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Патент USA US2107795

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Feb. 8, 1938. \
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E. P. LARsH
ENGINE P I STON
Filed Nov. 15, 1935
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2,107,795
Patented Feb. -8, 1938
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
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`2,107,795
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ENGINE PISTON
Everett Pv. Larsh, Vandalia, Ohio, assignor p to'
The Master Electric Corporation, Dayton, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio
_
Application November 15, 1935, Serial No. 49,988
21 Claims.
(Cl. 309-20)
This invention relates to engines and more `
A further’ object of th'e invention is to provide
'1 particularly to engine' pistons _and connecting
a. piston head which will be uniformly suscep
rods.
'
While it is recognized that a ball and socket
tible to expansion and contraction under varia
tions of temperature, and hence at all times ac_
curately fitting the cylinder.
A further object of the invention is to pro
5 type of universal connection between a piston
head and its connecting rod is broadly quite _old
and well known in this art, the present invention
pertains _to structural features and arrangement
of parts which adapt such type of construction
l0 to present day needs and economies of commer-
5
vide a thrust bearing of relatively large size, the
parts of which may be conveniently and inex
pensively manufactured by present production
methods and which may be readily assembled l0
cial production. The ball and socket type of con- - and disassembled by unskilled' mechanics. '
nectionA possesses some inherent fundamental '
A further object of the invention is to provide
advantages which render it especially desirable
an improved; form of connecting _rod of hollow
» for high compression engines of the hydro-,car15 bon fuel type andespecially for Diesel style engines.
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tubular construction and to provide a hollow
spherical head therefor adaptable for modern l5
.
mass production methods.
The usual wrist pin type ofÀ piston and conA further object of the invention is to provide
necting rod assembly necessitates unequal dis- improved detent means for holding the thrust
tribution of „material throughout the piston head ' bearing parts in assembly.
20 in order to provide bearing lugs for the pin of
Afurther object of the invention is to provide 29
ample size. As usually constructed such piston an improved crank ‘shaft bearing construction
heads embody relatively large masses of material adaptable for multiple radial connecting rods op
at diametrically opposite points. Such unequal erating in Substantially a Single Piane
distribution 0f metal not only materially inA further object 0f the invention iS to Provide
25 creases the weight of the piston head but also a piston and connecting rod assembly possessing 25
causes unequal expansion and contraction under the advantageouastrnetllral features, and meri
thermal change necessitating in some instances torious characteristics herein mentioned.
that-the piston be made eccentric or out of round
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so“ that as it unequally expands underA increase
A further object of the invention 1s to provide
an'improved method of production of piston Con
30 of temperature it may assume true cylindrica
nteeting rod Darts and method of assembly there~ 30
Furthermore in the use of the customary wrist
vpin type of connection, the lthrust pressure is
concentrated upon a relatively small surface of
35 the pin transversely of the piston head whereas
the present ball and socket type of connection
With the above primary and other incidental
obieotS in-VieW aS Will more fully appear in the
Speoiñoation. the invention1 consists of the fea
-tureS 0f Construction, the Darts and oombina- 35
tions thereof, the mode of operation or their
añords a relatively large concentric _ area, over
equivalents as hereinafter described and set forth"
which the thrust pressure is .uniformly distribl
uted in equalized relation with the piston.
40
As heretofore constructed ben and socket type
v piston and connecting rod assemblies have been
' expensive and difficult to accurately manufacture
in quantity production. They have heretofore
also involved diiiicult problems of assembly and
45 maintenance.
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The object of the invention is to improve the
construction of engine piston and connecting rod
assemblies whereby they may not only be economically manufactured, but will be more~eñlcient in use, of maximum strength and increased
.55 durability, and unlikely to need repair.
Referring to the drawing wherein iS Shown the
preferred. but obviously not necessarily the only 4o
form- of embodiment 0f the invention, Fig. 1 is a
longitudinal Sectional View of a Piston and oon
necting rod assembly. Fig.l 2 is a side elevation
partly in Section of the Crank Shaft bearing P01’
~tions'of a group of radial connecting rods. Fig. 3 M
The present construction is designed to overcome> the existing objections lto ball and socket
type of piston and connecting rod assembly while
retaining the advantageous features thereof.
