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Патент USA US2107838

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Feb. 8, 1938.
Filed May 1, 1935
Maurice ?LSa/e blQ/‘Ji:
Patented Feb. 8, 1938
g > . UNITED
_ 2,107,838
con'rmuous YARN
Maurice Albert Salembier, In, Plandome, n. '2.
Application May 1, 19st, Serial No. 19.143
(Cl. 117-52)
12 Claims.
packages of silk yarn and to an improvedcon
tinuous form of thread therefor.
oils or stoppage in knitting or weaving operations
customarily caused by knots.
Further objects and advantages of my inven
It has heretofore been‘the practice of throw
’ tion will appear from the following disclosure of a
sters to produce a cone or similar shaped pack
age of natural silk yarn which commonly held
‘conjunction with the attached drawing which is
This invention relates to improvements in
, approximately eight ounces of silk thread of the
multiple strand, multiple twist type. In certain
industries, however, such as the hosiery knitting‘
industry and others, there is great objection to
this commonly available package because it has
too many knots, while the smaller packages re
quire. too' much handling for commercial knitting
‘preferred form of embodiment thereof taken in 5
illustrative thereof, and in which:
Figure 1 is an elevation of one form of my
improved yarn package, and
. Figure 2 is an enlarged view of my individually 10
knotted strand yarn.‘
. '
Silk throwing includes as one of the prelimi
nary steps, the winding of raw silk which in itself
is too line and loosely held together to be a com
mercial product. This single end or strand is 15
One of the principal objects of my invention
is tov produce a new yarn package of a continuous customarily doubled and twisted, sometimes in
natural silk thread of a multiple strand, multiple a one operation, and in sometypes of thread the
twist type, such thread being “knotless"‘in_ that, single strand is twisted prior to doubling. Other
it ‘has no knots common to. all strands, although
individual strands which have breaks are sepa
rately tied.
treatment includescieaning, steaming, etc., and
the final step is coning or forming a thread pack- 20
Doubling forms multiple plies or strands for a
an eight ounce package of silk yarn especially ~ su?iciently strong thread, and the number of
suitable for hosiery tram which contains enough strands varies for‘ di?erent products. Hosiery
continuous silk thread to knit the leg portions of tram, for example, commercially requires four or
approximately one dozen pairs of hosiery, such‘ , ?ve strands or less for sheer leg portions and for
service weight leg portions, welts, etc.,' the number
thread being free of any multiplestrand-knots._
of strands is usually greater and may be twelve
A further, object of my invention is to pro
vide a natural ‘silk, multiple strand, multiple or more, depending on the product desired.
In the various steps in winding and spinning, 30
twist thread in which the strands are separately
knotted at breaks or ‘run-outs and in whichthe t the doubling operation is very important as a less
size ofagthe yarn at the knotted portion-is not er number of strands in one portion than in an
Another object of my invention is to produce
materially greater than at an-unknotted portion,
such knotted portion passing through an open
ing sumclent to pass the maximum'diameterof
\ an unknotted portion.
Alstill further object ofmy invention is to pr
vide a hosiery tram having single strand knots
only, no knots being visible in a combination of
A still further object of my invention is to
‘ provide a continuous length of natural silk yarn‘,
separate - strands of which ‘are individually
knotted, the knots being adjacent unknotted por
tions'jof. other strands, the strands of such thread
being of uniform‘ elasticity, ‘strength and under
uniform tension whereby such thread is especially
adapted for knitting or weaving of elastic‘silk
productssuch as hosiery, etc.
i Another obiect of my invention‘ is to provide a'
superior. commercial, continuous silk yarn of low
denierwhich is doubled and, twisted to form a,
5- nimble strength
such thread being free ,
- from knots as determined by freedom from press
other is fatal to acceptance forgrade. . Stop mo
tions have therefore been provided for stopping
. the receiving bobbin if a strand broke or ran out 35
‘dueto exhaustion of the spool, and in some cases,
operation of the stop motion has caused a sever
ance of all strands so that the operator would be
sure to tie a knot in a full number of the strands
before the bobbin was restarted and the doubling 40
continued. Coning also has always required the
formation of knots in the larger packages due to
joining thread. from two or more bobbins and
under the best conditions prevailing at this time,
an eight ounce package of natural silk yarn cus- 45
tomarily has three or more knots common to all
strands and may have a great many more.
