Патент USA US2108135код для вставки
Feb. 15, 1938. J. J. NELIS ` STEAM GENERATOR Filed May 15, 1935 Ñ ï. NN oo` u.È,o o u»o OOÍ. 2,108,135 2,108,135 Patented Feb. 15, 1938 PATENT OFFICE UNITED STATES 2,108,135 STEAM GENERATOR Joseph J. Nelis, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to Foster Wheeler Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application May 15, 1935, Serial No. 21,519 4 Claims. (Cl. 122-485) This invention relates to steam generators. More particularly, the invention pertains to steam generators having separately ñred superheaters and other heat utilizing and heat recovery 5 devices. . The invention provides an improved arrange ment and combination of steam generating, su perheating, and other heating apparatus which makes possible a high degree of operating eili 10 ciency, high fuel economy and great flexibility of control under fluctuating demands with respect to ñnal steam temperatures and pressures, and which is primarily adapted to marine use and the severe operating conditions and requirements 15 on shipboard from the standpoint of both safety and economy. In recent years„the use of greatly increased steam pressures and temperatures has become common practice in the marine ñeld, and furnace A20 and boiler efficiencies closely approximate those of the modern steam plants on land. Due to this development, however, and to the demand> for increased pressures and superheated steam of high temperatures, a particular 'problem has 25 arisen with respect to turbine operation when that superheat control is readily obtainable re gardless of boiler operation within the available space requirements in marine use. The various particular features of novelty which characterize the invention are pointed out 5 in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification. For a better understanding of the invention, however, reference may be had to the accompanying drawing in which: Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of steam l0 generating apparatus embodying the invention, taken on line I-I of Fig. 2, and ` Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1. Referring to the drawing, reference character 15 Ill designates the setting of a steam generator having a furnace II, upper and lower drums I2 and I3 respectively, having a bank of steam gen erating tubes I4 extending therebetween, and wa ter wall tubes I5. A plurality of burners I6 of 20 suitable type having means for controlling the intensity of'ñring are disposed-in one or more of ` the walls of the furnace II. Bailles I1 and I8 provide three passes for the furnace gases over at sea and taking it in and out of port. When the steam generating tubes I4. The wall I9 of 25 the setting has an opening 2|) in its upper por tion, through which the gases flow from the going astern or in any maneuver requiring a third gas pass into the flue 2l having an econo maneuvering >the present day turbine driven ship reversal of the forward drive of the ship, the re ' 30 versing wheel of a marine type reversing turbine can not be subjected to the same high steam pres sures and temperatures as may properly be em ployed on the normal forward drive, without the possibility of serious damage such as pitting or 35 stripping of the blades, since the reversing side of marine turbines is not capable of withstand ing such severe operating conditions. The need, therefore, of an economical and ready means for at certain times reducing and controllingthe 40 temperature of the superheated steam on ship board .is apparent, and to this end my inven tion is directed. mizer 22 and an air heater 23 disposed therein. A vertically extending wall 24 which is spaced 30 from wall I9 and in parallel relationship there with provides a superheater compartment 25 hav ing a superheater 26 located in its upper portion below the passage 20 and connected with» the steam space of the upper drum I2 by a conduit 2l. 35 A burner 28 of any suitable type having means for readily. controlling the intensity of firing ls disposed in the lower portion of one of the walls forming the superheater compartment 25 which connects with the lower end of the ñue 2I. If 40 desired, a plurality of such burners may be so disposed. . J With this arrangement it will be perceived that effort to meet this problem consists in injecting the superheater is separately fired and the degree 45 streams of water into the superheated steam line _ of superheat may readily be controlled by control- 45 to the turbine. Although the temperature of the _ ling the operation of the superheater burner 28 independently of the operation or ilring of _the superheated steam is thus reduced it has the dis advantage, that unless carefully controlled, of boiler. In other words, the degree of superheat being dangerous since the introduction of jets obtainable may be varied from zero to maximum _50 or streams of water into the highly heated steam entirely independently of steam generation. 