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Патент USA US2107713

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, Feb. 8,1938.
' Original Filed Dec/10,‘ 1928
2 She'ets-Shect 1
xri/aazer 1e. eon/Lima,
[wax/v: anew/5 \sM/rw,
6mg $14144
Feb. 0, 1935,
Original File'd Dec; 10, 1928
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2f. 7
695286587‘ ,2. eon/Lawn,
' AY/GfA/t,‘ deem/E ‘SM/77f,
Patented Feb. a, 1938
Herbert R. Rowland and Eugene Jerome Smith,
City, Mo., assignors to Corona Con
Kansas '
version Corporation, a corporation of Arizona
Application December 10, 1928, Serial No. 324,923
Renewed March 7, 1934
14 Claims.
This invention relates to processes of re?ning
mineral oils; and in particular it has to do with
treatment of mineral oils of various kinds for
purifying-and stabilizing the same. The process
8, of the invention is applicable to the treatment of
oil products of widely varying characteristics, in
cluding oils of the motor fuel type, such as gaso
line, especially gasoline derived from cracking
processes, and also kerosenes, lubricating oils, and
(Cl. I 196-42)
ally, and particularly crude motor fuels such as
cracked distillates, to be re?ned in a compara
tive‘ly simple and economical manner to meet the
standard speci?cations for the respective ?nished
In general, the process of the present invention
primarily involves subjecting the oil to be re‘
?ned to a systematic and thorough-going treat
10 other oil products. In, the description herein- '" ment ‘with chlorine, but in such manner as to
effect the desired elimination of impurities or ob
after, however, reference will be made more par, ~jectionable constituents without such drastic 19
ticularly to the treatment of crude motor fuels action upon the oil as a whole that it is funda
or motor fuel distillates of the gasoline type, since mentally altered orits general identifying char
at the present time this is' considered the most acteristics are destroyed.v That is to say, the
important ?eld of application of the invention. ’
oil undergoing treatment is not converted into 15
Crude motor fuels of the gasoline type, espe
an entirely different class of product but merely
cially crude gasglines derived from cracking becomes a more highly re?ned product of the
processes, commonly contain a substantial pro
same general ‘class. The chlorine, of which only
portion of vgums or gum-forming constituents of a relatively very small proportion is employed,
20 unsaturated character, such-as certain diole?ns,
is most desirably introduced into the oil as free 20
which are highly objectionable for variousrrea
chlorine; but the invention is not limited in this
,sons. These crude motor -,fue1 distillates also respect, and it is feasible to employ insteada
often contain substantial quantities of other im
compound yielding chlorine in available form un
purities, notably sulphur, the proportions of
which vary considerably depending upon the
source of the crude oil from which the distillates
are derived. The sulphur‘ is largely present in
the form of more or less complex combinations
der proper operating conditions. The chlorine
acts upon the impuritiesin the oil in a manner 25
not entirely understood. There are some indica
tions that it acts to some extent both as an ox
with the hydrocarbons of the gasoline, and its idizing agent and a polymerizing agent, perhaps
,0 presence causes poor color, disagreeable odor, and catalytically. But whatever may be the precise
nature of this action, the practical, result is' that 30
other objectionable characteristics. Itsremoval if
the chlorine is employed under proper condi
from gasoline, togetherwith the removal of gum-‘
there results a very large reduction in the
forming constituents, constitutes one of the most sulphur
content of the oil. Furthermore there
troublesome problems of the re?ner. Such im
results also an action of some kind upon the gum
35 purities must nevertheless be eliminated 'or re
forming constituents such that upon subsequent 35
duced below certain speci?ed maximum limits in ‘
distillation of the oil undergoing treatment it is
order to comply with standard speci?cations for possible
to reduce the content of these to within
the ?nished product.
tolerance limit if certain conditions to be re- '
The re?ning methods heretofore customarilyv the
to presently are observed in carrying out
40 employed have been the well known acid treat
the distillation.
' ment, principally for elimination of undesirable
An important feature of the chlorine treat
gum-forming unsaturates, and treatment with al— ment of the oil in accordance with the principles
' kaline reagents, such as sodium plumbite (“doc
tor” solution), for removal of sulphur. These
45 methods are complicated, laborious, and very ex
pensive.’ The usual acid treatment with con
centrated sulphuric acid is very drastic and re_—
of the invention consists in allowing a relatively
long period of digestion or reaction to elapse
after introduction of chlorine into the oil to be 45
re?ned. In the best way of practicing the in
vention a digestion period of at least twelve hours
is allowed after introduction of the chlorine into
the oil, and a period of twenty-four hours is still
which are harmful, so that the re?ning losses in better and is to be generally recommended in
this treatment are excessive especially when em
practice. If the oil stands quietly during this di
ploying it for re?ning cracked motor fuel dis-' ‘ gestion period, there results considerable settle
. tillates.
