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Патент USA US2108072

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Feb. 15, 1938. »
c. E. LucKE
.
2,108,072
STEAM GENERATOR
original Filed Feb. 27, 1931
2 sheets-sheet 1
J5
5.9
STEAM
OUTLET
Z9
1.9
INVENTOR
Cha/ries E Lwclce
-WY
855512. m
HIS ATTORNEY
Feb. 15, 1938.
c. E. LUCKE
2,108,072
STEAM GENERATOR
Original Filed Feb. 27, 1931
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘.54
INVENTOR
C/¿m‘ZeSEÍ Lacke
“EER
H l5 ATTORN EY
Parel-¿ad ret. isyieee
, 2,108,072
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICEv
2,108,07 2
STEM GENERATOR
Charles É." Lucke, New York, N. Y., assigner to
The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Bayonne,
N. J., `a corporation of New Jersey
Application February 27, 1931, Serial No. 518,623
Renewed July 1, 1936
4 Claims.
This invention is a drumless steam generator
of the once through type having several succes
sive heat transfer sections through which the
iluid, as it is being converted into vapor, at high
pressure and temperature, progresses in sequence
from entrance to outlet 'with no recirculation, the
» vapor emerging as superheated steam.
With boilers of the aforesaid type, difficulty
has been experienced in delivering steam of
I0 proper superheat, due to the fact> that e -loca
tion at which steam generation ceases a d super
heating =begins may vary; and then too, the dif
ferent sections of the steam generator may have
divergent heat transfer characteristics with the
l5 result that the mixture of steam from the several
sections may have an indefinite, diffèrent, or
changing quality, seriously interfering .with the
proper utilization of the same in turbines and the
like, unless a corrective or equalizing superheat is
2n imparted to the- mixture at a predetermined lo
cation safe from overheating, which feature con
stitutes an object of the present invention. The
zones where evaporation has been completed
must be protected against overheating even if
.33 they vary in position during operation.
Also,ythe arrangement of the several sections
constituting the once through flow of entering
cold water and emerging superheated steam, lin
(ci. 122-235)
\ .
central station practice Where the tendency is to
concentrate all 'steam generation, for' a single
large turbine, in one boiler.
With the foregoing, and other objects in' view
I shall now describe one embodiment of the in
vention which I have illustrated somewhat dia
grammatically inthe accompanying drawings for
the purpose of disclosing the invention, and
wherein-
`
J
Fig. l is a transverse section in a vertical plane l@
from front to rear of the boiler; and
Fig. 2 is a sectional view on the -line A-A of
_ Fig. 1.
'I'he generator illustrated in the drawings as
embodying the invention comprises a furnace l5
.formed of the enclosing bottom I,'top 2 and side
wallsvâ, 4, 5 and 6, with an upright partition 'l
which ends below` the top 2 leaving a horizontall
gas passage 3 connecting the two vertical gas
passages 9 and IIl for upflow~and do'wnflow of 2@
-gases,- respectively delivered from the combustion
area in which are located fuel burners II. The
back wall’ä stops short of the bottom I whereby
there is provided a horizontal gas passageY I2
leading to the flue I3 in which there may be 25
disposed an air heater Il, the gases of >combus
tion passing upwardly therethrough andout at
I5 while the air enters at I6 ‘and is turned by
connection with the travel of the gases of com
the baiiles I1 to pass downwardly countercurrent ‘
30 bustion from which the heat is taken, represents to the gases of combustion past the guiding vanes I)
another phase which- forms an object ofthis in ’ I8 and out at I9 heated to the proper degree for
vention.
l.
.
.
use in promoting combustion.
The generator tubes are arranged inl sections
And, furthermore, the provision of a furnace
having a continuously progressive" gas passage in the order hereinafter described, the water en
Y 3f, from heat source to gas exit arranged inoloops, tering the economizer section 20 as indicated at 35
with heat transfer sections disposed in and about 2| being fed by means of the usual feed pump, not
the gas passage, and cold water entering the
generatorèin that section disposed in the cooler
end of the gas passage and traversing successive
40 ly convection, radiant and convection heat trans
fer surfaces until converted into superheated
steam, constitutes another object of the invenf
tion.
.
Maximum use of heat transfer tubes to com#
45 prise furnace walls and thus minimize the dif
i‘lculties and expense of refractory structure .is
another object, as is also cutting down of heat
storage in the refractory walls whereby the
steam generator is -rendered quickly responsive
50 to changes in load.
-
Such a boiler as constitutes the -subject of this
invention is well suited for the highest steam
pressures and temperatures required for the most
shown.
