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Патент USA US2108005

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Feb. 8, 1938.
w, |_, KEEPER
2,108,005
ABRADING APPARATUS
Filed July 25, 1935
2 Sheéts-Sheet l
i
3 W0 MM
Millie/L. ffi’efer
Feb. 8, 1938.
_
w_ L KEEPER
2,108,005
ABRADING APPARATUS
Filed July 25, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
27
Patented Feb. s, 1938
2,108,005
UNITED STATES2,108,0052' PATENT
OFFICE
; ABRADING APPARATUS
Walter L. Keefer, Hagerstown, Md., assignor to
Pangborn Corporation, Hagerstown, Md., a cor
poi-anon of Maryland
Application July; 25, 1935, Serial No. 33,185
‘
6 Claims.
The present invention relates to abrading ap
paratus and it is more particularly concerned
with mechanical abrasive projecting ‘or propelling '
5
(Ol. 51-9)
peller blade securing plates has been removed to
show a part of the blade securing means.
Figure 2 is a sectional view taken substantially ,
machines of the character wherein an‘ abrasive
on line 2-2 of Figure 1, and it shows’ one of. the v
is projected by centrifugal action against the
propeller blades in section.
_
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view through
- work operated upon.
A primary object of. the present invention is
to provide a machine having all of the desirable
characteristics of the successful abrading ma
10 chine shown in copending application Serial No.
the base of the impeller shown in Figure 1 and
illustrates the parts as they appear when‘ viewed
from the right-hand side of that ?gure.
‘726,188 together with further highly desirable
structural and operating features that improve
the wearing qualities, life and efficiency of the
mechanism materially.
to Figure 3 but the section is taken through the
peripheral ?ange of the cage holder of Figure '1.
Figure 4 is a right-hand end view (Figure l)
of the feeding cage with its associated parts re
It is a' major object of my invention to provide
a novel centrifugal abrading machine that will
ef?ciently utilize all of the abrasive supplied
thereto, and have a long useful life in service,
which issc- constructed as to provide ready dis
assembly for servicing, and yet‘ which is low in
moved therefrom.
cost.
.
.
It is a further object of. my invention to pro
vide a centrifugal abrading machine having im
peller and propeller blades which are properly
correlated to produce a uniform flow of abrasive
to the propeller blades and to reduce the initial
impact of‘ the abrasive therewith and the abra
sive wear thereon, while improving the abrasive
curtain discharged therefrom by increasing its
concentration and reducing the stray abrasive
discharge.
31
'
It is another object of this invention to provide
a novel abrasive feeding assembly for centrifugal
abrading machines in which the need for com-'
plicated and expensive air and abrasive seals is
obviated.
'
'
.
A further object of this invention is to pro
vide an abrasive feeding unit of novel design for
abrading machines which may be readily re
moved from the machine as a unit without dis
turbing any of the parts thereof.
My invention also aims to provide centrifugal
abrading machines with an improved abrasive
impeller assembly and generally to re?ne and im
prove other features of such machines.
Further objects of the present invention will
become apparent as the detailed description
thereof proceeds in connection with the annexed
drawings, and from the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a
centrifugal abrading machine embodying my in
vention and it is taken approximately on the line
l-l of Figure 2. In this view oneof-the pro
Figure 3A is a sectional view somewhat similar
'_
-
15
Figure 5 is a fragmental top plan view of the
bracket which holds the feeding assembly in
position in the device shown in Figure 1.
Figure 6 is a fragmental sectional view some
what similar to Figure 2, but illustrates a modi 20
?ed form ofv cage and impeller assembly, also
forming part of the invention.
With continued reference to the drawings,
wherein like reference characters are employed
to designate like parts throughout the several 25
views thereof, the machine is supported upon a
base designated generally at l0 and which pro
vides an opening through which the blast wheel
or runner assembly projects.
'
Mounted upon base I0 is a runner wheel hous
ing designated generally at H and which com
prises end walls l2 and. I3, side walls l4 and I5,
and a cover l6 which is hinged to the housing in
a manner to be presently described. Abrasive
guard plates l1 and I8 are secured to sidewalls
l4 and I5 respectively, by means of nut and bolt
assemblies I9. Base I0 is provided with a mem
ber 2|] having an opening filled with lead 20’ or
any other renewable material. A further re
inforcing guard plate 2| is secured to plate H 40
by means of a nut and bolt assembly 22. An
abrasive vguard plate 23 is also secured to the
lower side of lid l5 by means of nut and bolt
assemblies 24.