"50
in the olaimS
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is a plan view of a' shim which may be employed
to produce conformity between the connecting
rod head and the socket therefor. Fig- 4 iS an
elevation of the shim shown in Fig. 3.
vLike parts are indicated by similar characters 50
of reference throughout the several views.
Referring to the drawing, i is lthe piston head
the cylindrical walls of which are circumferen
tially` of uniform thickness, although of varying
thickness longitudinally.
Such piston head will 55
2,107,795
' tend to expand and contract uniformly.- The pis
ton head is provided with the usual sealing rings
2 seated-in peripheral grooves. 'I'he piston head
I is provided at midlength with an internal rab-`
bet formed by a shoulder 3. Seated against the
shoulder 3 is a semi-spherical socket member 4,
having a peripheral flange 5 engaging the shoul
der 3. '_I‘his socket member is stamped from sheet
metal of suitable thickness and strength. The
10 thickness and strength of the material may vary
according tothe conditions of use and size and
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ing'. However in the drawing the connecting rod
is shown provided with a segmental bearing shoe
Il’ to which thetubular stem is welded.
As shown in Fig: 2 the segmental bearing shoe
enables multiple connecting rods to be connected
with the same crank shaft bearing for operation ‘
in the same plane. This is of especial advantage
in engine designs embodying .radially disposed
' multiple cylinders.-
The crank shaft bearing shoes I5 are preferable 10
forgings each of which includes a shank portion
capacity of the engine andv developed pressures
I6 extending'within the end of the tubular rod
»to which the piston is subjected. The thrust
bearing provided by the socket member 4 is sub
15 stantially equal to the internal diameter of the
piston head I. Associated with the member 4
3, anda segmental head the lateral portions of
which are formed with beveled faces, and the
inner face of which is of arcuate. contour con
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15
centric with the crank shaft` I1. The several con
is a complementary socket member 6 of annular
necting‘rod shoes are held in assembled relation ‘
truncated spherical form. also provided with an
about the crank shaft by recessed collars I3, prei
annular flange 1 extending within 'the internal ` erably of bronze, disposed on opposite sides of
rabbet in proximate relation withthe flange 5
of the socket member 4. Interposed between the
the recessed retaining rings extend intermediate
' bearing members 4 and 6 is the hollow spherical
the crank shaft and the connecting rod shoes
` head 8 of a tubular connecting rod 9.
the several connecting rods. The inner sides of
from opposite sides and añord in effect a bushing - '
'I‘he skirt of the piston head I is' provided with
25 a helical groove I0 beneath which the piston skirt
is tapered or flaring as at II. The helical groove
I0 leads into- an internal _planar groove I2 of
i somewhat greater depth than the helical groove
I0. The socket members are held in assembled
30 relation within the piston head with the head 8
for the assembly of connecting rods within which
the crank shaft I1 rotates.
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'I'he outer sides of the recessed retaining rings y
overhang the opposite beveled outer faces of the
shoes I5 and holdthe several rods in operative
relation with the crank shaft. The crank shaft
rotates within the rings I8, but the rods have 30
of the connecting rod interposed therebetween a limited to and fro movement circumferentially
by a split ring I3 seated in the planar groove of the rings and relative to each other as the
I2. This ring is insertable therein by a screwing~ several connecting rods reciprocate and the crank
.
action through the helical groove I0. By forcing shaft rotates.
35 the split ring into the tapered extremity I l of the
To maintain substantially equal spacing of the 35
several connecting rods, helical springs I3 may
, piston skirt it is diametrically contracted suin
ciently to enter the helical groove I0 wherein it be interposed between the adjacent bearing- shoes
will assume a corresponding helical shape with I5 which are provided with sockets or seats 20 to
its ends in slightly overlapping relation. In' such -receive the ends of such springs. In the event
40 -condition it may be rotated within the helical the engine is provided with force feed lubrication,
groove until it passes therefrom intol the' planar an oil conduit 2| may be axially supported within
groove I2. This groove being of greater depth, the tubular connectingv rod by spacer collars 22.>
the ring will expand therein with a snap action The tubular conduit 2I communicates with a pas»
and will retain its position thereiny to prevent -sage 23 in the bearing shoe I5 through which oil
,45 displacement’ of the socket members 4 and 5. l is conducted from the crank shaft bearing. At its 45
These socket members conform accurately to the upper end the oil conduit 2| communicates with
spherical headvß of the connecting -rod, but are so the interior of the spherical head 8 which may be
_ proportioned that their flanges 5 and 'I do not provided with Lsmall oil ports through which
normally contact, but are separated by a, small oil may be supplied to the connecting rod head`
.
