large-q-scale dry-cleaning and
having a typical boiling point range from 160 to, 50
250° C. and speci?c gravity of 0.78 to 0.84), car-' . means as are usually employed in wool carboni
' bon tetrachloride, ether, and trichlorethylene.
Whilst this, invention may be used to make wool
substantially non-felting it is apparent that the
conditions of treatment with sulphuryl chloride
zation processes.‘
In the procedures according to the examples
set out herein the wool is rendered substan
tially non-felting, but there is no substantial
damage to the epithelial scales and these remain
may be made less severe or otherwise modi?ed
so that the wool isv left with any desired inter- - distinct and substantially uniform throughout
- the mass of ?bres and these treated ?bres thus
mediate (reduced) tendency to felt.
constitute a substantially uniform product, with
An advantage of the employment of a solu
out substantial loss in softness, color or strength.
10 tion of sulphuryl chloride in white spirit or simi
I have also found that wooltreated by this
lar solvent is that such solution has high pene
‘invention acquires a moderately vincreased a?in
trating power and is thus able to penetrate rap
idly and completely wool in package form, for ity for acid dyes. _
In working this invention I have found that
example, tops ‘of wool, and wool yarn in skeins,
in treating 100 lbs; (45 kilos) the. loss of solvent
15 and wool yarn wound tightly in the form of cops.
Further, in applying sulphuryl chloride dissolved - is about 1% gallons (6.75 litres) and of sulphuryl
chloride about half a gallon (‘2.25 litres), but it
in an organic solvent to raw or oily wool, the sol
vent removes a large part of the fats and greasy will be readily understood that these amounts are
impurities so that. the wool may afterwards be? only approximate and will vary with the condi-'
20 the more easily puri?ed by scouring processes. tions and apparatus used.
Instead of using sulphuryl chloride as such, its
The following are examples of the manner in
which I carry out this invention but it :mustbe components sulphur dioxide and chlorine may
.1 _
clearly understood that the conditions of time, also be used. /
Example '5.---Wool fabric or yarn is exposed to
temperature, concentration, etc., stated therein
25 ‘are by way of ‘illustration only, and do' not a mixture of sulphur dioxide and chlorine. or
successively to sulphur dioxide and chlorine in
- limit this invention in, any way. either order. Occluded gas may then be re
Example 1.-—20'lbs. ;(9'kilos) of .normal air
dry scoured knitted wool fabric is steeped for moved by a current of warm air. The fabric or
one hour at 18° C. in a solution of 0.2 gallon yarn-is ?nally washed and dried.
I declare that what I claim is:
‘so (0.9 litres) of sulphuryl chloride in 10 gallons
l. The process of rendering wool substantially
(45 litres) of white spirit. The fabric is then
withdrawn and hyd'roextracted until only 0.3 - non-felting, which consists in reacting all ?bers
gallon (1.6 litres) of the treating liquor remain thereof with sulphuryl chloride, and withdraw
in it, whilst the remaining 9.’! gallons (43.4 litres) ing the same from such reaction while the epi
35 are collected for use in treating fresh wool. The
' hydroextracted fabric is then washed with'cold
water, neutralized with a dilute aqueous solution
‘of ammonia, washed with water, and dried.
Example 2.—20 lbs. (9 kilos) loose raw wool is
thelial scales are substantially undamaged and
substantially uniform throughout the mass of
?bres and the product-uniformly has the non
felting characteristics of air-dry wool which has
been treated for a‘ time of one hour with a two
40 steeped for one hour at 18° C. in 10 ‘gallons (45 » percent by volume solution of ' sulphuryl chloride 40
litres) of white spirit containing 0.2 gallon (0.9, in an inert organic’ solvent thereof initially at
litres) of sulphuryl chloride. The wool is then room temperature.
2. The process of rendering air-dried wool subhydroextracted, washed with water, neutralized
with a dilute aqueous solution of sodium car
bonate, washed, and dried. Yarns and fabrics
made from this wool are substantially unshrink
Example 3.--Skeins of wool yarn are suspended
Y within a chamber and the air then exhausted by
50 means of a. vacuum pump. The vapour of sul
phuryl chloride is then admitted and allowed
to- react with the wool until a sample with
drawn is found to be substantially‘ non-felting.
The whole of the wool is then withdrawn, pref
erably after ?rst‘ blowing out the residual sul
phuryl chloride vapour with a current of dry
air, then washed, neutralized, washed and dried.
' stantially non-felting, which consists in immersi
ing it in a solution of sulphuryl chloride in white 45
spirit of a concentration of about two percent
by volume initially at room temperature, and
withdrawing the same from the solution after'
substantially one hour of immersion and prior ‘
to substantial change of its softness and prior 50
to substantial damage to its epithelial scales.
3. The process of rendering wool substantially
non-felting, which consists in immersing it in a
solution of sulphuryl chloride in white spirit of
a concentration of about two percent by volume,
removing the wool therefrom prior to substan
tial change of its softness and prior to substan
Example 4.-20 lbs. (9 kilos) wool yarn in the ~ tial damage to its epithelialscales, washing the
form ‘of cops with paper centres are steeped for
one and one-quarter hours at 18° C. in 10 gal
lons (45 litres) of white spirit containing 0.2
gallon (0.9 litres) of sulphuryl chloride. Alter
' natively the vsame liquor is ‘circulated through‘
the cops in a machine suitable for this purpose.
65 The cops are then hydroextracted, and dried in
a current of warm air.
treated wool, neutralizing with an aqueous solu-,
tion of basic inorganic agent which forms water
soluble sulphate and chloride salts, and wash
ing with water to remove water-soluble salts.
4."The process of rendering wool substantially
non-felting and of eliminating vegetable cellulose
matterstherefrom, which consists in reacting all
?bres thereof with sulphuryl chloride, withdraw
I have found that vthis inventioncan be con-. ing the same from such reaction while the epi
thelial scales are substantiallyundamaged and
veniently worked in conjunction-with the car
substantially uniform throughout the mass of
bonizing of wool. Thus, when raw wool con
70 taining burr impurities is steeped in a solution ?bres, removing excess solution; heating the 70
of sulphuryl chloride in white. spirit so as to make treated material to effect carbonization of cel
it non-felting, and __is then hydroextracted and lulosic matter present, the effects of said con
tacting and heating yielding a product which
uniformly has the non-felting characteristics‘ of
75 and can be removed from the wool by the same air-dry wool which has been treated for a time 75
.' placed for about half an hour in a chamber at
85° to\90°_ C., the burrs are thereby disintegrated
2,107,703 >
tion of sulphuryl chloride in an inert organic
.herent to the cortex during working in an aque
0118 both, said ?bres hevin: been reacted upon
by a limited concentration of eulphuryl chloride
for a limited period of time equivalent to the
mechanically working and removing the resulting
disintegrated ceilulosic residue from the wool
undamaged 'epltheliel scale: which remnin od
. solvent thereof initially at room temperature, and
of‘ one hour with it two percent by volume solu
5. A textile material containing wool'?bres
treatment 01' air-dry wool for one hour in a bath
of eulphuryl chloride in white spirit at a con
which‘are substantially uniform in 'character- _ centration of two percent by volume initially at
istics, and are non-felting and have substantially
unchanged the softness and color of the 1m—,v
treated wool and 'ha've distinct and substantially
room temperature.
mnmunlaonn mm
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