Патент USA US2107838код для вставки
Feb. 8, 1938. M_ A_ ‘sALEMmER, JR ‘ 2,107,838 CONTINUOUS YARN Filed May 1, 1935 INVENTOR Maurice ?LSa/e blQ/‘Ji: Patented Feb. 8, 1938 g > . UNITED _ 2,107,838 STATE PATENT ‘OFFICE 5. 2,107,888 con'rmuous YARN _ Maurice Albert Salembier, In, Plandome, n. '2. Application May 1, 19st, Serial No. 19.143 (Cl. 117-52) 12 Claims. packages of silk yarn and to an improvedcon tinuous form of thread therefor. oils or stoppage in knitting or weaving operations customarily caused by knots. Further objects and advantages of my inven It has heretofore been‘the practice of throw ’ tion will appear from the following disclosure of a sters to produce a cone or similar shaped pack age of natural silk yarn which commonly held ‘conjunction with the attached drawing which is This invention relates to improvements in , approximately eight ounces of silk thread of the 0 multiple strand, multiple twist type. In certain industries, however, such as the hosiery knitting‘ industry and others, there is great objection to this commonly available package because it has too many knots, while the smaller packages re quire. too' much handling for commercial knitting or weaving. , v . . . , ‘preferred form of embodiment thereof taken in 5 illustrative thereof, and in which: ' ‘ Figure 1 is an elevation of one form of my improved yarn package, and v . Figure 2 is an enlarged view of my individually 10 knotted strand yarn.‘ . ' Silk throwing includes as one of the prelimi nary steps, the winding of raw silk which in itself is too line and loosely held together to be a com mercial product. This single end or strand is 15 One of the principal objects of my invention is tov produce a new yarn package of a continuous customarily doubled and twisted, sometimes in natural silk thread of a multiple strand, multiple a one operation, and in sometypes of thread the twist type, such thread being “knotless"‘in_ that, single strand is twisted prior to doubling. Other it ‘has no knots common to. all strands, although individual strands which have breaks are sepa rately tied. » - treatment includescieaning, steaming, etc., and the final step is coning or forming a thread pack- 20 age. - 7 Doubling forms multiple plies or strands for a an eight ounce package of silk yarn especially ~ su?iciently strong thread, and the number of suitable for hosiery tram which contains enough strands varies for‘ di?erent products. Hosiery continuous silk thread to knit the leg portions of tram, for example, commercially requires four or approximately one dozen pairs of hosiery, such‘ , ?ve strands or less for sheer leg portions and for service weight leg portions, welts, etc.,' the number thread being free of any multiplestrand-knots._ of strands is usually greater and may be twelve A further, object of my invention is to pro vide a natural ‘silk, multiple strand, multiple or more, depending on the product desired. In the various steps in winding and spinning, 30 twist thread in which the strands are separately knotted at breaks or ‘run-outs and in whichthe t the doubling operation is very important as a less size ofagthe yarn at the knotted portion-is not er number of strands in one portion than in an Another object of my invention is to produce materially greater than at an-unknotted portion, such knotted portion passing through an open ing sumclent to pass the maximum'diameterof \ an unknotted portion. . Alstill further object ofmy invention is to pr vide a hosiery tram having single strand knots only, no knots being visible in a combination of yarns.» n ' , ' A still further object of my invention is to ‘ provide a continuous length of natural silk yarn‘, separate - strands of which ‘are individually knotted, the knots being adjacent unknotted por tions'jof. other strands, the strands of such thread being of uniform‘ elasticity, ‘strength and under uniform tension whereby such thread is especially adapted for knitting or weaving of elastic‘silk productssuch as hosiery, etc. i Another obiect of my invention‘ is to provide a' superior. commercial, continuous silk yarn of low denierwhich is doubled and, twisted to form a, 5- nimble strength such thread being free , - from knots as determined by freedom from press other is fatal to acceptance forgrade. . Stop mo tions have therefore been provided for stopping . the receiving bobbin if a strand broke or ran out 35 ‘dueto exhaustion of the spool, and in some cases, operation of the stop motion has caused a sever ance of all strands so that the operator would be sure to tie a knot in a full number of the strands before the bobbin was restarted and the doubling 40 continued. Coning also has always required the formation of knots in the larger packages due to joining thread. from two or more bobbins and under the best conditions prevailing at this time, an eight ounce package of natural silk yarn cus- 45 tomarily has three or more knots common to all strands and may have a great many more. . Ihave now found that I can produce a package of