Housing top or lid I6 is hingedly connected to 45
the housing for ready access to the interior by
means of a hinge comprising a .pair of. lugs 25
secured to the lid, a pair of lugs 26 secured to
the casing and a pivot pin assembly 21. The lid
is releasably held in place by a plurality of bolts 50
28 having special dustproof or blind-ended nuts
29 threaded thereon. Bolts 28 ?t through slots
30 in a pair of cross pieces 3| secured to lid l6,
and are received with considerable clearance in
lugs 32' secured to housing H so that nuts 29 need
2
2,108,005
merely be loosened and bolts 29 rocked out of
slots 38 in cross pieces 3| to permit the lid to be
lifted into opened position.
—
view of the fact that the velocity of the abrasive
increases as it-approaches the outer end of the
blades and accordingly'narrows down to a thinner
' Secured to side wall I2 of housing H by‘means ' stream. Hence the’blade is wider at its inner
of nut and bolt assemblies 33 and angle brackets - end in order to insure that the abrasive will not
' 34, is an abrasive rebound guard 35 whose func
tion will be pointed out hereinafter. A wear
plate 38 is secured in place below the base in any
suitable manner and carries an abrasive re
bound guard 31.
All of the rotatable parts'of the machine are
' carried upon a shaft 38,'which maybe mounted.
for rotation in any suitable manner, but which
‘ is supported in the present instance by means of
15 ‘a pair of axially spaced bearings 39 which are‘
provided with arms 4| for securing them to the
base. As. the shaft and bearing arrangement
forms no part of the present invention, only one
bearing assembly has been shown in order to
20 simplify the disclosure.
escape laterally from the blade as it is initially
contacting therewith and is in a less contracted
condition.
-
‘The mechanism I preferably employ for feed
ing abrasive into the space defined by the inner 10
ends of the propelling blades will now be de
scribed.
'
~
-
a
-
’
Bridging a semi-circular recess 88 provided in
base I8 is an arm or bracket 81 which is pro
vided with a forwardly and downwardly curv
ing portion 88. ' Portion .88 is reinforced by
means of a plurality of webs 10 which join it to
arm 81. Arm 8‘! may be secured to base “l in
any suitable manner, but I preferably employ a
r pair of studs 89 which are secured in base I8 and 20
Power may be applied to shaft 38 in any suit
which ‘extend through open-ended slots ‘H in
able manner and it extends into housing H arm 81. Nuts 12 are employed to hold-arm 81
through an opening defined by notches 42 and ~ in place on base l8, and as seen in Figure 1 they
, 43 formed respectively in base l8 and housing
are preferably provided with closed ends to ex
side wall l2. Supported on the shouldered end clude dust from the threads. Slots ‘H are dis 25
of shaft 38 is a heavy disc 45 and it is preferably posed with their open ends facing toward the
keyed thereto in any suitable )con'ventional man
ner. Disc 45 is restrained against axial displace
ment from shaft 38 by means of a plate 48 which
bears against the end face of disc 45 and is 'se
cured to shaft 38 by two machine screws 41.
The abrasive propelling elements of my ma
chine are carried by a rotatable runner head or
rotor 48 which is secured to disc 45 by a plurality
_»_ of counter-sunk screws 49.
Runner 48 is pro
vided with a peripheral ?ange 5| which operates
to restrain the abrasive propelling blades against
rotor, so that when nuts '12 are loosened, bracket
81- may be slid to the right and removed. '
,In order toinsure that arm 81 will be posi
tioned properly when put in place over studs 30
89, it is preferably provided with a pairof posi
tioning set screws 14 for cooperation with studs.
89, each having a locknut ‘l5 turned thereon. To
properly adjust positioning screws 14, arm or
bracket 81 is put in place on base l8, nuts ‘II are
taken up lightly, and arm 81 is then by experi
ment or measurement brought into the proper ,
outward movement in response to centrifugal
force. The abrasive propelling blades are pref
40 erably four in number and are designated gener
ally at B. Blades B are secured in place in pref
erably symmetrical relationship on runner 48 in
a manner similar to that employed in the afore
said copending application, and with reference
position. Nuts 12 are then taken up tight. Po
sitioning screws 14 are then screwed up to take
up the lost motion between them and studs 89,vv 40
and locknuts 15 are‘ then screwed into place to
maintain the positioning screws in the proper set
to Figures 1 and 2, four sector-shaped guide plates
tially loosened and arm 81 is, being maneuvered 45
53 are secured in place on head 48 by means of
counter-sunk screws 54, and their edges are bev
eled so that adjacent sides of each pair of guide
plates will form a dove-tail groove. The side
50 edge of each blade B is provided with a corre
spondingly beveled face 55, so that when blades
- B are inserted in the center of the machine and
slid outwardly into position between the guide
plates they will be ?rmly held against movement.
Annular ?ange 5| prevents the blades from mov
ing outwardly in response to centrifugal force
and a bowed leaf spring 58, ?tting in a groove
51 provided in each blade, frictionally restrains
each blade against inward movement. As the
60 blade restraining means forms no part of the
present invention it will not be further described.
