Патент USA US2107795код для вставки
Feb. 8, 1938. \ . E. P. LARsH ENGINE P I STON Filed Nov. 15, 1935 , _ 2,107,795 Patented Feb. -8, 1938 i n I ` UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE _ ' v _ ‘ f `2,107,795 v ` ' i ' ENGINE PISTON Everett Pv. Larsh, Vandalia, Ohio, assignor p to' The Master Electric Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio _ Application November 15, 1935, Serial No. 49,988 21 Claims. (Cl. 309-20) This invention relates to engines and more ` A further’ object of th'e invention is to provide '1 particularly to engine' pistons _and connecting a. piston head which will be uniformly suscep rods. ' While it is recognized that a ball and socket tible to expansion and contraction under varia tions of temperature, and hence at all times ac_ curately fitting the cylinder. A further object of the invention is to pro 5 type of universal connection between a piston head and its connecting rod is broadly quite _old and well known in this art, the present invention pertains _to structural features and arrangement of parts which adapt such type of construction l0 to present day needs and economies of commer- 5 vide a thrust bearing of relatively large size, the parts of which may be conveniently and inex pensively manufactured by present production methods and which may be readily assembled l0 cial production. The ball and socket type of con- - and disassembled by unskilled' mechanics. ' nectionA possesses some inherent fundamental ' A further object of the invention is to provide advantages which render it especially desirable an improved; form of connecting _rod of hollow » for high compression engines of the hydro-,car15 bon fuel type andespecially for Diesel style engines. _ ‘ tubular construction and to provide a hollow spherical head therefor adaptable for modern l5 . mass production methods. The usual wrist pin type ofÀ piston and conA further object of the invention is to provide necting rod assembly necessitates unequal dis- improved detent means for holding the thrust tribution of „material throughout the piston head ' bearing parts in assembly. 20 in order to provide bearing lugs for the pin of Afurther object of the invention is to provide 29 ample size. As usually constructed such piston an improved crank ‘shaft bearing construction heads embody relatively large masses of material adaptable for multiple radial connecting rods op at diametrically opposite points. Such unequal erating in Substantially a Single Piane distribution 0f metal not only materially inA further object 0f the invention iS to Provide 25 creases the weight of the piston head but also a piston and connecting rod assembly possessing 25 causes unequal expansion and contraction under the advantageouastrnetllral features, and meri thermal change necessitating in some instances torious characteristics herein mentioned. that-the piston be made eccentric or out of round ' so“ that as it unequally expands underA increase A further object of the invention 1s to provide an'improved method of production of piston Con 30 of temperature it may assume true cylindrica nteeting rod Darts and method of assembly there~ 30 Furthermore in the use of the customary wrist vpin type of connection, the lthrust pressure is concentrated upon a relatively small surface of 35 the pin transversely of the piston head whereas the present ball and socket type of connection With the above primary and other incidental obieotS in-VieW aS Will more fully appear in the Speoiñoation. the invention1 consists of the fea -tureS 0f Construction, the Darts and oombina- 35 tions thereof, the mode of operation or their añords a relatively large concentric _ area, over equivalents as hereinafter described and set forth" which the thrust pressure is .uniformly distribl uted in equalized relation with the piston. 40 As heretofore constructed ben and socket type v piston and connecting rod assemblies have been ' expensive and difficult to accurately manufacture in quantity production. They have heretofore also involved diiiicult problems of assembly and 45 maintenance. ' The object of the invention is to improve the construction of engine piston and connecting rod assemblies whereby they may not only be economically manufactured, but will be more~eñlcient in use, of maximum strength and increased .55 durability, and unlikely to need repair. Referring to the drawing wherein iS Shown the preferred. but obviously not necessarily the only 4o form- of embodiment 0f the invention, Fig. 1 is a longitudinal Sectional View of a Piston and oon necting rod assembly. Fig.l 2 is a side elevation partly in Section of the Crank Shaft bearing P01’ ~tions'of a group of radial connecting rods. Fig. 3 M The present construction is designed to overcome> the existing objections lto ball and socket type of piston and connecting rod assembly while retaining the advantageous features thereof. "50 in the olaimS . -. , - is a plan view of a' shim which may be employed to produce conformity between the connecting rod head and the socket therefor. Fig- 4 iS an elevation of the shim shown in Fig. 3. vLike parts are indicated by similar characters 50 of reference throughout the several views. Referring to the drawing, i is lthe piston head the cylindrical walls of which are circumferen tially` of uniform thickness, although of varying thickness longitudinally. Such piston head will 55 2,107,795 ' tend to expand and contract uniformly.