silk thread such as hosiery tram or other types suitable for, weaving, knitting or direct use, which 50 is as large or larger than any present commercial productnow available and in which the thread is continuous and has no knots common to all ends or strands. I can also produce such a product atareducedcostandlfindittobesuperior to 55 2 2,107,838 other ‘available products as to length, strength and quality. " My new continuous natural silk yarn differs from that of the best prior practice in that hav ing no multiple strand knots, it has no knot de small size-cones or packages in the range of two to five ounces, but these packages are usually not desirable for production in knitting machines as they require too much handling, do?lng and re plenishment. Economy demands regularity of fects which would show up in subsequent knitting production which I can achieve for the ?rst time or weaving operations. with my larger sizes of cones. Inasmuch as the most . carefully handled strands will break however, 1' My improved yarn is made on suitable ma tie the broken ends of that strand only and do not break or destroy the remaining continuous strands. The individual knot of the knotted machines. From the single end bobbins, I usually strand is then directly alongside and adjacent to the other strands‘which are continuous at that point and in a combination of yarns, is 15 substantially invisible, even in the sheer type goods. My yarn may therefore be-termedl“knot- less”. Furthermore, although natural silk thread is very ?ne in size, the separate strands, which are 20 still ?ner or smaller, are not absolutely uniform in diameter. This results in a thread which has some variation. A single strand knot, however, is relatively so small that it does not cause re chinery including winding, twisting and doubling double the strands and I am particularly careful to stop the spindle of the doubler bobbin after a single end break with such rapidity that no twist takes place in the unbroken ends. I then sep arately knot the broken strand as shown at it ' without disturbing the continuous strands and then restart the doubler bobbin. I also prefer to 19 use bobbins of a larger size than usual so that the doubler and twister bobbins will carry enough material to completely ?ll the desired size cone. 20 After doubling and subsequent operations are completed, I then form the package in a suitable standard type coning machine. Iprefer to cone jects or become caught in needles or carriers of from a doubler bobbin which is the same size as 25 machines which pass the main thread. In addi- ~ the cone package as I only use a single doubler 25 tion, the relative size of a single strand knot as compared to the size of the multiple strand be comes less with increased numbers of strands, rather than greater as with a'common knot. 30 Single strand knots are therefore unobjection able. . As one preferred form of embodiment‘of my bobbin and no knot is necessary. A substantial amount of time and waste is saved and I elim inate knots which would be between threads from different bobbins. V ' I am therefore able to produce a natural silk 30 yarn of any desired continuous length, the re spective strands of which are continuous adja invention, I have illustrated a cone-shaped pack cent any particular knot, and such knots, being age ID of silk thread- in Figure 1, with an en in single strands only and usually spaced out of 35 larged view of the thread being generallyv repre the range of visibility of the naked eye, are not conspicuous in a combination of yarns and do sented at i2 in Figure 2. In this preferred em bodiment the package I0 contains approximate ly eight ounces of natural silk yarn, and although I can equally as well produce larger or smaller 40 packages which are also knotless as desired, the not add appreciably to the diameter of the thread. The yarn also has a uniform tension in every ?ber or strand as I tie the necessary knots prior to tensioning the yarn and prior to twisting. As 46 eight ounce package is especially desirable for g each fiber or strand is independent of each other, certain purposes. In hosiery tram, for example, uniformity of tension and elasticity is obtained. this amount will make approximately two dozen My improved yarn and yarn package are suit separate stocking leg portions, or one dozen pairs. able for various different subsequent operations 45 It is of course to be understood that the length such as knitting and weaving and substantial of thread per pound varies with the number of bene?ts are obtained in using my improved prod strands, but as hosiery usually requires a small ~ ucts. As an example, a “knotless” yarn hosiery range of different strand threads, this is approxi tram made in accordance with my invention is mately correct. Asian example ‘of this range, a especially desirable in making hosiery. As is half pound of seven strand thread 13/15 denier well known, two of the major dif?culties in 50 size will contain approximately 42,000 yards, knitting