. Ihave now found that I can produce a package
of silk thread such as hosiery tram or other types
suitable for, weaving, knitting or direct use, which 50
is as large or larger than any present commercial
productnow available and in which the thread is
continuous and has no knots common to all ends
or strands.
I can also produce such a product
atareducedcostandlfindittobesuperior to 55
other ‘available products as to length, strength
and quality.
My new continuous natural silk yarn differs
from that of the best prior practice in that hav
ing no multiple strand knots, it has no knot de
small size-cones or packages in the range of two
to five ounces, but these packages are usually not
desirable for production in knitting machines as
they require too much handling, do?lng and re
plenishment. Economy demands regularity of
fects which would show up in subsequent knitting
production which I can achieve for the ?rst time
or weaving operations.
with my larger sizes of cones.
Inasmuch as the most
carefully handled strands will break however, 1'
My improved yarn is made on suitable ma
tie the broken ends of that strand only and do
not break or destroy the remaining continuous
strands. The individual knot of the knotted
machines. From the single end bobbins, I usually
strand is then directly alongside and adjacent
to the other strands‘which are continuous at
that point and in a combination of yarns, is
15 substantially invisible, even in the sheer type
goods. My yarn may therefore be-termedl“knot-
Furthermore, although natural silk thread is
very ?ne in size, the separate strands, which are
20 still ?ner or smaller, are not absolutely uniform
in diameter. This results in a thread which has
some variation. A single strand knot, however,
is relatively so small that it does not cause re
chinery including winding, twisting and doubling
double the strands and I am particularly careful
to stop the spindle of the doubler bobbin after a
single end break with such rapidity that no twist
takes place in the unbroken ends. I then sep
arately knot the broken strand as shown at it
' without disturbing the continuous strands and
then restart the doubler bobbin. I also prefer to
use bobbins of a larger size than usual so that
the doubler and twister bobbins will carry enough
material to completely ?ll the desired size cone. 20
After doubling and subsequent operations are
completed, I then form the package in a suitable
standard type coning machine. Iprefer to cone
jects or become caught in needles or carriers of from a doubler bobbin which is the same size as
25 machines which pass the main thread. In addi- ~ the cone package as I only use a single doubler 25
tion, the relative size of a single strand knot as
compared to the size of the multiple strand be
comes less with increased numbers of strands,
rather than greater as with a'common knot.
30 Single strand knots are therefore unobjection
As one preferred form of embodiment‘of my
bobbin and no knot is necessary. A substantial
amount of time and waste is saved and I elim
inate knots which would be between threads from
different bobbins.
' I am therefore able to produce a natural silk 30
yarn of any desired continuous length, the re
spective strands of which are continuous adja
invention, I have illustrated a cone-shaped pack
cent any particular knot, and such knots, being
age ID of silk thread- in Figure 1, with an en
in single strands only and usually spaced out of
35 larged view of the thread being generallyv repre
the range of visibility of the naked eye, are not
conspicuous in a combination of yarns and do
sented at i2 in Figure 2. In this preferred em
bodiment the package I0 contains approximate
ly eight ounces of natural silk yarn, and although
I can equally as well produce larger or smaller
40 packages which are also knotless as desired, the
not add appreciably to the diameter of the thread.
The yarn also has a uniform tension in every
?ber or strand as I tie the necessary knots prior
to tensioning the yarn and prior to twisting. As 46
eight ounce package is especially desirable for g each fiber or strand is independent of each other,
certain purposes. In hosiery tram, for example, uniformity of tension and elasticity is obtained.
this amount will make approximately two dozen
My improved yarn and yarn package are suit
separate stocking leg portions, or one dozen pairs. able for various different subsequent operations
45 It is of course to be understood that the length such as knitting and weaving and substantial
of thread per pound varies with the number of bene?ts are obtained in using my improved prod
strands, but as hosiery usually requires a small ~ ucts. As an example, a “knotless” yarn hosiery
range of different strand threads, this is approxi
tram made in accordance with my invention is
mately correct. Asian example ‘of this range, a especially desirable in making hosiery. As is
half pound of seven strand thread 13/15 denier well known, two of the major dif?culties in
50 size
will contain approximately 42,000 yards, knitting hosiery are press-o?s and throw-outs.
whereas, with a three strand thread 13/15 denier,~ Press-offs are due to knots in the tram catching
the length is approximately 98,000 yards. With
heavier denier, these amounts will be reduced,
55 twenty thousand yards being the approximate
lower limit of length of packages required in the
knitting trade.