- The pis ton head is provided with the usual sealing rings 2 seated-in peripheral grooves. 'I'he piston head I is provided at midlength with an internal rab-` bet formed by a shoulder 3. Seated against the shoulder 3 is a semi-spherical socket member 4, having a peripheral flange 5 engaging the shoul der 3. '_I‘his socket member is stamped from sheet metal of suitable thickness and strength. The 10 thickness and strength of the material may vary according tothe conditions of use and size and ` Y _ , ing'. However in the drawing the connecting rod is shown provided with a segmental bearing shoe Il’ to which thetubular stem is welded. As shown in Fig: 2 the segmental bearing shoe enables multiple connecting rods to be connected with the same crank shaft bearing for operation ‘ in the same plane. This is of especial advantage in engine designs embodying .radially disposed ' multiple cylinders.- The crank shaft bearing shoes I5 are preferable 10 forgings each of which includes a shank portion capacity of the engine andv developed pressures I6 extending'within the end of the tubular rod »to which the piston is subjected. The thrust bearing provided by the socket member 4 is sub 15 stantially equal to the internal diameter of the piston head I. Associated with the member 4 3, anda segmental head the lateral portions of which are formed with beveled faces, and the inner face of which is of arcuate. contour con ' 15 centric with the crank shaft` I1. The several con is a complementary socket member 6 of annular necting‘rod shoes are held in assembled relation ‘ truncated spherical form. also provided with an about the crank shaft by recessed collars I3, prei annular flange 1 extending within 'the internal ` erably of bronze, disposed on opposite sides of rabbet in proximate relation withthe flange 5 of the socket member 4. Interposed between the the recessed retaining rings extend intermediate ' bearing members 4 and 6 is the hollow spherical the crank shaft and the connecting rod shoes ` head 8 of a tubular connecting rod 9. the several connecting rods. The inner sides of from opposite sides and añord in effect a bushing - ' 'I‘he skirt of the piston head I is' provided with 25 a helical groove I0 beneath which the piston skirt is tapered or flaring as at II. The helical groove I0 leads into- an internal _planar groove I2 of i somewhat greater depth than the helical groove I0. The socket members are held in assembled 30 relation within the piston head with the head 8 for the assembly of connecting rods within which the crank shaft I1 rotates. ‘ ' 'I'he outer sides of the recessed retaining rings y overhang the opposite beveled outer faces of the shoes I5 and holdthe several rods in operative relation with the crank shaft. The crank shaft rotates within the rings I8, but the rods have 30 of the connecting rod interposed therebetween a limited to and fro movement circumferentially by a split ring I3 seated in the planar groove of the rings and relative to each other as the I2. This ring is insertable therein by a screwing~ several connecting rods reciprocate and the crank . action through the helical groove I0. By forcing shaft rotates. 35 the split ring into the tapered extremity I l of the To maintain substantially equal spacing of the 35 several connecting rods, helical springs I3 may , piston skirt it is diametrically contracted suin ciently to enter the helical groove I0 wherein it be interposed between the adjacent bearing- shoes will assume a corresponding helical shape with I5 which are provided with sockets or seats 20 to its ends in slightly overlapping relation. In' such -receive the ends of such springs. In the event 40 -condition it may be rotated within the helical the engine is provided with force feed lubrication, groove until it passes therefrom intol the' planar an oil conduit 2| may be axially supported within groove I2. This groove being of greater depth, the tubular connectingv rod by spacer collars 22.> the ring will expand therein with a snap action The tubular conduit 2I communicates with a pas» and will retain its position thereiny to prevent -sage 23 in the bearing shoe I5 through which oil ,45 displacement’ of the socket members 4 and 5. l is conducted from the crank shaft bearing. At its 45 These socket members conform accurately to the upper end the oil conduit 2| communicates with spherical headvß of the connecting -rod, but are so the interior of the spherical head 8 which may be _ proportioned that their flanges 5 and 'I do not provided with Lsmall oil ports through which normally contact, but are separated by a, small oil may be supplied to the connecting rod head` . 