hosiery are press-o?s and throw-outs. whereas, with a three strand thread 13/15 denier,~ Press-offs are due to knots in the tram catching the length is approximately 98,000 yards. With heavier denier, these amounts will be reduced, 55 twenty thousand yards being the approximate lower limit of length of packages required in the knitting trade. ' The yarn package of cone shape is wound on suitable coning machinery, theshowing of which 60 has been omitted as unnecessary to an under standing of this invention. It is, of course, to he understood that the yarn package may be of other desired shapes such as a pineapple cone, ' modi?ed pineapple cone,'quill, cop, parallel tube, 65 or the yarn may be retained on the ‘bobbin for direct use. The shape of the package is variable in accordance with the desires of the knitters or weavers who ?nd diiferent advantages in one over another. 70 The size'of the package is also variable within certain practical limits. Large size cones of ten‘ ounces and over can be ‘made successfully accord‘ in the carrier or the needle of the knitting ma chine, and at a break of the yarn, the particular knitted portion is discharged from the. machine. Press-o?fs are a substantial loss to the operator, not only due to the fact that the particular stock ing is not perfect, and because full production is not obtained, but in addition, the press-off is almost all waste. Under some circumstances, the 60 yarn may be redrawn, but this is unsatisfactory. Throw-outs are also caused by knots which ap pear on inspection of the?nal product. Such ' throw-outs are put in a lower quality class or thrown to waste, either of which is highly expen sive and a cause‘ of considerable loss. Throw outs and press-offs are eliminated in using my “knotless” yarn. - My hosiery tram has a further advantage in that within the range of quality of the silk, 70 each stocking is uniform in grade and perfect. I obtain full production, lowered unit operating ing, to my invention, but the majority of silk costs and therefore more economical ‘operation yarn packages are in the common range of six of the knitting machines. The yarn is also uni-r formly elastic and the product is equal to the best‘ 75 ‘to eight ounces. I can, of course, also'make . prior products and’superior to the average here tofore produced. ' 3' ' on the side ofthe cone which will cause either gathering of other threads or cause unravelling. , _ This ‘greatly eliminates wastage and prevents My invention is applicable not only to tram which‘ has multiple‘ ends of low twist usually within the range of two and one-half to forty bunching of the thread which in knitting ma chinery would cause press-oils. ' There is no change of color of tint and there - ' turns~ per inch, and two to twelve or more strands, but it is also applicable to other thread products . will ‘be no change insise of.thread which fre quently happened where separate threads were knotted together.‘ Although there is great care including organzine, grenadine and crepe. Or ganzine‘is a multiple strand thread, each strand of whichfis separately twisted‘ and then after. used in selecting silk threads, there‘ is such a va-_ 10‘ _ doubling, the thread ‘is ?nally twisted. Grena-_ riation in denier between threads of the same dine is a highertwist modi?cation of organzine - class that there is often a noticeable change having multiple strands,-each strand, of which where different threads are joined together. My receives a high initial twist, and then a further knotlus yarn of the multiple strand type has nov joint between different sections of the thread on one package as it is-continuous and at any one twist after doubling. , ' Crepe thread is a high twist multiple end thread in which all strands are twisted together.\\ point so many'of the strands are continuous that ' ~Voileshave from thirty twists up and the crepes ‘a knotted strand will have no noticeable e?ect run in the ‘order of seventy-?ve turns per inch. on the combination of yarns. There is also no two-tone appearance due to hard and soft 20 ‘This may vary somewhat more or less. ' I Inasmuch as‘ I tie single end knots, I do not _ threads which would effect dyeing. Another.‘ important feature of my improved interfere in any way with the twist of such-prodw .ucts. My knots are placed in' the individual ‘1 yarn package is that it has a uniform tension . strands prior to twisting and breaks or run-outs which is of considerable importance when the can be pieced together with substantially no va- ‘ cone is placed in a subsequent machine of the 25 knitting or weavingv type. Heretofore at runouts ‘ riation in the total twist. This particularly over comes slack twist in crepe and other high twist ‘of a bobbin in the coning operation, knots were tied and the thread from the new bobbin was thread. . v . - ' started on the cone by hand. There was a suf My new yarn is also suitable for direct use such ' ?cient di?erence in the manual winding that the 30 as in‘ ?sh lines, racquet strings, and other .pur tension would vary. to an objectionable degree poses in which a continuous, knotless yarn is re quired. In suggesting such uses, I do not intend .