The yarn package of cone shape is wound on
suitable coning machinery, theshowing of which
60 has been omitted as unnecessary to an under
standing of this invention. It is, of course, to
he understood that the yarn package may be of
other desired shapes such as a pineapple cone,
' modi?ed pineapple cone,'quill, cop, parallel tube,
65 or the yarn may be retained on the ‘bobbin for
direct use. The shape of the package is variable
in accordance with the desires of the knitters or
weavers who ?nd diiferent advantages in one
over another.
The size'of the package is also variable within
certain practical limits. Large size cones of ten‘
ounces and over can be ‘made successfully accord‘
in the carrier or the needle of the knitting ma
chine, and at a break of the yarn, the particular
knitted portion is discharged from the. machine.
Press-o?fs are a substantial loss to the operator,
not only due to the fact that the particular stock
ing is not perfect, and because full production is
not obtained, but in addition, the press-off is
almost all waste. Under some circumstances, the 60
yarn may be redrawn, but this is unsatisfactory.
Throw-outs are also caused by knots which ap
pear on inspection of the?nal product. Such '
throw-outs are put in a lower quality class or
thrown to waste, either of which is highly expen
sive and a cause‘ of considerable loss. Throw
outs and press-offs are eliminated in using my
“knotless” yarn.
My hosiery tram has a further advantage in
that within the range of quality of the silk, 70
each stocking is uniform in grade and perfect.
I obtain full production, lowered unit operating
ing, to my invention, but the majority of silk
costs and therefore more economical ‘operation
yarn packages are in the common range of six
of the knitting machines. The yarn is also uni-r
formly elastic and the product is equal to the best‘
75 ‘to eight ounces. I can, of course, also'make
prior products and’superior to the average here
tofore produced.
' on the side ofthe cone which will cause either
gathering of other threads or cause unravelling. ,
This ‘greatly eliminates wastage and prevents
My invention is applicable not only to tram
which‘ has multiple‘ ends of low twist usually
within the range of two and one-half to forty
bunching of the thread which in knitting ma
chinery would cause press-oils.
There is no change of color of tint and there -
' turns~ per inch, and two to twelve or more strands,
but it is also applicable to other thread products . will ‘be no change insise of.thread which fre
quently happened where separate threads were
knotted together.‘ Although there is great care
including organzine, grenadine and crepe. Or
ganzine‘is a multiple strand thread, each strand
of whichfis separately twisted‘ and then after. used in selecting silk threads, there‘ is such a va-_ 10‘
_ doubling, the thread ‘is ?nally twisted. Grena-_ riation in denier between threads of the same
dine is a highertwist modi?cation of organzine - class that there is often a noticeable change
having multiple strands,-each strand, of which
where different threads are joined together. My
receives a high initial twist, and then a further
knotlus yarn of the multiple strand type has nov
joint between different sections of the thread on
one package as it is-continuous and at any one
twist after doubling.
Crepe thread is a high twist multiple end
thread in which all strands are twisted together.\\ point so many'of the strands are continuous that '
~Voileshave from thirty twists up and the crepes ‘a knotted strand will have no noticeable e?ect
run in the ‘order of seventy-?ve turns per inch. on the combination of yarns. There is also no
two-tone appearance due to hard and soft 20
‘This may vary somewhat more or less. '
Inasmuch as‘ I tie single end knots, I do not _ threads which would effect dyeing.