50 clearance space which permits the socket member bearing in the socket members 4 and 6. The helical groove I0 of the vpiston‘head is pref 6 to conform closely to the head .of the connecting rod. 'I'his space- also permits entrance to the erably, although not necessarily of gradually in f‘ vconnecting rod bearing `oi? lubricant supplied creasing. depth merging at its outerend with the ' >through radial oil ducts I4. To insure that the surface of the flaring interior of the skirt portion and merging at its inner end into the planar - ' socket members shall conform at all times to the groove I2. 'I'he radial expansion of the split ring connecting rod head, shims I3a as may be neces î sary are interposed between the retaining 'ringA I3 as it passes under tension through the helical groove and into the planar groove effectively I3 and the flange 1 of the annular socket mem ber. In lieu' of shims a corrugated spring collar prevents its >return movement while in use. The ' 60 as shown in Fig. 3 may be utilized. ’I'he resil- - I ring may be readily removed by drawing one end 60 iency of such spring collar will automatically „compensate for wear and insurey a close fit of the ` " connecting rod head in its'socket bearing at all times. 65 “ A«The connecting rod 3 is of tubular material, one end of which is expanded into semispherical shape to form an integral portion of the connect ing rod 8. Welded to such expanded extremity of the tubular connecting rod is a- semi-spherical 70 cap portion which completes* the head »8 of' the.v connecting-rod. This spherical extremity is ac curately ground tosize lto fit the socket members thereof vat the split downwardly into helical form and entering it into the contiguous portion of the helical-groove, whereupon the ring may be ro tated under compressive tension by an unscrew ing movement through the groove I0 into the 65~ outer flaring portion of the piston head. Such lflare of the piston skirt conveniently enables in itial compression of the expansible split ring sumciently to enter it into the helical groove I0. - This construction affords a highly eil‘icient means 70 for ‘retaining the parts in assembly, but which Imay be economically manufactured and quit 4 and 6. At its .opposite end the tubular con f Frominstalled the above and description removed. itì willt be.~ apparent necting rod may be formed with the conventional Í , readily 15h84; there i8 thus provided a device of the char- . annular split head to iit the crank shaft-bear , »2,107,795 3 which obviously is susceptible of modification in cluding a hollow piston head having walls of sub stantially uniform mass peripherally, whereby the head will have substantially uniform expansion its form, proportions, detail construction and ar rangement of parts without departing from the and contraction in response to thermal change, a concavo-convex semi-spherical diaphragm pe _ acter described possessing the particular features " of advantage before enumerated as desirable, but principle involved or sacrificing any of .its ad ripherally engaged with the piston head walls and vantages. forming a thrust seat for a connecting rod, a con . ì While in order to comply with the statute, the` invention has been described _in language more necting rod including a spherical head seated - within the concavo-convex diaphragm, a concavo convex retaining collar of truncated spherical 10 form peripherally engaged with the piston head _walls in opposing relation with the spherical dla phragm and maintaining the connecting rod- head 10 or less ‘specific as to structural features, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown, but that the means and construction herein disclosed comprise-the preferred form of several modes of putting the invention into effect and the invention is there therebetween, a planar groove within the piston, and a retaining ring engageable therewith and 15 withthe retaining collar for maintaining the dia , fore claimed in any of its forms or modifications phragm and the retaining collar in assembly. within the legitimate and valid scope of the ap pended claims. > ' 6. As an article of manufacture, la piston, a ' bearing socket therein including a substantially , Having thus described my invention, I claim: ' semi-spherical bearing member of substantially 20 l. A hollow piston head open at one end, the interior of the open end being tapered, an inter nal circumferential rabbet therein, an internal uniform thickness throughout, including a planar peripheral flange formed integral therewith, and a complementary bearing member comprising a circumferential planar groove therein, -spaced from the rabbet toward the open end of the piston 25 head, and an internal helical groove leading from collar of truncatedspherical shape of substantially uniform thickness throughout having a planar pe ferentialplanar groove. , < members coacting to form a bearing socket, a ball n 2. In an engine piston, a hollow piston head including a skirt portion, a circumferential rab ~bet withlnthe skirt portion of the piston, an in ternal circumferential groove in the head in spaced relation with the rabbet, a split retain ing ring seated in the groove, a pair of reversely arranged concentric hollow spherical bearing members including peripheral flanges interposed between the retaining ring and rabbet, one of the bearing members being truncated. a connecting rod including a spherical head enclosed between the spherical bearing members, a helical groove interiorly of the skirt portion of the piston head A40 of less depth than the retaining ring groove lead ing thereto, the skirt of the piston head being interiorly taperedfcontinguous to the entrance end of'the helical groove. 