- ‘and cause subsequent difficulties. As my yarn tolimit myself, however, as they are merely sug- . package is mechanically wound and as there is gestive of the range of products for which my no interruption due to run-outs, a far superior yarn package results. Furthermore, there is thread is'available. ' . v - v _ 35 substantially no possibility of knots opening in ,_ Knotless silk yarn of my type has many other advantages of manufacture and use in addition to single end strands as the uniform tension is the improved quality of the yarn itself due to‘ placedon the knotted strand and the unknotted the elimination of the knots common to all strands after the knot is tied. I am aware that products other than natural 40 40 strands. In throwing, I obtain greater produc tion on the doubling, twisting and coning ma . silk have been formed into continuous strands by chines because of less do?lng and do?ing‘ delays various methods, and although I am aware ‘that as larger spools absorb the entire amount of modi?cations may be made to my invention, I do thread necessary to make the single package. not consider products other than natural silk 45 There are fewer operations and this more than within the scope of‘ my invention except where offsets ‘any possible additional time required to they have substantially the same characteristics tie ‘single end knots. Greater production. per of size, use and quality common to natural silk. machine and per operator results inmaterially Natural silk is a small ?ber which for hosiery increased economies, and I eliminate entirely, tram is usually within the range of ten to twenty 50 the. time and waste in tying knots in the coning ?ve denier, although. for other purposes it may operation as the ?nal package ismade from a be of ?ve to thirty denier. It has a relatively high strength and elasticity, and due toits ex tremely small size or ?neness, it is necessarily Tying of single end knots is also far less waste ful of thread than the tying of multiple end twisted and doubled for commercial use. My-in vention is applicable to arti?cial silks having‘ 55 knots which are commonly formed. With a mul tiple end knot common to all strands, the strands such characteristics. It is also to be understood that knotting of two , are usually drawn back'from the receiving bobbin and even if a careful knot is formed there are'of -or more strands at one point does not avoid my necessity ends that must be trimmed on all of invention although it is not preferred. With a‘ 60 the multiple strands‘. The waste is a very sub four strand silk thread for sheer hosiery, for 60 stantial factor and may run as-high as 6% of . example, I ?nd that I can knot two separatev ?bers without objection and with ?ve strand the entire production. . 1 A single end knot eliminates redrawing of the thread, it is possible to knot three strands to strands properly wound on the receiving bobbin gether. Ordinarily it is unnecessary to tie so and makes it unnecessary to gather in, cut and 'many ends, however, for 'I ?nd that single or (i5 waste portions of the other thread strands. With double end breaks seldom occur at the same point single bobbin. - _ . 1' ' ,a typical ?ve strand thread, there is far less ' under good operating conditions. ' than one ?fth of the waste and under good oper ating conditions, I ?nd that I can reduceall of the waste in throwing to less than one-half of The test for knots is, of course, the typical in spection, for if the knots are invisible and if they freely pass knot detectors and cleaner guides, or 70 ‘that formerly thought necessary. With thread of a greater number of strands, greater economies the carriers and needles of knitting machines, the ?nal knitted or‘woven product will be unobjec are obtained. ' 'I'he yarn package is also far superior to the ~ tionable. I It may happen that one strand break ing in the doubler will be adjacent a prior breakv prioryarnpackagesinthattherecanbenoknots inanotherstrandandinsuchcasatherewillbe 75 -4 \ 2,107,838 two knots at the same point. This is so rare that run-outs durlnglthe doubling-twisting operation, . it need not be especially considered and with four strand thread or more, it is of no importance. It is of course to be understood that my inven tion relates to commercial products made on a said knots being spaced along the yarn, there production basis by throwing machines. I do not 7. A continuous natural silk yarn of the class described having a plurality of separate continu intend to cover the incidental or accidental pro duction of a small quantity of knotless yarn, which because of the extremely high quality of 10 silk, maybe free of all knots. It is recognized, being no knots common to all strands, from two of the strands to two-thirds of all the strands being commonly knotted. I ' ' ous strands of a length suitable for making ap proximately two dozen sheer stocking leg por tions, said yarn having single strand knots formed 10 however, that silk throwing develops a large num- . 