Referring to the con?guration of the blades,
position.‘ If desired, however, positioning screws -
14 may be manipulated while nuts 12 are par
into proper position.
The forward face of the curved portion 88 of
arm 81 is provided with a circumscribing ?ange
11 having vertical and horizontal portions. Se
cured to the forward face of portion 88 by three 50
nut and bolt assemblies 19 and having a rab
beted portion 18 conforming to the ?ange of por
tion' 88, is a holder 8|. Holder 8| provides a
combined'spout and cage or distributor support.
Holder 8| is accordingly stationarily but re 55
movably secured to base l8, and it is provided‘
with a preferably integral spout portion 82 which
has an overhanging lip 83 for cooperation with
the impeller in a manner to be hereinafter
pointed out. Spout portion 82 is provided with a
funnel or spout extension 84, and although these
parts may be integrally formed, I preferably form
I and with reference to Figures 1 and 2, each blade‘ ' .them in two pieces to facilitate casting of the
65
B is provided with a substantially ?at abrasive
parts. They are fastened together by pairs of
propelling surface 59, which extends from _.the_
lugs 85 formed on the respective members and
outer end of the blade to a region near the inner
end thereof. The inner end of each blade is
nut and bolt assemblies 88.
'
preferably provided with a curved abrasive pick
into a cage or receptacle which is carried by
up surface 8| for a purpose that will presently
holder 8|, and which is designated generally at C.
Cage C is provided with a generally cylindrical
portion 81, a deep, preferably imperforate ?ange
88 anda shallower ?ange 9| in which four notches
70 appear.
With reference to Figure 1, each blade
(in this instance upper blade B) is provided with
a pair of abrasive guiding ?anges 82 and 83.
Flange 82 is substantially parallel to runner head
48 whereas ?ange 83 inclines toward the runner
75 head at its outer end. Flange 83 is inclined in
.85
Abrasive introduced into spout 84 is conveyed
89 are provided. Notches 89 correspond in num
ber and spacing to the blades of the impeller, to
be described hereinafter. Cage ?ange 9| is pl
n
3
9,108,005
loted or centered upon a cylindrical hub or ?ange
92 provided on holder 8|. Cage-C is also pro
vided with a recessed face 98, and an element 98
covers slots 98 in holder 8|. Cage C is-preferably
abrupt changes in a substantially radial direction"
until it reaches the tips of. the blades. Blades IOI
are also distributor blades as they serve to break
up the abrasive stream entering cage C into a
adjustably supported for angular rocking move
readily distributable form, and to impart an in
ment about the axis of the machine upon holder itial velocity to the abrasive prior to its being
8i in the following manner:
_ picked up by the propeller blades, and the latter
Preferably a pair of diametrically opposite
studs 91 are secured in ?ange SI of cage C and
extend through apertures in slot cover 84. Studs
91 extend through arcuately-shaped slots 98 in
holder 8|, as shown in Figure 3', and a pair of.
nuts 99 are turned thereon to releasably clamp
cage C to holder 8|. As seen in Figure 1, nuts
99 are of special form as their ends are closed
15 to exclude dust and abrasive from the threads,
and they provide “hex"_manipulating heads which
are disposed a considerable distance from cage
C in order that the nuts may be readily loosened
and. manipulated during the cage adjusting op
20 eration.
Nuts 99 also provide convenient operat
ing handles which may be grasped for rocking
cage C into proper angular adjusted position
after they are loosened. Cage C is also pro-_
vided with a discharge slot or opening I00, which
inclines forwardly with respect to the direction
. of rotation of the runner, as seen in Figure 2.
function to impart the ?nal abrading velocity
to the abrasive, I have employed. this ter
minology to differentiate these functions of the 10
two sets of blades.
The impeller is assembled with the runner
assembly in a predetermined relationship to- es
tablish a highly important cooperation between‘
the impeller blades and the propeller blades for 15
feeding and propelling the abrasive in a novel
manner. Referring to Figure 2, the direction of
rotation of the runner is'counter-clockwise and
it is seen that each impeller blade IOI- is dis-‘
posed at a predetermined angle of advance in 20
the direction of rotation of the runher with re
spect to its propelling blade B. This relation
ship is established between the impeller and pro
peller blades so that -~the abrasive .which is
“churned” around in cage C will be discharged 25
through slot I00 a predetermined angle in ad
Vance of each blade B.
This synchronized or co
I preferably employ an impeller or agitator
, within cage C which rotates synchronously with
runner £8; for insuring a proper feeding of the
30
abrasive to the propeller blades B. The impeller.
ordinated action of 'the impeller and propeller
blades insures that the abrasive will be positively
thrown out into the path of the propeller blades, 30
and by reason of the angular velocity component
or agitator is preferably equipped with the same - of the-abrasive, and the rearward inclination of
number of blades as are present on runner 40, v the inner ends of the blades, the abrasive is
35
40
and in the present case they are four in number.