. ->
ment of what appear to be complex sulphur
,One of the principal objects of the present in
chlorine-hydrocarbon compounds which can be
u vention is to enable mineral oil products gener~ drawn off as a sludge from the settling tank.
sults in removing from the oil a large proportion
of desirable unsaturates in addition to those
This prolonged period of digestion is important
highly desirable that the liquid oil in the still
because, in order to minimize undesirable action.
oil were strongly heated; thus causing a large
also be subjected to the action of such contactv
material. Therefore, in the best mode of prac
ticing the invention provision is made for this.
The action of the contact materal, both uponv
the liquid oil in the still and upon the oil vapors,
is of vital importance. Besides assisting in re
moval of sulphur and gums, it appears also to
aid in eliminating from the oil such chlorine as
may have combined with some of the oil hydro 10
carbons, and in this sense to exercise a dechlo
part of the small quantity of chlorine introduced
to be consumed in attacking useful hydrocarbons
rinating function. It is not intended to imply,
however, that there is necessarily any chemical
in the oil, nevertheless ample time must be al
combination formed by the metal or other con
tact material with chlorine in the present process.
In fact, there is some available evidence to the
contrary and it is therefore believed that the ac
tion of the contact material in assisting in re.
moval of chlorine from the oil, or in so acting
upon constitutents which it is sought to remove
or to alter, no reaction-promoting agents or con-i
vditions are employed at this stage. The result
is that, although under these circumstances se
lective or preferential action of the chlorine upon
the contaminating impurities is ultimately at
tained to an extent which would be impossible if,
10 for example, a chlorine carrier were added or the
15 lowed for the completion of the desired action.
of the chlorine upon impurities and the attain
ment of a condition of‘aequilibrium, before the
succeeding steps of the treatment are proceeded
‘This chlorine digestion treatment, although
relatively mild, accomplishes a very substantial
reduction in the sulphur content of a crude mo
tor fuel distillate or other oil product to which
it is applied. In and of itself, however, it does
upon it as to render easy its removal in a subse
quent step, is more that of a catalyst. But what
ever the‘ true explanation may be regarding the
function of the contact material in favoring re
moval of the several impurities referred to, the
ter result in this respect can be obtained by a
employment of such material, more particularly
metallic zinc, in connection with the distillation
which follows the chlorine digestion treatment
has been found very important in obtaining best
light (or incomplete) acid treatment of the oil
results in practicing the new process.
25 not bring about at this stage a su?iciently ex
tensive removal of gum-forming constituents by
precipitation and settlement. A materially bet
30 to be re?ned, preceding the chlorine digestion.
By “incomplete treatment” is here meant that
materially less acidis used than would be re
quired in the customary acid re?ning process.
The combination of the two treatments is found
to be very effective in greatly reducing both the
gum content and the sulphur content. This
preliminary light acid treatment involves not
merely the usual re?ning action characteristic of
. acid treatment, but it appears also to so modify
In conjunction with this polymerizing treat
treatment of great efficiency. This procedure,
which will be described in greater detail here
inafter, is believed to be broadly new in oil re
?ning, especially'in re?ning" cracked motor fuel
distillates, irrespective of whether or not the oil
has received special treatment with chlorine or
the oil that the succeeding steps of treating the other reagent before distillation.
The distillation vapors after receiving the com
oil with chlorine and then distilling are both ren-‘
dered more e?ective than they otherwise would bined polymerizing and fractionating treatment,
are led to a condenser and the resultant motor
be in removing undesirable constituents. Ac
fuel condensate is then given an alkaline wash
cordingly, although the preliminary acid treat
by which remaining traces of chlorine are re
45 ment is not indispensable in the broader aspects
moved, giving a ?nished product of good color
of the invention, it is regarded as highly advan
tageous in many cases, especially where the oil and stability and otherwise meeting the usual
to be re?ned is high in contaminating impurities. 'requirements for marketability. In some cases
Furthermore, the preliminary treatment with a. ?ltration of the condensate through fuller’s earth
relatively small quantity of strong sulphuric acid is‘ desirable in order to improve the color but this
aids in eliminating moisture that may be present is frequently unnecessary.