'at breaks or run-outs in the doubling-twisting ber of knots, the multiple end knots which are operation and having no knots common to all common to all strands, being the ones I eliminate. For production of yarn as well as subsequent products, this is a bene?cial advance in the in strands, said strands having a continuously uni form twist whereby a knitted product made, 15 therefrom may be uniformly dyed. dustry. 8. As a new article of manufacture, a continu ous yarn consisting of approximately eight ounces While I have shown a preferred form of em bodiment of my invention, I am aware that other of wound natural silk yarn oi.’ 13/ 15 denier, and modi?cations within the scope and spirit of my ,between 'two and twelve strands, said yarn having 20 invention may be made thereto,'and I therefore a number of strands which are individually knot 20 desire a broad interpretation of my invention ted, the knots in different strands being spaced limited only by the scope of the claims appended a substantial distance apart and there being no knots common to all strands. I claim: 9. A continuous silk yarn of the class described, 25 1. A continuous‘silk hosiery tram for sheer leg saidyarn being composed of two to twelve of 25 portions of hosiery of the class described, said twisted natural silk strands of ten to twenty yarn being composed of a plurality of twisted ?ve denier and of a continuous length to make natural silk strands of such length that during an eight ounce package, said strands being indi hereinafter, ' ' ' doubling and twisting breaks and run-outs in ‘ vidually ‘knotted where broken, each knot in a strand being adjacent continuous portions of the 30 having individual knots at breaks or. run-outs, other strands, each of said separate strands , 30 single strands will naturally occur, said strands said yarn having no knots common to all strands. 2. As a new article of manufacture, knotless having uniform tension and substantially uni form strength. ' ‘ ‘ natural silk yarn having single strand knots only and not more than one single strand‘knot at any continuous yarn consisting of approximately one point, each strand being a continuous length eight ounces of wound natural silk yarn, said vyarn having from two to twelve strands of ?ve of the same lot of natural silk and having uni . " form denier, nature and twist. - - 3. A continuous silk yarn of the class described, 40 said yarn being composed of a plurality of‘ tinted twisted natural silk strands, said strands being 10. As a new article of manufacture. a to thirty denier, said strandsbeing individually knotted and the knots in different strands being spaced a substantial distance apart, and with 40 out knots common to all strands, said yarn hav individually knotted, each knot in one strand ' ing a uniform twist throughout its length. 11. As a new article of- manufacture, a crepe being adjacent continuous portions of the other strands and the silk of each strand being of the 45 same tint, nature and twist. - " 4. A natural silk, multiple strand thread. of the class described, ‘said thread having a uniform twist from end to end, said strands being con tinuous and having single strand knots at breaks or run-outs, each strand being entirely ‘formed 55 thread having about twenty turns to the inch, such thread being composed of a plurality of 45 separate natural silk ?bers, each of said ?bers being separately continuous and having uniform tension, elongation and elasticity, certain of said ?bers having knots individual thereto, the thread having no knots common to all ?bers, each knot 50 being'adiacent continuous portions of the other from a single skein of silk and having uniform twist, denier, nature and tint, so that there are no changes of silk from diiferent lots at any one ?bers and being formed prior to twist. point. tinuous yarn of ‘grenadine type equivalent in 5. As a new'article of manufacture, a multiple twist, multiple strand natural silk knotless yarn having single strands separately knotted at breaks or run-outs during the doubling-twisting oper 12. As a new article of manufacture, a con length to six ounces or more and having more. 55 than two strands and not to exceed twelve strands, each of said strands being separately twisted in one direction, all of said strands also ation, saidknots being spaced along the yarn, .being twisted together, and in van opposite di-' more than one-third of said strands being con rection, one of said strands beingknotted, said 60 tinuous at any one point and each strand being knot being within substantially uniform twisted a portion of a single skein of yarn. I portions of the vsame strand, the twist of said . 6. As a new article of manufacture, a multiple yarn being set after ‘the knots are formed. twist, multiple strand natural silk knotless yarn ‘having multiple strand knots tied at breaks or , MAURICE A. SALEMIBIER, JR.