25 ripheral flange formed integral therewith, said the internal tapered area? to the internal circum ' ` 3. In an ‘engine piston, a hollow piston head 45 including a skirt portion, an internal circum ferential rabbet in such skirt portion, a planar -groove inv spaced relation with the rabbet, a pair of hollow spherical bearing members concenf trically arranged in reverse relation the diam 50 eters of which _are substantially equal to the in terior diameter of the hollow piston, one of which . headed connecting rod engageable therein, a planar groove inthe piston head in which the planar peripheral flanges of the bearing members 30 are disposed in operative position, and a ring member engageable in the planar groove to retain the parts in assembled relation. '1. As an article of manufacture, a hollow pis ton head having ~an interiorly flaring skirt por 35 tion, an internal circumferential rabbet in spaced relation with the flaring skirt portion, an internalV circumferential planar groove in spaced relation with the rabbet, and a helical groove leading from the flaring skirt portion to the internal circum ferential groove, a bearing member removably po 40 " sitioned between the rabbet and groove, and a re taining ring engageable inthe groove for secur ing the bearing members and a connecting rod in cluding a head engageable in said bearing mem bers. . 8. In combination, a hollow piston head open at one end, an internal circumferential rabbet and an internal circumferential planar groove ' therein, the groove being spaced from the rabbet toward the open end of the piston head, an inter 50 nal helical groove leading from the circumferen ' is truncated, peripheral flanges on the spherical vtial planar groove toward the open end of the bearing members overhanging the internal rab bet, retaining means engageable with the planar 55 groove for removably securing the bearing mem bers in assembled relation with the piston head, a connecting rod and a spherical head therefor en closed between the bearing members. . 4. The combinationwith a hollow piston head and a connecting rod having a spherical head, of a pair of complementary hollow spherical bearing piston head, a removable connecting rod bearing ywithin the- head, a retaining member therefor in troducible through the helical groove into the 55 planar groove for cooperation with the rabbet as a connecting rod bearing holding means, and a connecting rod engageable in said bearing. , 9. In’combination, a hollow piston head open at one end, an internal circumferential planar 60 groove therein, an internal helical groove leading members, one of which `is truncated, of uniform r from the circumferential planar groove toward thickness throughout, to enclose the spherical the open end ofv the piston head, a removable con connecting rod head, i‘lat- peripheral flanges on necting rodbearing within the head, a retaining 65 the bearing members registering with each other member therefor introducible through the helical groove into the planar groove,-and'a connecting when said members are engaged with the con necting rod head, an abutment surface within the rod engageable in said bearing. 10. In combination, a hollow piston head open piston head engaged by a ñange of one of said members, a planar groove within the piston and at one end, an internal circumferential planar spaced from the abutment, and means including groove therein, an internal helical groove leading a split ring engageable with the planar groove for from the circumferential‘planar groove toward retaining the bearing members, piston head and the open end of the piston head, a. removable connecting rod in assembled relation. 75 5. A piston and connecting rod assembly, in , connecting rod bearing including complementary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing shells, a ' 75 4 n o . 2,107,795 v retaining member thereforl introducible through 16. In combination, a hollow piston head open the helical groove into the planar groove, and a at one end, an internal circumferential planar groove therein, an internal helical groove leading ¿ connecting rod engageable in said bearing. . . 