Impeller blades IOI are joined at one end by. a
picked up with a minimum impact.
cone-shaped cylindrical portion I02 providing a
truncated cone-shaped internal abrasive feeding
face, and into which lip 83 of spout 82 projects.
from the wheel. Impeller blades IOI are also
provided with concave faces I08 which face for
Blades I0l are joined at their other ends by'a
of the runner assembly so that the abrasive im
generally cup-shaped member preferably pro
viding a circular abrasive ballling ?ange I03, and
a deep cylindrical ?ange or hub I04 in which
a pair ‘of diametrically opposed slots I05 are
formed.
'
_
The impeller is preferably secured to the run
ner assembly by means of a long cap screw I 06
which passes through an aperture in the cen
tral part of the impeller and plate 48, andis
threaded into shaft 38. Cap screw I 06 pulls the
impeller with its ?ange I04 into tight engagement
50 with plate 48 and with its slots I05 embracing
‘the heads of machine screws 41.
By reason of
slots I05 in the impeller ?ange ?tting over screws
41, it is impossible to improperly assemble the
impeller with the runner assembly, as these parts
This also re
sults in a more restricted or contracted discharge ‘
wardly with respect to the direction of rotation
pelled thereby will be con?ned to the width of 40
the blades, and Will accordingly be discharged
through slot I00 onto blades B in a more con
tracted form. ‘By con?ning outward ?ow of the
abrasive over blades B to a narrower lateral area,
less power is required to drive the wheel. and the 45
discharge from the runner is of a more concen
trated character.
Operation
The work is placed under the machine oppo 50
site the discharge opcning and it is to be under
stood that the work may assume. various forms
and may be moved in various ways while it is
treated. For instance. the work may be located
in a tumbling device or may be mounted on a
mustbe in alignment before cap screw I06 may
truck to be moved about under the machine to
expose various parts to the blast. Moreover, the
reference to Figure 1, ?ange I03 of the impeller work may be passed through a cabinet, and the
extends outwardly beyond ?ange 88 of cage C, > machine mounted for oscillation about different
with the result that they are radially overlapped axes in order to subject the work to the blast at
60
and abrasive leakage is minimized, because the various angles. Also, the work may be passed
abrasive in cage C would have to take a tortuous ’ through a suitable cabinet or housing in strip or
path in order to escape therefrom. In order to sheet form and subjected to the action of one orv
minimize abrasive leakage over ?ange 9|, one more of my machines. If desired, however, the
wall I01 of each of slots 89 formed therein is machine may be mounted in inverted relation
beveled, and as seen in Figure 4 they are beveled ship in a cabinet to be directed against the lower
in a direction to assist in maintaining the ab
side of the work passed therethrough or it may
rasive in cage C.
‘
'
be mounted to discharge horizontally or at an
Although I have termed blades B “propeller” oblique angle. The following discussion of the
be brought into its ?nal tightened position. With
blades, and blades IOI “impeller” blades, their
action upon the abrasive is somewhat similar
because in each instance the abrasive is picked
up by the inner end of the blades and is impelled
or propelled outwardly over the blade and is
75
smoothly and continuously accelerated without
operation of the machine is therefore intended 70
to apply to my machine irrespective of the man
ner in which the work is exposed to the blast
stream.
-
_
'
Shaft 88 may be rotated at any-suitable speed,
but with a machine constructed as shown in-the 75
4
2,100,006
drawings, I ?nd that a speed of approximately
2500 R. P. M., in the direction indicated in Fig
ure 4 is suitable for satisfactory operation of the
machine. Cage C is mounted on holder 8| in
the position shown in, the drawings at the fac
tory, and it has been found that. with the pro
Y ‘portions of the various parts as shown, and with‘
the discharge opening I00 located as shown in
Figure 2, the discharge from the machine will
be properly located when the machine is rotated
at the proper speed.
However, if it is found upon operating the ma
chine that the .discharge is not directed as de
sired, nuts 99 may be loosened and manipulated
16 to rock cage C and thereby change the angular
relationship of abrasive discharge slot I00. As
the point at which the abrasive stream leaves the
wheel is determined by the point at which the
abrasive is admitted to the inner ends of the
20 propeller blades, and as the time it takes for an
abrasive particle to traverse the blade depends
upon the length of the blade and to some extent
upon the nature of the abrasive, it is apparent
that by rocking cage C so as to vary the angular
25 position of slot I00, the angular range over which
the discharge from the machine will occur may
be correspondingly varied.
and as the tangential component of the velocity
of an individual particle of abrasive is not great
ly lower than the velocity of the inner ends of
blades B, wear of the latter is minimized. '
As the abrasive is forwardly rotated in cage
C under the in?uence of impeller blades l0l it
is con?ned by ?anges 80 and 9| and it will be
seen that if any stray abrasive should leak be
tween cage C and holder 8| and the sides of
spacer member 94, the abrasive so escaping can 10
do no harm as it is located within housing H
and hence will merely gravitate or be impelled
out of the discharge opening thereof. Moreover,
as these parts merely function as a funnel or
chute for introducing the abrasive into the im
peller, there is no tendency for an air or abra
sive leak to develop due to the arrangement and
location of the parts. It is accordingly unneces
sary to provide an air or abrasive tight joint be
tween the cage and the holder.