In order to further explain the principles un
in the crude distillate, and it is of great advan
tage in the present process to avoid the presence ‘derlying the process of the invention, a speci?c
of moisture as far as possible. But it is feasible example 'of its application to the re?ning of a
cracked motor fuel distillate will, now be given;
55 in some cases even to defer the light acid treat
and while the practice of the process is not con
ment until after the chlorine digestion.
After .the chlorine digestion, either with or ?ned ‘to any particular type of apparatus, a novel
without the preliminary light acid treatment, the . form of apparatus which can be used to great
partially re?ned oil is most desirably separated advantage in carrying out the process will be
60 from the sludge or settlings and is run into a described in connection with this speci?c illus
still. The charge is now distilled off, and the trative example. This apparatus is illustrated in
distillation vapors are caused to pass through a the accompanying drawings in which
Fig. 1 is a general view in side elevation, partly
permeable mass of contact material having the
broken away and in section, of a distillation plant
power to arrest and remove, probably by a poly
embodying features of the invention;
65 merizing action, gums or gum-forming constit
Fig. 2 is a transverse section of the still on the
uents carried by said vapors. Zinc in granular
line 2-2 of Fig. 1; and
‘ or fragmentary form has been found to act most
Fig. 3‘ is a vertical section of'the combined
effectively‘in this capacity but other metals in
cluding cadmium, lead, aluminum, tin and iron,
tower and fractionating column in part, on a‘
for example, act to some extent in a similar way
. although some of these metals act far less effec
tively; Alloys of two or more of these metals
In this speci?c example, it is assumed that the
are also useful, notably alloys of zinc with cad
~ mium and lead.
In addition to passing the dis
ment, the vapors are most desirably subjected to
fractionation or recti?cation, the two operations
going on together continuously as a combined
larger scale.
oil to be re?ned is a cracked motor fuel dis
tillate obtained from a crude oil characterized by
very high sulphur’ content. This distillate con
‘tillation vapors through contact material, it is. tains 0.5%, of sulphur and a large percentage of
unsaturates including a substantial proportion
of gum-forming constituents such as diole?ns.
The re?ning methods formerly considered neces
sary to use in handling this type of distillate in
cluded, ?rst, an acid treatment at the rate of 10
pounds of concentrated sulphuric acid per bar
rel of 42 gallons, then treatment with “doctor”
solution, then steam distillation, and ?nally an
other treatment with “doctor” solution. Such
10 treatment is so complicated and expensive, both
as to procedure and re?ning losses, as hardly to
be commercially feasible with a crude gasoline
of this description.
In applying the process of the present inven
15 tion to this crude motor fuel- or gasoline distillate,
the distillate is ?rst given alight acid treatment,
using 2 pounds of sulphuric acid per barrel (42
gallons) of the distillate. The resultant sludge
having been drawn o?, the oil is most desirably
'20 given an alkaline wash to neutralize acidity.
1 After this acid treatment, chlorine gas is bubbled
into the distillate to the extent of about 2 pounds
of chlorine per barrel of the" crude gasoline. It
struction and arrangement. The dephlegmating
sections are, in general, sections containing per
meable contact material throughv which the va
pors are compelled to pass. In the present ex
ample they take ‘the form ,of hopper-‘shaped
plates 22 each’carrying amass 23 of granulated
zinc, and provided with central vapor up?ow
tube 24 and cooperating inverted bell or cup 25
whose lower edges depend into the mass of gran
ulated zinc. Suitably covered hand-holes 26 per 10
mit easy access to the contact material when re
placement or adjustment is necessary.