50 clearance space which permits the socket member bearing in the socket members 4 and 6.
The helical groove I0 of the vpiston‘head is pref
6 to conform closely to the head .of the connecting
rod. 'I'his space- also permits entrance to the erably, although not necessarily of gradually in
f‘ vconnecting rod bearing `oi? lubricant supplied creasing. depth merging at its outerend with the
' >through radial oil ducts I4. To insure that the surface of the flaring interior of the skirt portion
and merging at its inner end into the planar
- ' socket members shall conform at all times to the
groove I2. 'I'he radial expansion of the split ring
connecting rod head, shims I3a as may be neces
î sary are interposed between the retaining 'ringA I3 as it passes under tension through the helical
groove and into the planar groove effectively
I3 and the flange 1 of the annular socket mem
ber. In lieu' of shims a corrugated spring collar prevents its >return movement while in use. The '
60 as shown in Fig. 3 may be utilized.
’I'he resil- - I ring may be readily removed by drawing one end 60
iency of such spring collar will automatically
„compensate for wear and insurey a close fit of the
` " connecting rod head in its'socket bearing at all
times.
65
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A«The connecting rod 3 is of tubular material,
one end of which is expanded into semispherical
shape to form an integral portion of the connect
ing rod 8. Welded to such expanded extremity of
the tubular connecting rod is a- semi-spherical
70 cap portion which completes* the head »8 of' the.v
connecting-rod. This spherical extremity is ac
curately ground tosize lto fit the socket members
thereof vat the split downwardly into helical form
and entering it into the contiguous portion of the
helical-groove, whereupon the ring may be ro
tated under compressive tension by an unscrew
ing movement through the groove I0 into the 65~
outer flaring portion of the piston head. Such
lflare of the piston skirt conveniently enables in
itial compression of the expansible split ring
sumciently to enter it into the helical groove I0.
- This construction affords a highly eil‘icient means 70
for ‘retaining the parts in assembly, but which
Imay be economically manufactured and quit
4 and 6. At its .opposite end the tubular con
f Frominstalled
the above
and
description
removed. itì willt be.~ apparent
necting rod may be formed with the conventional Í , readily
15h84;
there
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thus
provided
a device of the char- .
annular split head to iit the crank shaft-bear
,
»2,107,795
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which obviously is susceptible of modification in
cluding a hollow piston head having walls of sub
stantially uniform mass peripherally, whereby the
head will have substantially uniform expansion
its form, proportions, detail construction and ar
rangement of parts without departing from the
and contraction in response to thermal change,
a concavo-convex semi-spherical diaphragm pe
_ acter described possessing the particular features
" of advantage before enumerated as desirable, but
principle involved or sacrificing any of .its ad
ripherally engaged with the piston head walls and
vantages.
forming a thrust seat for a connecting rod, a con
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While in order to comply with the statute, the`
invention has been described _in language more
necting rod including a spherical head seated
- within the concavo-convex diaphragm, a concavo
convex retaining collar of truncated spherical 10
form peripherally engaged with the piston head
_walls in opposing relation with the spherical dla
phragm and maintaining the connecting rod- head
10 or less ‘specific as to structural features, it is to
be understood that the invention is not limited to
the specific features shown, but that the means
and construction herein disclosed comprise-the
preferred form of several modes of putting the
invention into effect and the invention is there
therebetween, a planar groove within the piston,
and a retaining ring engageable therewith and 15
withthe retaining collar for maintaining the dia
, fore claimed in any of its forms or modifications
phragm and the retaining collar in assembly.
within the legitimate and valid scope of the ap
pended claims.