'
The economizer section 20 is located in the
cooler end of the downwardly extending gas pas- `
sage l0 and is comprised of a _group of parallel à Il
vertically arranged' series coils of the/` serpen
tine or return bend type, yeach lindicated at 22
and originating in the header 23 connected with
the water feed inlet 2| and terminating in the
upper header 24 connected with a pipe 25 lead- 45
inggtothe upper header 26 of the slag and super
»heater screen 2l.
The slag s_creen 2l, which also screens the
superheater so that it is protected against over
heating byl radiant heat, as shown, is disposed in
the upwardly extending gas passage 9, and the
water connection from the economizer 20 is con
nected as 'stated by the pipe 25 to the upper head
eiñcient power plants, and it is especially well » er 26 thereof so _that the circulation of watezzas
55 adapted to the very largecapacities required by
will be hereinafter noted,`i's countercurrent to @ß
2
2,108,072
the gas iiow in both the economizer and the slag
screen. The slag screen 21, like the economizer
entering the lower header 53 through the con
20, also comprises a plurality of parallel vertical
It will be apparent, from the foregoing de
scription, that all the side wall sections are com
prised of parallel tubes divided into groups and
ly arranged series coils of the serpentine or re
turn bend» type issuing from the upper header 26
and entering the lower header 28 from which the
pipe 29 leads the water or mixture of steam and
water to the radiantly heated section 30.
The_section 30 in the radiant heat zone is a
10 group of parallel tubes extending between en
tering header 3| connected with the pipe 29 and
the outlet header 32, the tubes 30 being located
in close proximity to the under surface of the top
or roof wall 2 and covering the area at the turn
15 ing point of the gases or the horizontally extend
ing passage 8 connecting the upwardly and down
wardly extending gas passages 9 and I0, respec
tively, and the steam and water from this pri
nection 54.
`
`
with water or steam and water ñowing in at the >
bottom headers and steam out‘at the top head
ers, which latter is assured by the proportions
of the several sections of the heating surface
one to'another, and to Athe size of furnace or
heat developed therein.
-
AV convection superheater 55 is disposed in the
entrance to the downiiow gas passage l0 in ad
vance of the econornizer 20 and comprises a lower y
header 56 and an upper header 51 connected by 15
parallel vertically arranged serpentine or return
bend type tubes. This is wholly screened from
radiant heat from the furnace by the screen 21
mary or radiantly heated section 3|) passes from ’ and by the roof and side wall tubes of the upper
chamber over and in advance of the superheater.
20 the header~32 to the vertical header 33 of the
back Wall section 34, the headers 32 and 33 be
Steam leaving the radiantly heated side wall
ing connected together as at 35.
tube sections 4|, 44, 49 and 52 through their
The back Wall tube section 34 comprises the respective upper headers is accumulated and
receiving header 33 and the exit header 33’ con
joined by the connections 58, 59, 60, 5|, 62 and
25 nected together by a group of parallel tubes form
63 so that it enters the pipe 64 leading to the 25
ing the section 34 and lying close to the wall as lower header 56 where the steam, which is mixed
is the case with ’ the tubes 30. The water or
in transit through the pipe 64 and in the header
steam and water mixture
header 33’ through the
30 branched as at 31, 38, 39
radiantly heated side wall
issues from the exit
pipe 35' which is
and 40 to` feed the
sections disposed in
the manner to be presently described.
35
~
56 may have, through such mixing, some super
heat even though the degree of superheat of the
steam from the several sections might be diil'er 30
ent until joined, and in this convection super
heater there is imparted to the accumulated
The radiantly heated side wall sections are four
steam a final temperature >or superheat whereby
in number and comprise‘ groups of parallel tubes,
the steam leaving the convection superheater
vertically extending, and lying closely proximate
55 through the steam outlet 65 has a definite 35
their respective walls of the furnace. rI’he wall
tube section 4| lies adjacent the front wall 3 and
superheat value as required by the turbine.
includes the lower header 42 and the upper
cific ., arrangement of steam generator of the
header 43 connected by the saldi` tubes 4|, the
dru'mless type, it is nevertheless to be under
While inthe foregoing I have described a spe
40 lower header 42 receiving water or steam andò stood _that the positions of the boiler components 40
water from the preceding sections through the
branch 31 from the pipe 35’ by means of the
short branch 40, the steam and water traveling
upwardly through the tubes '4| to' the header
45 43,V and the water decreasing progressively; the
wall tube section 44 lies adjacent the back wall
1 and includes the lower header 45 and the' upper
header 46 connected by the wall tubes 44, and
this wall section is distinguished from the other
50 in that, at its upper portion it crosses the hori
zontal gas passage 8 and therefore some provision
must be incorporated for affording adequate
transmission of the gases of combustion through
the tube screen formed thereby, consequently, the
55 upper portions of these tubes 44, where they cross
the horizontal gas passage 8, are alternately bent
comprising the generating surface may be altered
With respect to each other, or with respect to the
gas passage, without departing from the spirit
of the invention as defined in the appended
claims.