It will be noted that in the lower part of this
combined tower and fractionating column the
two types of sections are disposed in alternating 15
arrangement which is particularly advantageous
as will presently appear. In the upper part of
,the column only the bubble sections are em
The distillation vapors entering the base of the 20
combined tower and column pass upwardly
through the devices 20, 2! of the ?rst bubbler
cap section and in so doing travel through the liq
uid on that plate, the level of this liquid being
duced is relatively very small in comparison with determined by the height of the intake end of
the quantity of crude gasoline distillate being the liquid down?ow pipe or run-back 21. The 25
treated, being in this particular instance much vapors pass thence through the vapor up?ow pipe
less than‘ 1 per cent ‘by weight, notwithstanding 24 of the ?rst dephlegmating sectionland are
the high sulfur content and large percentage of compelled by the inverted bell 25 to travel
30 unsaturates present in said distillate. ‘The treat- through the mass of contact material, granulated
ed gasoline is then allowed to stand quietly in zinc in this case, in said section. Thence the 30
the treating tank for about 24 hours, during vapors pass upwardly through the bubbler de
which time a sludge settles out which is char
vices of the second bubbler section and through
acterized by a substantial content of sulphur and the liquid standing thereon, the depth of which
chlorine, evidently largely combined with hydro
is determined by the height of the over?ow or
carbons. This sludge is separated from the clear run-back pipe 28 which carries the over?ow from 35
liquid in any suitable manner.
this plate down to the ?rst bubbler plate through
The apparatus employed up to this stage ‘is of the intervening section B, a kind of stuffing box
such simple and usual character as to require no device 29, 30 being provided where the run-back
will be seen that the quantity of chlorine‘intro- I
40 illustration here.
passes through the plate 22 and the contact ma
The treated gasoline separated from the sludge ‘ terial carried thereby,vsuch that any vapors tend: 40
is now run into the still Ill in the lower part of ing to pass upwardly through the plate 22 at this
which are vertically arranged a number of metal point rather than through the central vapor pipe
plates ll, zinc plates in this instance. As here will likewise be compelled to pass through the
45 shown, these plates are provided on opposite ver
granulated zinc carried by the plate.
tical edges with lugs I 2 by which the plates are
carried on supporting bars l3 extending longi
tudinally within the still. For convenience in
inserting or removing the zinc plates ll, an
50 opening l4 having a suitable closure i5 is pro
The upward travel of the vapors through the
remainder of the combined tower and fractionat-g
ing column is similar to that already described,
except that in the upper part of the column the
vapors pass only through bubbler-cap sections, it
vided at one end of the still, and by inserting . being ordinarily unnecessary to provide dephleg
appropriate lifting means through the apertured
lugs IS. with which the zinc plates are provided
lat/their upper ends, these plates can be readily
55 lifted and removed through the opening and re
placed by others whenever necessary.
‘The charge of treated crude gasoline in the
still is distilled off in the usual manner, leaving
a residue containing some gums and sulphur.
60 The distillation vapors pass off through the vapor
line l1 into the base of a combined tower and
fractionating column iii, the detailed construc
tion of which is best shown in If‘lg. ‘3. As will
' be seen, this combined tower and column com
prises two different types of sections, namely,
mator sections in alternation with thebubbler-cap
sections throughout the entire height of the
tower-column structure.
In the top of the tower-column structure is
provided a temperature-control section 3i in
which is disposed a cooling coil 32 through which
cooling, water may be passed in greater or less -
quantity according to the degree of cooling de
sired. The vapors‘ pass through this cooling coil 60
just before leaving the tower-column through
vapor line 33 and a relatively heavy portion of
these vapors may thus be condensed to provide
a re?ux for the proper operation of the column.
It will be understood that liquid descends from
liquid-vapor contact or fractionating sections A, bubbler ' plate to bubbler plate in the manner
and other sections B which may conveniently be; customarily characterizing a fractionating col
termed dephlegmating sections. ,The fractionat umn, removing at each plate some of the higher
ing sections A may take any of the various vforms boiling constituents of the upwardly ?owing va
commonly employed in fractionating or rectify
pors“ and being itself relieved of relatively low
ing columns. In this instance they are so-called boiling‘constituents by the heat of said‘vapors 70
bubbler-cap sections, each comprising "‘a plate
l9 carrying a plurality of bubbler-cap devices
having vapor up-?ow tubes 20 and cooperating
inverted cups or bells 2i, all of well-known con
which, of course, become cooler as they "ascend
through *-'the successive sections. Relatively
high-boilingconstituents of the vapors, are dis-,
charged as liquid, from the lowest_bubbler-cap 75
. 2,107,718
and ‘apparatus, contact material (e. g. mossy
section through over?ow or run-back'2‘l. and are
re?uxed through I‘! to the still‘ l0.
In passing through the several bodies of per
meable contact or catalytic material carried by
the plates 22, the oil vapors are relieved almost
entirely of their gum-forming constituents, ow
ing apparently to a polymerizing reaction favored
by the contact material; and in the bubbler-cap
section through which the vapors pass upon leav
ing each dephlegmating section, the vapors are
zinc)- may also be placed in one or more of the
fractionating sections A of the tower-column in
such manner as to cover the bubbler-caps and
compel the vapors leaving vthe bubbler devices to
pass through such contact-material on their way
to the next section above.