In view of the fact that disc 45 and runner
head 48 ,are permanent parts, as distinguished
from certain other parts of the device, which are
frequently replaced and hence are replacement
parts, it is desired to completely protect these
permanent parts against abrasion. The end of
disc 45 is protected by wear plate 46, which may
‘
Assuming that the machine is properly ad
justed, and the rotor has been brought up to
30 speed, .an abrasive of any suitable form, (prefer
be replaced in a manner to be hereinafter de
scribed when it has become worn excessively by
stray abrasive. The impeller and cage and blades
. ably metal grit) is preferably allowed to drop by - B >may likewise be replaced and in connection
‘gravity into spout 84, and it is preferably me
tered as by means of a screw or other conveyor
operating at a predetermined constant speed.
35 Rotation of runner head 48 causes blades B and
impeller blades i0l to establish‘ a partial vacuum
in the axially extending passage de?ned by the
inner ends of the impeller blades and in the
lower end of spout 84, so that the abrasive en
tering the spout is picked up by a rapidly moving
40 air stream and enters the impeller with a pre
determined degree of initial velocity. The abra
sive is then impelled outwardly over concave por
tions of the impeller blades, and when it reaches '
the blade tips it is “churned” around or agitated
45 within cage C. A dispersion of' air and abrasive
which rotatesforwardly with respect to the di
rection of rotation of the runner assembly is
thereby established, and also a stationary or slow
ly moving ?lm of abrasive lodges on the interior
50 of cylindrical portion 81 of cage C, and thereby
protects it from excessive wear. Cage flanges
88 and 9| serve to con?ne the abrasive within
the cage as it is being agitated.
,
The forwardly rotating dispersion of sand and
55 air is of fairly uniform intensity but it is natural
ly of somewhat more concentrated character im
mediately in front of the leading face I 000i each
impeller blade. By reason of the angular advance
of each impeller blade with respect to its corre
60 sponding propeller blade, the concentrated
streams of abrasive on the leading faces of the
with blades B, it should be observed that as the
abrasive travels outwardly over surfaces 59 of
each blade, it is prevented from laterally escap
ing from the free edge of the blade by ?ange '
63, and it is prevented from abrading runner,
head 48 or guide plates 53 by ?ange G2, which
keeps the abrasive, spaced a considerable distance
from these parts‘;v
The abrasive is therefore supplied to the inner 40
ends of blades B in a predetermined limited an
gular region, and as it travels outwardly, each
particle de?nes a spiral path and is directed
against the work over a definite region. There
fore, none of the abrasive, properly discharged
45
from the opening I00, strikes any of the sta
tionary parts of the device. However, a minute
amount of “stray” abrasive is sometimes admit
ted to the blades in a region other than that ad
,jacent discharge slot I00, and this abrasive, as it 50
is discharged from blades B (Figure 2), strikes‘
either guard plate II, II, IE or 23. As the
amount of this stray abrasive is comparatively
small, the wear plates accordingly have a long
life before they must be renewed. When it does, 55
however, become necessary to renew any of the
housing guards or rebound guards they may be
mainly replaced by detaching their securing
S-
.
Moreover, because of the large space provided 60
between the tips of blades B and the upper part
of the cabinet, particularly the corners of hous
impeller blades are thrown outwardly through
ing H, the abrasive is given a chance to expand I
slot I00 in such manner, and at such a time
and is not confined adjacent the rotor. There
fore wear of the rotor and the wear plates is mini
that the inner curved end SI of blade B will
65 properly pick them up with a minimum of im
pact and “splash”. As the abrasive is exhausted
through slot I00, it possesses angular as well as
radial velocity in view of the impelling action
of blades IN. This feature, when taken in con
70 nection with the fact that the inner ends of
blades B are curved, operates to minimize any
abrading action that may take place as blades
mized. Rebound guard 35 is provided in order
65
to prevent stray abrasive from being discharged
upwardly and striking guard plate 23 and then
rebounding back into contact with and abrading
runner head 48, which, as previously mentioned, 70
is a permanent part of the machine. Lower
rebound plate 3‘! is provided to prevent abrasive
from rebounding from the work and striking run
B initially pickup the abrasive. The abrasive _ner head 40. If it is desired to inspect the runner
accordingly travels outwardly and angularly, blades or other parts of the device located in 75
76
2,108,005
the upper portion of housing H, nuts 28 ‘may be
' 5
loosened and lid l6 lifted to expose the interior
unequal number of impeller and ‘propeller blades
may be used without sacri?cing the advantages
of the cabinet.
of those features.