Another.‘ important feature of my improved
interfere in any way with the twist of such-prodw
.ucts. My knots are placed in' the individual ‘1 yarn package is that it has a uniform tension
. strands prior to twisting and breaks or run-outs which is of considerable importance when the
can be pieced together with substantially no va- ‘ cone is placed in a subsequent machine of the 25
knitting or weavingv type. Heretofore at runouts
‘ riation in the total twist. This particularly over
comes slack twist in crepe and other high twist ‘of a bobbin in the coning operation, knots were
tied and the thread from the new bobbin was
started on the cone by hand. There was a suf
My new yarn is also suitable for direct use such
' ?cient di?erence in the manual winding that the 30
as in‘ ?sh lines, racquet strings, and other .pur
tension would vary. to an objectionable degree
poses in which a continuous, knotless yarn is re
quired. In suggesting such uses, I do not intend .- ‘and cause subsequent difficulties. As my yarn
tolimit myself, however, as they are merely sug- . package is mechanically wound and as there is
gestive of the range of products for which my no interruption due to run-outs, a far superior
yarn package results. Furthermore, there is
thread is'available.
substantially no possibility of knots opening in
,_ Knotless silk yarn of my type has many other
advantages of manufacture and use in addition to
single end strands as the uniform tension is
the improved quality of the yarn itself due to‘ placedon the knotted strand and the unknotted
the elimination of the knots common to all strands after the knot is tied.
I am aware that products other than natural 40
40 strands. In throwing, I obtain greater produc
tion on the doubling, twisting and coning ma . silk have been formed into continuous strands by
chines because of less do?lng and do?ing‘ delays various methods, and although I am aware ‘that
as larger spools absorb the entire amount of modi?cations may be made to my invention, I do
thread necessary to make the single package. not consider products other than natural silk
45 There are fewer operations and this more than within the scope of‘ my invention except where
offsets ‘any possible additional time required to they have substantially the same characteristics
tie ‘single end knots. Greater production. per of size, use and quality common to natural silk.
machine and per operator results inmaterially Natural silk is a small ?ber which for hosiery
increased economies, and I eliminate entirely, tram is usually within the range of ten to twenty
50 the. time and waste in tying knots in the coning ?ve denier, although. for other purposes it may
operation as the ?nal package ismade from a be of ?ve to thirty denier. It has a relatively
high strength and elasticity, and due toits ex
tremely small size or ?neness, it is necessarily
Tying of single end knots is also far less waste
ful of thread than the tying of multiple end twisted and doubled for commercial use. My-in
vention is applicable to arti?cial silks having‘
55 knots which are commonly formed. With a mul
tiple end knot common to all strands, the strands such characteristics.
It is also to be understood that knotting of two
, are usually drawn back'from the receiving bobbin
and even if a careful knot is formed there are'of -or more strands at one point does not avoid my
necessity ends that must be trimmed on all of invention although it is not preferred. With a‘
60 the multiple strands‘. The waste is a very sub
four strand silk thread for sheer hosiery, for 60
stantial factor and may run as-high as 6% of . example, I ?nd that I can knot two separatev
?bers without objection and with ?ve strand
the entire production.
A single end knot eliminates redrawing of the thread, it is possible to knot three strands to
strands properly wound on the receiving bobbin gether. Ordinarily it is unnecessary to tie so
and makes it unnecessary to gather in, cut and 'many ends, however, for 'I ?nd that single or (i5
waste portions of the other thread strands. With double end breaks seldom occur at the same point
,a typical ?ve strand thread, there is far less ' under good operating conditions.
than one ?fth of the waste and under good oper
ating conditions, I ?nd that I can reduceall of
the waste in throwing to less than one-half of
The test for knots is, of course, the typical in
spection, for if the knots are invisible and if they
freely pass knot detectors and cleaner guides, or 70
‘that formerly thought necessary. With thread of
a greater number of strands, greater economies
the carriers and needles of knitting machines, the
?nal knitted or‘woven product will be unobjec
are obtained.
'I'he yarn package is also far superior to the
~ tionable. I It may happen that one strand break
ing in the doubler will be adjacent a prior breakv
prioryarnpackagesinthattherecanbenoknots inanotherstrandandinsuchcasatherewillbe
\ 2,107,838
two knots at the same point. This is so rare that
run-outs durlnglthe doubling-twisting operation,
. it need not be especially considered and with four
strand thread or more, it is of no importance.
It is of course to be understood that my inven
tion relates to commercial products made on a
said knots being spaced along the yarn, there
production basis by throwing machines. I do not
7. A continuous natural silk yarn of the class
described having a plurality of separate continu
intend to cover the incidental or accidental pro
duction of a small quantity of knotless yarn,
which because of the extremely high quality of
10 silk, maybe free of all knots. It is recognized,
being no knots common to all strands, from two
of the strands to two-thirds of all the strands
being commonly knotted.