50 may-cause slugs of water to enter and injure the Moreover, the gases leaving the superheater com partment after having passed over the superheat turbine. er, enter the boiler ilue 2l and are further cooled The object of the present invention is to pro by their passage over the economlzer and air vide a steam generator having a superheater com One method used in marine practice in an 55 bined therewith in the setting in such manner heater 22 and 23 respectively, thereby materially> 2 2,108,135 contributing to the overall efficiency and economy of the unit. The superheater is preferably placed in the same general steel casing structure that encloses the boiler. _ With steam generators embodying the inven tion, a ready and dependable control of the de gree of superheat is at all times available, and at the same time a high degree of operating ef ñciency is maintained. My invention has a spe 10 cial application to marine use, where due to maneuvering in port, or emergency stoppage, and reversing at sea, a 10W degree of superheat be comes essential because of temperature limita tions with respect to turbine operation under the 15 above conditions. It will be understood,- however, that other types of steam generators than that disclosed herein may be utilized without departing from the prin ciples of the invention which is not to ¿be limited 20 except by the scope of the appended claims. Having thus described my invention, what I connected to a common oiftake flue, the steam generator and the superheater being disposed ahead of the point of junction of the gas out lets from said sections with the common offtake ñue with respect to the direction of ñow of the gases passing from said sections, the arrangement being such that by control of the means for tir ing the superheater section alone any desired de gree of superhe'at from zero to maximum may be obtained. ~ 3. A steam generating plant comprising a set 10 ting, a furnace therein. a steam generator in the setting, a fuel burner for ñring the furnace, a superheater compartment in the setting, a super heater disposed wholly in the compartment and 15 connected to the steam generator, a-fuel burner for firing the superheater, said compartment be- ' ing arranged to shield the superheater from heat radiated from said furnace and to prevent gases from said furnace from contacting the tubes of 20 the superheater, and a flue connecting with the claim is: setting and being so arranged relative to the fur 1. A steam generating plant comprising a set nace and the superheater compartment that the ting, a furnace therein, a steam generator in the . gases from said furnace pass to the flue Without 25 setting, means for firing the furnace, a super contacting the superheater and that the gases heater compartment in the setting, a superheater from the superheater compartment pass to the 25 in the compartment and connected to the steam flue Without contacting the steam generator, the generator, separate means for firing the super superheater compartment occupying a minor por heater, said compartment being arranged to 30 shield the superheater from heat radiated from said furnace and to prevent gases; from said fur nace from contacting the tubes of the super heater, and a iiue connecting with the setting and beingso arranged relative to the furnace 35 and the superheater compartment that the gases from said furnace pass to the ñue without con tacting the superheater and that the gases from the superheater compartmentV pass vto the flue without contacting the steam generator, the su 40 perheater compartment occupying a minor por tion of the setting, the arrangement being such that by control of the means for firing the super heater alone any desired degree of superheat from zero to maximum may be obtained. Í45 2. A steam generating plant comprising a set ting, a vertically extending partition in the setting forming a steam generating section and a superheating section, a steam generator in the steam generating section, a superheater in the 50 superheating section and connected to the steam generator, separately controlled means for iìring each section, and gas outlets from each section tion of the setting,- the _arrangement being such that by control of the fuel burner for iiring the 30 superheater. alone' any -desired degree of super heat from `zero to maximum may'be obtained. '4. A steamgenerating plant comprising a set ting, a vertically extending partition in the set ting forming a steam generating section and a 35 superheating section, a steam -generator in the steam generating section, a superheater in the superheating section and connected to the steam generator, separately controlled fuel burners for firing each section, and gas outlets from each sec tion connected »to a ‘common oiïtake flue, the 40 steam generator and the 'superheater being dis posed ahead of the point of junction of the gas outlets from said section with the common ofi' take flue with respect to the direction of iiow of the gases passing from said sections, the arrange- ` ment being such that by control of the fuel burner for firing the superheater section alone any desired degree of superheat from zero to maximum may be obtained. 50 JOSEPH J. NELIS.