‘
_
._
.1
_ ..
.7-
.l
r
When it becomes necessary to replace blades B
. Although Ihave illustrated cage Gas-being
it is merely necessary to loosen nuts ‘I2, remove ' adjustably mounted upon spout holder 8|, and I
- nuts 99, so as to detach cage C, from the holder,
prefer to employ this arrangement as it makes
and pull the entire feeding assembly (with the it possible to maintain the spout in a ?xed posi
exception of cage C) axially to the right, and tion irrespective of the adjusted position of the
remove it from the machine. It is then possible cage, it is to be understood that if desired these
to reach into the comparatively large opening parts may be permanently connected or'integral
‘and remove the single cap screw I86 which holds‘ ly formed, and arcuately-shaped slots provided,
the impeller in place and remove the impeller in holder 8| or arm 68 ‘in the region where bolt
and cage C as a unit from the machine. After and nut assemblies 19 cooperate with them, so
the impeller and cage have been removed from as to mount the holder as well as the cage for
the machine they may be disassembled by align
angular adjustment upon arm 68.
15
ing impeller blades ml with notches 89 of
Although I have illustrated an impeller assem
?ange 9|.
\
bly that is disposed in a predetermined ?xed posi
After cage C’ and the impeller have been re
tion by machine screws 41, and I prefer to use
moved in the manner just described, blades B this construction, because I have experimented
20 maythen be individuallyslid inwardly to the large
central space and then withdrawn and replaced
by new blades. At this time, wear plate 46 may
also be renewed, if necessary, by removing ma
chine screws 41. After the new blades are in
25 place and plate 46 is secured to shaft 38, the
impeller (or a new one if it requires replacement)
30
86
40
.45
50
is then put in place with cage C and the impeller
and aligned with screws 41 as previously de
scribed. Although as illustrated I preferably em
ploy a wear plate 46 which is separately formed
from the impeller because these parts wear at
different rates of speed, they may if desired be
made integral without departing from the spirit
of the present invention. In the event that plate
46 and the impeller are integrally formed, screws
41 are dispensed with and dowel pins or the like
employed to cooperate with openings in member
45 for properly positioning the impeller in-the
device, and also notches 89 will be formed in
?ange 88 instead of ?ange 9|, in order to facili
tate assembly of the impeller with the parts.
Moreover, in the two part construction shown,
notches 89 may be provided in ?ange 88 instead
of ?ange BI, and in such case the entire feeding
assembly, including cage C may be removed by
merely loosening nuts 12 and aligning the im
peller with notches 89.
After the parts just described have been put in
place, the remaining parts of the feed assembly
may be slid to the left toward the opening in the
machine. The cage is then secured to the holder
by nuts 99 and the holder assembly is slid over
studs 69 until it is arrested by contact of posi
tioning screws 14 with the'studs.
55
Nuts 12 are
then tightened and the machine is ready for
operation.
In this connection it should be ob
served that the horizontal contacting bearing
faces provided on bracket 61 and base III are of
considerable area, which forms an adequate sup
60
port for the feed assembly.
Although I have illustrated and prefer to em
ploy a runner assembly'embodying four impeller
blades and four propeller blades, it is to be under
stood that if desired the number of blades in
65 each set may be one or more blades, depending
upon the'size of the wheel and the abrading
characteristics desired. In any event, however,
an equal number of ‘blades is employed in each
set, in order that the impeller may discharge
70 the abrasive through slot Hill a predetermined
angular degree in advance of the inner ends of
the propeller blades and bring about the bene
?cial results previously discussed. It is to be
understood, however, that insofar as the other
75 novel features of my machine are concerned, an
and determined the proper angle of advance of 20
the impeller blades with respect to the propeller
blades, and which remains ?xed throughout the
life of the machine, it is to be understood that if
it is‘desired to operate the machine in a manner
that requires it, slots I85 in impeller ?ange I84
may be elongated so as'to provide a predeter
mined range ofadiustability of the impeller with
respect to the runner, and the appended claims
are. intended to embrace my machine when it
assumes this form. Moreover, I prefer to use the 30
positioning means shown as it is of simple form
and does not entail the use of additional parts,
but I may if desired, especially if an adjustable
impeller is used, employ a dowel pin on one of
the parts which may be selectively engaged with 35
one, or with one of a plurality of holes located
in another of the parts for positively or selective
ly adjusting the impeller respectively, without
departing from the spirit of the present invention.