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6. As an article of manufacture, la piston, a
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bearing socket therein including a substantially
, Having thus described my invention, I claim: '
semi-spherical bearing member of substantially 20
l. A hollow piston head open at one end, the
interior of the open end being tapered, an inter
nal circumferential rabbet therein, an internal
uniform thickness throughout, including a planar
peripheral flange formed integral therewith, and
a complementary bearing member comprising a
circumferential planar groove therein, -spaced
from the rabbet toward the open end of the piston
25 head, and an internal helical groove leading from
collar of truncatedspherical shape of substantially
uniform thickness throughout having a planar pe
ferentialplanar groove.
,
< members coacting to form a bearing socket, a ball
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2. In an engine piston, a hollow piston head
including a skirt portion, a circumferential rab
~bet withlnthe skirt portion of the piston, an in
ternal circumferential groove in the head in
spaced relation with the rabbet, a split retain
ing ring seated in the groove, a pair of reversely
arranged concentric hollow spherical bearing
members including peripheral flanges interposed
between the retaining ring and rabbet, one of the
bearing members being truncated. a connecting
rod including a spherical head enclosed between
the spherical bearing members, a helical groove
interiorly of the skirt portion of the piston head
A40 of less depth than the retaining ring groove lead
ing thereto, the skirt of the piston head being
interiorly taperedfcontinguous to the entrance
end of'the helical groove.
25
ripheral flange formed integral therewith, said
the internal tapered area? to the internal circum
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` 3. In an ‘engine piston, a hollow piston head
45 including a skirt portion, an internal circum
ferential rabbet in such skirt portion, a planar
-groove inv spaced relation with the rabbet, a pair
of hollow spherical bearing members concenf
trically arranged in reverse relation the diam
50 eters of which _are substantially equal to the in
terior diameter of the hollow piston, one of which .
headed connecting rod engageable therein, a
planar groove inthe piston head in which the
planar peripheral flanges of the bearing members 30
are disposed in operative position, and a ring
member engageable in the planar groove to retain
the parts in assembled relation.
'1. As an article of manufacture, a hollow pis
ton head having ~an interiorly flaring skirt por 35
tion, an internal circumferential rabbet in spaced
relation with the flaring skirt portion, an internalV
circumferential planar groove in spaced relation
with the rabbet, and a helical groove leading from
the flaring skirt portion to the internal circum
ferential groove, a bearing member removably po
40 "
sitioned between the rabbet and groove, and a re
taining ring engageable inthe groove for secur
ing the bearing members and a connecting rod in
cluding a head engageable in said bearing mem
bers.
. 8. In combination, a hollow piston head open
at one end, an internal circumferential rabbet
and an internal circumferential planar groove '
therein, the groove being spaced from the rabbet
toward the open end of the piston head, an inter 50
nal helical groove leading from the circumferen
' is truncated, peripheral flanges on the spherical vtial planar groove toward the open end of the
bearing members overhanging the internal rab
bet, retaining means engageable with the planar
55 groove for removably securing the bearing mem
bers in assembled relation with the piston head, a
connecting rod and a spherical head therefor en
closed between the bearing members.
.
4. The combinationwith a hollow piston head
and a connecting rod having a spherical head, of
a pair of complementary hollow spherical bearing
piston head, a removable connecting rod bearing
ywithin the- head, a retaining member therefor in
troducible through the helical groove into the 55
planar groove for cooperation with the rabbet as
a connecting rod bearing holding means, and a
connecting rod engageable in said bearing. ,
9. In’combination, a hollow piston head open
at one end, an internal circumferential planar 60
groove therein, an internal helical groove leading
members, one of which `is truncated, of uniform r from the circumferential planar groove toward
thickness throughout, to enclose the spherical the open end ofv the piston head, a removable con
connecting rod head, i‘lat- peripheral flanges on necting rodbearing within the head, a retaining
65 the bearing members registering with each other member therefor introducible through the helical
groove into the planar groove,-and'a connecting
when said members are engaged with the con
necting rod head, an abutment surface within the rod engageable in said bearing.
10. In combination, a hollow piston head open
piston head engaged by a ñange of one of said
members, a planar groove within the piston and at one end, an internal circumferential planar
spaced from the abutment, and means including groove therein, an internal helical groove leading
a split ring engageable with the planar groove for from the circumferential‘planar groove toward
retaining the bearing members, piston head and the open end of the piston head, a. removable
connecting rod in assembled relation.