45
I claim:
1. In combination, a forced flow vapor gen
erator including a furnace receiving and radi
antly burning elements of combustion, a gas
passage having a 180° gas turning zonel connect
50
>ing the samewith said furnace, a fluid passage
comprising groups of tubes with the tubes of
each group in parallel and one of said groups
having parallel lengths disposed along the walls
of the furnace, said groups successively connected
for serial progression oi?- the fluid therethrough
or offset as shown at 41 and 48 to facilitate the
from liquid entrance to ‘vapor outlet, one of said
passage of , gases of combustion therebetween
groupsA being located transversely` of thefurnace
55
without'to’o much resistance. The wall tube sec
wall tubes in advance of the gas turning zone
and across the path of the gases to form a ra,
60 tion 44 receives its supply of water or steam
and water from'the pipe 35’ through the branch _ diant\ heat shield for another of said groups
38 leading to the lower header 45 so that, like across the gas passage beyond the gas turning
wall tube section 4|, the passage of steam and zone, the said last two mentioned groups being
, water is upwardly through the wall tube section, spaced marginal to the turning zone to provide
therein an unoccupied chamber whereby .the 65
65 and the water decreases progressively as steam
generation occurs. The remaining wall tube sec-` gases passing through the first of the last two
tions are side wall tube sections 49, the tubes mentioned groups are enabled to become evenly
of which are bent aside to permit the entrance of distributed throughout the area of the succeed»
_
burners Il, as shown, and which tubes connect ing group crossing the gas passage.
2. In combination, a forced ñow vapor gener -70
70 lower header 50 and upper header 5|, water or
steam and water entering the lower header 50 , ator including a furnace receiving and radiantly
through the connection 39, and the remaining burning elements of combustion, a gas passage
side wall tube section being indicated at 52, the having a 180° gas turning zone connecting the
tubes of which connect lower and upper headers s_ame with said furnace, a fluid passage compris
75 _53 and 54 respectively, with steam and water ing groups of tubes with the tubes of each group 75
2,108,072
in parallel and one of said groups having parallel
lengths disposed along the walls of the furnace,
said groups successively connected for serial
progression of the ñuid therethrough from liquid
entrance to vapor outlet, one of said groups be
ing located transversely of the furnace wall tubes
in advance of the gas turning zone and across
the path of the gases to form a radiant heat
shield for another of said groups across the gas
10 passage beyond the gas turning zone, the said
last two mentioned groups being spaced mar
ginal to the turning zone to provide therein an
unoccupied chamber whereby the gases passing
through the first of the last two mentioned
groups are enabled ‘to become evenly distributed
throughout the area of the succeeding group
crossing the gas passage, some of the aforesaid
groups providing a cooling tube surface for the
20
sides of the said unoccupied chamber.
3. A forced ñow vapor generator comprising
walls forming a furnace and adjacent gas flues
in parallel relation, means radiantly iìring the
furnace, a continuous ñuid flow conduit receiving
liquid at the cooler end and delivering super
heated vapor at the other end, said conduit in
cluding sinuous portions horizontally arranged
across the ilues and connected for fluid flow
always countercurrent to gas ñow while the fluid
moves progressively from a cooler portion in one
30 ñue to a hotter portion nearer the furnace out
let and some of which are heated by convection,
tubes longitudinally of the walls in the radiant
heat area, and a superheater intermediate the
convection portions and arranged for fluid flow
3
transverse to the gases passing the same while
connected for fluid iìow countercurrent to the
gases, the said longitudinally disposed tubes and
the superheater being a part of the aforesaid
continuous fluid flow conduit.
4. In combination, a forced flow vapor gener
ator including a furnace receiving and radiantly
burning elements of combustion, a gas passage
having a 180° gas turning zone connecting the
same with said furnace, a fluid passage compris 10
ing groups of tubes with the tubes of each group
in parallel and one >of said groups having parallel
lengths disposed along the walls of the furnace,
said groups lsuccessively connected for serial
progression of the iiuid therethrough from liquid
entrance to vapor outlet, one of said groups be
ing located transversely ofi. the furnace wall
tubes in advance of the gas turning zone and
across the path of the gases to form a radiant
heat shield for another of said groups across the
gas passage beyond thel gas turning zone, the
said last two mentioned groups being spaced
marginal to the turning zone to provide therein
an unoccupied chamber whereby the gases pass
ing through the first of the last two mentioned 25,
groups are enabled to become evenly distributed
throughout thel area of the succeeding group
crossing the gas passage, another of said groups
being located beyond the last mentioned groups
and connected for ñuid iìow countercurrent to 30
the direction of passage of the gases thereover
and thence connected to the iìrst of the afore
mentioned groups.
CHARLES E. LUCE.y
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