In Figure
cage C’ for
ures 1 to 5,
an abrasive
6 I have shown a modi?ed form of 40
use in the machine shown in Fig
inclusive. Cage C’ is provided with
discharge slot “10a, having a pref
erably plane wall H0, which is substantially
tangentially disposed with respect to the path of
the tips of blades IN, and a preferably plane
inclined wall Ill.
'
This cage assembly has been found to have an
extremely long life by reason of the abrasive
striking the parts in such ‘manner as to avoid 50
recurrent rebounding of the abrasive on the inner
surface of cylindrical portion 81a of cage 0',
thereby avoiding the wearing of pits or other
surface irregularities in the cage. Assuming that
the machine is operating at the proper speed 55
and that abrasive is fed into the cage in the man
ner described in connection with the ?rst form
of my invention, the abrasive is churned around
in the cage and when each blade reaches open
ing I 00a it discharges a predetermined quantity
of abrasive therethrough and onto the inner end
of its corresponding propeller blade. A small
quantity of abrasive however fails to be dis
charged through opening lll?a and strikes wall 65
III of opening “18a, and this abrasive, by reason
of the inclination of wall III, is ‘smoothly guided
back into cage C’ and is carried around therein,
without rebounding against wall 81a, until it is
brought around into the proper position to be 70
discharged through opening l?iia.
With this
structure I have found that the cage, when it
has worn sufficiently to require replacement, is
uniformly worn throughout the extent of the
inner surface of its cylindrical portion 81a of the
6
2,108,005
cage without the formation of pits or‘ other sur
face irregularities.
.
The terms “runner” and “rotor" employed in
the appended claims are intended to embrace the
blade carrying member irrespective of whether
it is made in one piece or is as a matter of fact
integrally formed with shaft 38, or is made up of
two members 45 and 48 and secured to shaft 38
vs shown in the drawings. Moreover, I prefer
10 to support the propelling blades at one edge only,
but it is to be understood that the invention
embraces runner assemblies having an apertured
side plate secured to the other edges of the blades
or other similar constructions.
The invention may be embodied in other spe
15
ci?c forms without departing from the spirit or
essential characteristics thereof. The present
embodiments are therefore to be considered in
all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the
20 scope of the invention being indicated by the ap
radial direction and discharge it from the outer
ends of said blades at an abrading velocity when
said rotor is rotated, a rotatable impeller com
prising a plurality of impeller vanes disposed
within said feeding device, said vanes extending
to a region closely adjacent the axis to de?ne a
comparatiyely small axially extending passage,
the forward face of each impeller vane being
concave in transverse section, and means for
introducing abrasive into said passage and over 10
the inner edges of said vanes, said vanes being
operable to impel a contracted stream of abrasive
through said discharge opening.
- 3. In an abrading machine, a rotor having a
plurality of blades terminating short of the axis 15
of said rotor to de?ne an abrasive admitting
space, an abrasive feeding device of an external
diameter less than the radius of the rotor ex
tending into said space and having a discharge
opening therein disposed to one side of the axis
pended claims rather than by the foregoing de
of said rotor and located between the planes of
scription, and all changes which come within the ‘rotation de?ned by the sides of said blades for
meaning and range of equivalency of the claims delivering abrasive to the inner ends of said
are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
blades, said blades terminating su?iciently close
25
What is claimed and desired to be secured by to said feeding device to pick up the abrasive
'United States Letters Patent is:
with a minimum impact and being operable to
1. In an abrading machine, a rotor having a discharge it from the outer-ends of said blades
plurality of blades terminating short of the axis at an abrading velocity when said rotor is rotated,
of said rotor to de?ne an abrasive admitting a rotatable impeller comprising a plurality of
space, an abrasive feeding device of an external impeller vanes disposed within said feeding de 80
diameter less than the radius of the rotor ex
vice, said vanes being joined adjacent said rotor
tending into said space and having a discharge by a generally circular ?ange, said vanes extend
opening therein disposed to one side of the axis ing to a region closely adjacent the axis to
of said rotor and located between the planes of de?ne a comparatively small axially extending
rotation de?ned by the sides of said blades for passage, and means for introducing abrasive into
delivering abrasive to the inner ends of said said passage and over the inner edges of said
blades, said blades terminating sumciently close vanes, said vanes being operable to impel abra
to said feeding device to pick up the abrasive with sive through said discharge opening, said feeding
a minimum impact and said blades having sub
device having an inwardly extending abrasive
retaining ?ange disposed between said generally
10 stantially smooth and uninterrupted abrasive
' propelling surfaces of sui?cient length to accel
erate the abrasive smoothly and continuously and
without abrupt changes in a“ substantially radial
direction and discharge it from the outer ends
of said blades at an abrading velocity when said
rotor is rotated, a rotatable impeller mounted for
synchronous rotation with said rotor and com
prising a plurality of impeller va'nes disposed
within said feeding device, said' vanes being equal
50 in number to said blades and extending to a
region closely adjacent the axis to de?ne a com
paratively small axially extending passage, and
means for introducing abrasive into said passage
circular ?ange and said rotor and having an
internal diameter which is less than the external
diameter of the latter‘?ange, whereby they are
radially overlapped to minimize abrasive leakage.