I '
ous strands of a length suitable for making ap
proximately two dozen sheer stocking leg por
tions, said yarn having single strand knots formed 10
however, that silk throwing develops a large num- . 'at breaks or run-outs in the doubling-twisting
ber of knots, the multiple end knots which are operation and having no knots common to all
common to all strands, being the ones I eliminate.
For production of yarn as well as subsequent
products, this is a bene?cial advance in the in
strands, said strands having a continuously uni
form twist whereby a knitted product made,
therefrom may be uniformly dyed.
8. As a new article of manufacture, a continu
ous yarn consisting of approximately eight ounces
While I have shown a preferred form of em
bodiment of my invention, I am aware that other of wound natural silk yarn oi.’ 13/ 15 denier, and
modi?cations within the scope and spirit of my ,between 'two and twelve strands, said yarn having
20 invention may be made thereto,'and I therefore a number of strands which are individually knot 20
desire a broad interpretation of my invention ted, the knots in different strands being spaced
limited only by the scope of the claims appended a substantial distance apart and there being no
knots common to all strands.
I claim:
9. A continuous silk yarn of the class described,
1. A continuous‘silk hosiery tram for sheer leg saidyarn being composed of two to twelve of 25
portions of hosiery of the class described, said twisted natural silk strands of ten to twenty
yarn being composed of a plurality of twisted ?ve denier and of a continuous length to make
natural silk strands of such length that during an eight ounce package, said strands being indi
doubling and twisting breaks and run-outs in ‘ vidually ‘knotted where broken, each knot in a
strand being adjacent continuous portions of the 30
having individual knots at breaks or. run-outs, other strands, each of said separate strands ,
30 single strands will naturally occur, said strands
said yarn having no knots common to all strands.
2. As a new article of manufacture, knotless
having uniform tension and substantially uni
form strength. '
‘ natural silk yarn having single strand knots only
and not more than one single strand‘knot at any
continuous yarn consisting of approximately
one point, each strand being a continuous length
eight ounces of wound natural silk yarn, said
vyarn having from two to twelve strands of ?ve
of the same lot of natural silk and having uni
. " form denier, nature and twist.
3. A continuous silk yarn of the class described,
40 said yarn being composed of a plurality of‘ tinted
twisted natural silk strands, said strands being
10. As a new article of manufacture. a
to thirty denier, said strandsbeing individually
knotted and the knots in different strands being
spaced a substantial distance apart, and with 40
out knots common to all strands, said yarn hav
individually knotted, each knot in one strand ' ing a uniform twist throughout its length.
11. As a new article of- manufacture, a crepe
being adjacent continuous portions of the other
strands and the silk of each strand being of the
45 same tint, nature and twist.
" 4. A natural silk, multiple strand thread. of the
class described, ‘said thread having a uniform
twist from end to end, said strands being con
tinuous and having single strand knots at breaks
or run-outs, each strand being entirely ‘formed
thread having about twenty turns to the inch,
such thread being composed of a plurality of 45
separate natural silk ?bers, each of said ?bers
being separately continuous and having uniform
tension, elongation and elasticity, certain of said
?bers having knots individual thereto, the thread
having no knots common to all ?bers, each knot 50
being'adiacent continuous portions of the other
from a single skein of silk and having uniform
twist, denier, nature and tint, so that there are no
changes of silk from diiferent lots at any one
?bers and being formed prior to twist.
tinuous yarn of ‘grenadine type equivalent in
5. As a new'article of manufacture, a multiple
twist, multiple strand natural silk knotless yarn
having single strands separately knotted at breaks
or run-outs during the doubling-twisting oper
12. As a new article of manufacture, a con
length to six ounces or more and having more. 55
than two strands and not to exceed twelve
strands, each of said strands being separately
twisted in one direction, all of said strands also
ation, saidknots being spaced along the yarn, .being twisted together, and in van opposite di-'
more than one-third of said strands being con
rection, one of said strands beingknotted, said 60
tinuous at any one point and each strand being knot being within substantially uniform twisted
a portion of a single skein of yarn.
I portions of the vsame strand, the twist of said
. 6. As a new article of manufacture, a multiple yarn being set after ‘the knots are formed.
twist, multiple strand natural silk knotless yarn
‘having multiple strand knots tied at breaks or
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