The herein described process is applicable not
only to the re?ning of mineral oils such as crude
motor fuel distillates and similar petroleum 10
thoroughly washed and in this way made to drop
products, but also to other hydrocarbon mate
gummy polymers which may have been con
‘.rials, such as benzol and toluol, for example,
containing sulphur or other impurity which it is
desired to remove.
It is. to be understood that the speci?c details 15
herein above given with respect to both the
process and the apparatus of the invention are
merely illustrative of good practice, and that
densed in the dephlegmating sections but me
chanically carried over by the vapors. This ac
tion is in addition to the normal fractionating or
rectifying action of the bubbler-cap section.
The gummy polymers removed in the dephleg
mating sections remain in liquid condition at the
temperatures prevailing in the lower part of the the invention is in no sense restricted thereto.
Thus, it is feasible to use a material such as
20 tower-column, draining down through the cata
fuller’s earth, for example, in some or all of the
lytic material into the annular trough or laun
der 34 surrounding the central vapor pipe and ~dephlegmating sections of the tower-column in
thence ?owing through trapped line 35 into place of or in conjunction with the metallic con
header 36, which carries them either to a suitable tact material referred to in the speci?c example
given, and the invention in its broader aspects
collecting tank (not shown) or, by way of connec
tion in“, vback into still 10 for re-distillation. comprehends such use; but the use of a metallic
There is also shown tar line Illb leading as a dis
contact material, especially zinc, offers impor
charge from the lower part. of still ill. Screen 31 tant advantages. The apparatus herein disclosed
serves to prevent the ‘granular contact material constitutes the subject-matter of a divisional ap
'30 from dropping down into the trough or launder plication Serial No. 28,758, ?led June 2'7,v 1935.
What is claimed is:
Returning now to the vapors leaving the top of
1. The process of re?ning a ,mineral oil con
the tower-column, these are conducted by vapor taining combined sulphur and gum-forming con
line 33 to a condenser 38 from which liquid con
stituents which comprises subjecting said min
densate passes through look-box 39 and line 40 to ' eral oil to an incomplete acid treatment, then
a suitable receiving tank (not shown), while ?xed subjecting the oil to the action of chlorine for
gases are vented through‘ pipe 4|. This con
from 12 to 24 hours under mild reacting condi
' densate is now given a thorough washing with an
tions such that the oil as a whole is not funda
alkaline agent in order to remove any remaining
mentally altered, and separating resultant pre
cipitated matter from the oil.
2. The process of re?ning a mineral oil con
taining combined sulphur and gum-forming con
stituents which comprises removing a portion of
the gum-forming constituents from such oil by
acid treatment, then digesting the oil with chlo 45
For this purpose a saturated water
solution of sodium carbonate is eifective and is
to be recommended, but other suitable alkaline
Washes may be used.
The re?ned gasoline thus obtained is of excel
45 lent quality and meets all the requirements of
standard motor fuel‘ speci?cations. 'Not ‘only is , rine for from 12 to 24 hours under mild reacting
a ?nished product of good color andstability ob
conditions such that the oil as a whole is not
tained by the foregoing procedures but equally fundamentally altered, and distilling the treated.
important is the fact that such color is stabilized, oil.
50 there being no appreciable change in the color ~
of products produced by this process even after
prolonged or unusual exposure to light. Consid
ering the high sulphur and gum content of the
crude motor fuel distillate to which the process
55 was applied in the speci?c example hereinabove
mild reacting conditions such that the oil as a
pors into operative contact with a metallic
polymerizing agent to condense ‘and, separate
gummy matter from said vapors, obtaining a
liquid condensate from the residual vapors, and 60
subjecting said condensate to an alkaline wash.