4. In an abrading machine, a housing, a rotor
mounted for rotation in said housing and having
a plurality of blades thereon, said blades ter
minating short of the axis of rotation of said ‘
rotor to de?ne a central abrasive admitting
space, an abrasive feeding device having an ex
ternal diameter less than the radius of the rotor
disposed in said space and having a discharge
opening therein disposed toone side of the axis
and over the inner edges of said vanes, said vanes , of said rotor and located wholly between the
- being operable to impel predetermined quantities
of abrasive through said discharge opening and
into the path of the inner ends of said blades in
timed relationship thereto.
2. In an abrading machine, a rotor having a‘
60 plurality of blades terminating short of the axis
‘of said rotor to de?ne an abrasive admitting
space, an abrasive feeding device of an external
diameter less than the radius of the rotor extend
ing into said space and having a discharge open
ing therein disposed to one side of the axis of
said rotor and located between the planes of rota
_ tion de?ned by the sides of said blades for deliv
ering abrasive to the inner ends of said blades,‘
planes of rotation de?ned by the sides of ‘said
blades for delivering abrasive to the inner ends
of said blades, said feeding device being located
wholly within said housing and having an axial
length which is only slightly greater than the
width of said blades, said blades being operable
to pick up said abrasive and discharge it from
the outer ends of said blades at an abrading
velocity'when said rotor is rotated at a predeter
min'ed speed, a stationarily supported conduit
extending into said housing for delivering abra
sive to said feeding device, said conduit and feed
ing device having a joint located wholly within
said housing for placing them in ?uid communi
said blades terminating sufficiently close to said
70 feeding device to pick up the abrasive with a
minimum impact and said blades having sub
feeding device for impelling abrasive through
said discharge opening.
stantially smooth and uninterrupted abrasive
propelling. surfaces of su?icient length to accel
erate the abrasive smoothly and continuously
and without abrupt changes in a substantially
mounted for rotation in said housing and having
a plurality of blades terminating short of the
axis of rotation of said rotorto define a central
15,,
cation‘, and a rotatable means disposed in said
5. In an abrading machine, a housing, a rotor
70
2,108,006
7
tending into said space and having a discharge
opening therein disposed to one side of the axis
of said rotor and located between the planes of
having a discharge opening therein disposed to rotation defined by the sides of said blades for
one side of the axis of said rotor and located delivering abrasive to the inner ends of said
wholly between the planes of rotation de?ned by blades, said blades terminating su?iciently close
the sides of said blades for delivering abrasive to said feeding device to pick up the abrasive
to the inner ends of said blades, said feeding with a minimum impact and arranged to dis
device being located wholly within said housing charge it from the outer ends of said blades at
10
10 and having an axial length which is only slightly an abrading velocity when said rotor is rotated,
greater than the width of said blades, said a rotatable impeller mounted for synchronous
blades being operable to pick up said abrasive rotation with said rotor and comprising a plu
and discharge it from the outer ends of said rality of impeller vanes disposed within said
blades at an abrading velocity when said rotor feeding device, said vanes being equal in number
to said blades and being so angularly positioned
15 is rotated at a predetermined speed, a station
arily supported conduit extending into said with respect thereto as to impel abrasive through
housing for delivering abrasive to said feeding said discharge opening onto the inner ends or
device, said conduit and feeding device having a said blades in a predetermined timed relation
ship thereto, a single centrally disposed fasten
joint located wholly within said housing for plac
20 ing them in ?uid communication, and a rotatable ing device extending through said impeller and 20
secured to said rotor for ?rmly holding the said
means disposed in said feeding device for im
pelling abrasive through said discharge opening, impeller to the latter, and means for preventing
said joint comprising means for securing said said impeller from being assembled in said rotor
in any position other than its proper angular
feeding device and said conduit together in an
gularly arUustable relationship, whereby said position, comprising a projection provided on‘
said rotor and extending into a recess provided
feeding device is supported upon said conduit.
6. In an abrading machine, a rotor having a in said impeller remote from said impeller secur
plurality of blades terminating short of the ing means, and means for introducing abrasive
axis 0! said rotor to de?ne an abrasive admitting into said feeding device.
abrasive admitting space, an abrasive feeding
device having an external diameter less than the
radius of the rotor disposed in said space and
30
30 space, an abrasive feeding device of an external
diameter less than the radius oi the rotor ex
WALTER L. KEEFER.
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