11. In combination, a hollow piston head open _from the circumferential planar groove toward ' at one end, an internal circumferential planar the open end of the piston head. a removable spherical socket forming a connecting rod bear ing, a retaining member therefor introducible groove therein, an internal helical groove lead ’ ~ing from the circumferential planar groove to ward the open end of the piston head, a remov through the helical groove into the planar groove, '_ and a tubular connecting rod havingwa hollow able> connecting rod bearing including `comple Vmentary semi-spherical connecting rod- bearing spherical head engageable in the socket. - ' shells, a split ring retaining member therefor in 17. In combination, a hollow piston head'open at one end, an internal circumferential planar troducible throughthe helical'groove into -the planar groove, and a connecting rod engageable in groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear said bearing. ing within the head, a collapsible and expansible , n' l2. In combination, a hollow piston head opeñ retaining member therefor engageable in the" at one end, an internal circumferential planar planar groove', and a connecting rod engageablev groove~ therein, an internal helical groove lead `ing from the circumferential planar groove to ward the open. end of the piston head, a remov able connectingrod lbearing including comple mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing . shells or uniform »thickness throughout, o. retain in said bearing. ' ' . o 18. In combination, a hollow piston head open ‘ at one end, an internal circumferential planar groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear ing within the head, a collapsible and expansible ` split ring retaining member therefor engageable ing member therefor introducible through the in the planar groove, and a connecting rod en-. helical groove into the planar groove, and a con gageable in said bearing.. _ necting rod engageable in said bearing. 13. In combination, a hollow piston head open y . 19. In combination, a hollow piston head open at one end, an internal circumferential planar groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear at one end, an internal circumferential planar groove therein, an internal helical groove lead ing within the head, a collapsible and expansible ing from the circumferential planar groove to retaining member therefor enga’geable in the ward- the open end of the piston head, a remov » planar groove, and a tubular connecting rod hav able connecting rod bearing including comple-- ing a hollow Aspherical head ehgageable inthe mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing bearing. l shells of uniform thickness throughout, and ,one 20. In combination, a hollow piston head open . _of whichiis truncated, a retaining `member there at one end, an internalcircumíerential planar for introïduclble through the helical groove into groove therein, a removable connecting rod bear the planar groove, and a connecting rod engage ing including complementary semi-spherical bearing shells, a collapsible yand expansible re able in said bearing. 14. In combination, a hollow piston head open at one end, an internal circumferential planar groove therein, an internal helical groove lead ing from the circumferential planar groove to ward the open end of the piston head, a remov able connecting-rod bearing including comple mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing shells of uniform thickness throughout. a retain ing member therefor introducible through the helical groove into the planar groove, and a con necting rod having a spherical head enclosable o between the bearing shells. ‘ . “ l5. In combination, a hollow piston head open -at one end, an internal circumferential planar groove therein. an internal helical groove lead ing from` the circumferential planar groove to ward the open end of‘the piston head, a remov able connecting-rod bearing including comple mentary semi-spherical connecting rod bearing shells of uniform thickness throughout, a retain ing member therefor introducible through the helical groove into the planar groove, and a o o 60' turmoi- connecting rod having o. hollow spherical head engageable between the bearing shells. taining member therefor engageable in the planar groove, and a tubular connecting rod having a hollow spherical head engageable between’the «i0 connecting lrod bearing shells. 2l. In combination, a hollow piston head open `at one end, an internal circumferential planar groove therein, an internal helical groove lead- , ' ing from the'clrcumferential vplanar groove to ward the open end of the pistonvhead, a‘pair of semi-spherical bearing-shells having integral flat flanges thereon, a bearing ledge within the piston ` against which the flange of one of the bearing shells abuts, the flange of the other bearing shell being adapted to lie concentric to the flange of the first named bearing shell, a retaining member introducible through the helical groove for re taining the flange oi’ one bearing shell in abutting relationwithxthe ledge and the 'harigel of the . other shell in juxtaposed concentric relation therewith, and a ,connecting rod engageable in . Said bearing. - -' ` "` P. Lansn. . » ' ¿u '