4. The process of re?ning a mineral oil con
with only the greatest di?lculty,if at all, by prior
65 tity of chlorine necessary to use in a given in
stance depends, of course, upon the particular
distillate or other oil product to be re?ned, but
,taining combined sulphur and gum-forming con
stituents which comprises digesting such mineral
oil with chlorine for from 12 to 24 hours under 65
mild reacting conditions such that the oil as a
’ it seldom exceeds 2 pounds per barrel and com
monly is much less.
whole is not fundamentally altered, distilling
the treated oil, passing the resultant oil vapors
through a plurality of masses of permeable
Instead of employing granulated zinc in th
tower-column, mossy zinc may be used to good ad
material, successively, in alternation with recti-F
whole is not fundamentally altered, then distilling 55
the‘ft'reated oil and passing the resultant oil va
given, this is obviously a remarkable achievement
and indicates the great effectiveness of the treat
ment. In general, the process is particularly well
adapted to treatment of crude motor fuel distil
60 lates and other oil products which are re?nable
vmethods to a ?nished product meeting standard
speci?cations; but it is of course also applicable
to re?ning of oil products generally. The quan
3. The process of re?ning a mineral oil con
taining combined sulphur and gum-forming con
stituents which comprises digesting such mineral
oil with chlorine for from 12 to 24 hours under
catalytic deechlorinating and gum-polymerizing 70
vantage. _Also, trays of mossy or granulated zinc fying treatment of said- vapors, and condensing a
may in some cases desirably replace the described useful liquid {product from' said vapors.
5. The process, of re?ning a mineral oil con
zinc plates H in the still.
In another embodiment of the novel process . tainin‘g combined sulphur and gum-forming .con
stituents which comprises subjecting such oil to such as sulphur and gum-forming constituents,
the action of chlorine for from 12 to 24 hours ‘the process which comprises introducing into
under mild reacting conditions such that the oil sucha liquid hydrocarbon material a relatively
as a whole is not fundamentally altered, distilling small quantity of available free chlorine, allow
the thus treated oil,‘ and subjecting the resultant ing the chlorine to act for from 12 to 24 hours
vapors to a combined polymerizing and fraction; under mild reacting conditions such that said hy
ating treatment, and obtaining a useful con
drocarbon material is not fundamentally altered
densate from said vapors.
substantially in the absence of moisture and
6. The process of re?ning a mineral oil con
without employing added reaction-promoting
10 taining combined sulphur and gum-forming con
agents or conditions, and separating resultant 10
stituents which comprises digesting such mineral reaction products from the liquid.
oil with chlorine for from 12 to 24 hours under
mild reacting conditions such that the oil as a
12. In the re?ning of mineral oils to remove
therefrom contained impurities, such as sulphur
whole is not fundamentally altered, distilling
the treated oil while maintaining the liquid oil
in the still in contact with metallic zinc, passing
and gum-forming constituents, the process which
the resultant vapors through a mass of granu
lated or fragmentary metallic zinc, condensing
the vapors, and subjecting the condensate to an
alkaline wash.
7. Process as de?ned in claim 1 further char
acterized by the fact that-the oil to be re?ned'is
comprises introducing into such a mineral oil a 15
relatively small quantity of available free chlo
rine allowing the chlorine to act for from 12 to
24 hours under mild reacting conditions such
that the oil as a whole is not fundamentally
altered, substantially in the absence of moisture 20.
and without‘employing added‘ reaction-promot
ing agents or'conditions, and separating result
a cracked motor fuel distillate having a substan
ant reaction products from the treated oil.
13. Inthe re?ning of mineral oils to remove
25 phur.
therefrom contained impurities, such as sulphur 25
‘ 8. Process as de?ned in claim 2 further char- . and gum-forming-constituents, the process which
acterized by the fact that the oil to be re?ned is‘ , comprises introducing into such a mineral oil a
a cracked motor fuel distillate having a substan
relatively small quantity of‘ chlorine gas 'and,
tial content of unsaturates and combined sul
substantially in the absence of moisture and
30 phur.
without employing added reaction-promoting 30
tial content of unsaturates andhcombined sul
9. Process as de?ned in claim 4 further'char
acterized by the fact that the oil to be re?ned
is a cracked motor fuel distillate having va sub
stantial content of unsaturates ‘and combined
10. Process as de?ned in claim 6 further char
acterized by the fact that the oil, to be re?ned is
a cracked motor fuel distillate having a sub
40 .
agents or conditions, allowing the chlorine to act _
for from 12 to 24 hours under mild reacting con
ditions such that the oil as a whole is not funda
mentally altered, and distilling the treated oil
from resultant reaction products.
14. Process as de?ned in claim 11 further char
acterized by the fact that the oil to be re?ned
stantial ‘content of unsaturates and combined
is a cracked motor fuel distillate having a sub
stantial content of unsaturates and combined
11. In the re?ning of liquidhydrocarbon ma.
terials to remove therefrom contained impurities,
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