75
5. A piston and connecting rod assembly, in
,
connecting rod bearing including complementary
semi-spherical connecting rod bearing shells, a '
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2,107,795
v retaining member thereforl introducible through
16. In combination, a hollow piston head open
the helical groove into the planar groove, and a
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
groove therein, an internal helical groove leading ¿
connecting rod engageable in said bearing.
. .
11. In combination, a hollow piston head open _from the circumferential planar groove toward '
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
the open end of the piston head. a removable
spherical socket forming a connecting rod bear
ing, a retaining member therefor introducible
groove therein, an internal helical groove lead
’ ~ing from the circumferential planar groove to
ward the open end of the piston head, a remov
through the helical groove into the planar groove, '_
and a tubular connecting rod havingwa hollow
able> connecting rod bearing including `comple
Vmentary semi-spherical connecting rod- bearing
spherical head engageable in the socket. - '
shells, a split ring retaining member therefor in
17. In combination, a hollow piston head'open
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
troducible throughthe helical'groove into -the
planar groove, and a connecting rod engageable in
groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear
said bearing.
ing within the head, a collapsible and expansible
,
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l2. In combination, a hollow piston head opeñ
retaining member therefor engageable in the"
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
planar groove', and a connecting rod engageablev
groove~ therein, an internal helical groove lead
`ing from the circumferential planar groove to
ward the open. end of the piston head, a remov
able connectingrod lbearing including comple
mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing
. shells or uniform »thickness throughout, o. retain
in said bearing.
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18. In combination, a hollow piston head open ‘
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear
ing within the head, a collapsible and expansible `
split ring retaining member therefor engageable
ing member therefor introducible through the
in the planar groove, and a connecting rod en-.
helical groove into the planar groove, and a con
gageable in said bearing..
_ necting rod engageable in said bearing.
13. In combination, a hollow piston head open
y
.
19. In combination, a hollow piston head open
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
groove therein, an internal helical groove lead
ing within the head, a collapsible and expansible
ing from the circumferential planar groove to
retaining member therefor enga’geable in the
ward- the open end of the piston head, a remov » planar groove, and a tubular connecting rod hav
able connecting rod bearing including comple-- ing a hollow Aspherical head ehgageable inthe
mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing bearing.
l
shells of uniform thickness throughout, and ,one
20. In combination, a hollow piston head open
. _of whichiis truncated, a retaining `member there
at one end, an internalcircumíerential planar
for introïduclble through the helical groove into
groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear
the planar groove, and a connecting rod engage
ing including complementary semi-spherical
bearing shells, a collapsible yand expansible re
able in said bearing.
14. In combination, a hollow piston head open
at one end, an internal circumferential planar
groove therein, an internal helical groove lead
ing from the circumferential planar groove to
ward the open end of the piston head, a remov
able connecting-rod bearing including comple
mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing
shells of uniform thickness throughout. a retain
ing member therefor introducible through the
helical groove into the planar groove, and a con
necting rod having a spherical head enclosable
o between the bearing shells. ‘ . “
l5. In combination, a hollow piston head open
-at one end, an internal circumferential planar
groove therein. an internal helical groove lead
ing from` the circumferential planar groove to
ward the open end of‘the piston head, a remov
able connecting-rod bearing including comple
mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing
shells of uniform thickness throughout, a retain
ing member therefor introducible through the
helical groove into the planar groove, and a
o
o
60' turmoi- connecting rod
having
o. hollow spherical
head engageable between the bearing shells.
taining member therefor engageable in the planar
groove, and a tubular connecting rod having a
hollow spherical head engageable between’the «i0
connecting lrod bearing shells.
2l. In combination, a hollow piston head open
`at one end, an internal circumferential planar
groove therein, an internal helical groove lead-
, '
ing from the'clrcumferential vplanar groove to
ward the open end of the pistonvhead, a‘pair of
semi-spherical bearing-shells having integral flat
flanges thereon, a bearing ledge within the piston
` against which the flange of one of the bearing
shells abuts, the flange of the other bearing shell
being adapted to lie concentric to the flange of
the first named bearing shell, a retaining member
introducible through the helical groove for re
taining the flange oi’ one bearing shell in abutting
relationwithxthe ledge and the 'harigel of the .
other shell in juxtaposed concentric relation
therewith, and a ,connecting rod engageable in
. Said bearing.
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