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Патент USA US2108172

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Feb- 15, 1938-
c. B. MARG’RAVE v
.
2,108,172
CAS ING PERFORATOR
Filed Jan. 11, 1957
Frqjl-
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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Char/es vB. Morgm ve
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Feb. 155, 1938.
c. B. MARGRAVE
2,108,172 .
CASING PERFORA‘TOR
Filed Jan. 11, 1937
2 Sheets-‘Shem. '2
Frq. 5.
28
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[221/622 tor .
Cbar/e5 B. Margra l/é
Fatented Feb. 15, 193%
arcane
2,108,172
CASING 'rnnr'ona'roa
Charles B. ltiiargrave, Los Angeles, (Calif; assignor
oi’ one-half to Albert ll. liiireslow, Los Angeles,
Calif.
Application January 111, 1193?, Serial No. 120,026
llli Claims. (m. Mil-4B4)
My invention pertains to a perforator for per
forating well casing such as the casing of oil wells
and provides a type of perforator which gives a
clean cut at the perforation and forces the slit
5 metal of the casing, outwardly at the perforation
developing a slight ?n at the top of the perfora~
tion which restricts the entrance of sand with
oil into the casing. Another feature of my inven
tion is that the perforator which has perforating
cutters causes these cutters to have a sliding
movement transverse to the axis of the casing
and in which the perforating cutters or cutter
tools thus have a sliding 'motion radially of the
casing and as two tools are employed, these are
15 diametrically opposite.
Another'feature of my
invention is developing a force to force the tools
through the casing by a toggle action, this being
produced by a slight lowering of a drill string or
the like to force the perforator tools outwardly,
20 these being supported by a portion of a string
of drill pipe or similar tools resting on the bot
tom of the well and extending upwardly to the
desired position in which it is desired to perfo
rate the casing.
25
Considered in more detail, a further object and
feature of my invention is in the construction of
toggle actuated cutter tools operating in diamet
rically opposite slots, each of which is connected
to toggle links, these being pivoted to a common
30 head and such head being slidably arranged in a
guide block. When this guide block is connected
to the upper portion of the string of drill pipe,
the assembly may be lowered into the well and
when the bottom of the string below the blocks
35 supporting the cutting tools contacts the bottom
of the well, the further slight lowering of the drill
string due to the weight causes the movable head
having the toggle links to develop a further down
ward movement, the links thus pressing the cut
40 ter tools outwardly diametrically opposite and
thus perforating the casing. A further detail
feature of my invention is in the shape of the
cutter tools which preferably have a ?at’ or
straight bottom edge, an upwardly and inwardly
” sloping perforating surface with slightly beveled
side edges. _This causes the cutter tool to make
a clean cut at the bottom of the perforation, this
being a sheer cut on the casing. A sheer'cut is
also given at the sides of the perforation so that
an upper protruding lip is bent outwardly at the
top of the perforation. This lip tends to prevent
sand settling through the opening of the perfora
tion into the casing. Another characteristic of
the type of perforator used coupled with the slid~
ing motion is that the perforator may be used to
crack cement which may be on the outside of the
casing. This is an advantage as it sometimes
happens that in cementing oil’ a water bearing
strata that the cement will also cut off a portion
of the oil bearing sands. With my type of per
forators the casing may not only be perforated
but also the cement on the outside cracked to
permit in?ow of oil.
,
My invention is illustrated in connection with
the accompanying drawings, in which:
10
Fig. l is a vertical section through my invention
taken on the line l--l of Fig. 3 in the direction
of the arrows showing the perforator cutters and
toggle links in elevation and also the plug and
rod to which these are connected shown in eleva 15
tion. In Fig. 1 the cutters are retracted.
Fig. 2 is a section similar to Fig. 1 with the
cutters forced outwardly by the downward move
ment of the toggle links.
~
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section on the line 3-3
of Fig. 2 taken in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 4 is a detail vertical section on the line
4—4 of Fig. 2 in the direction of the arrows show
ing one of the cutters and the cutter guide open
ing.
-
.
25
Fig. 5 is a horizontal section on the line 5-5
of Fig. 2>on a reduced scale.
_
Fig. 6 is a detail plan of one of the perforating
cutters removed from the assembly.
In my invention a toggle guide block assembly 30
designated by the numeral ll consists of a lower
block I2 whichhas a flat upper surface I3 trans
verse to the axis of the tool, the side wall M is
cylindrical merging by a rounded corner Hi to a
?at bottom surface l6 from which an integral 35
solid rod il extends downwardly. The upper
block member 20 is heavy and rests on the ?at
surface 13 of the lower block. This however has
two diametrically opposite guide slots 22 de?ned
by the two opposite vertical edges 23, the top 40
edge 2i and the surface iii of the lower block .
forming the bottom wall of the guide opening.
This block is also cylindrical as to its side wall
25 and has rounded corners 25 merging with the
?at top surface 271.
Centrally positioned in the
upper block there is a large circular bore 28 and
below this there are diverging recesses 29 having '
a sloping upper surface, 30 merging with the up
per surface M of the guide openings 22, this slope
being to accommodate the toggle lengths herein
under detailed. These recesses are considerably
wider in a transverse measurement indicated at
(ii in Fig. 3 to accommodate the toggle links as
hereinunder detailed. The two blocks are held
‘together by utilizing a strong and heavy ring 32
2,108,172
2
which rests on the ?at top 21 of the upper block.
and the tools are retracted as shown in Fig. 1.
This ring has a peripheral wall 33 preferably - When the lower end of the drill string as indicated
at ‘H contacts the bottom of the hole and the
slightly smaller than the diameter of the upper upper
part of the string is lowered, the weight '
block 28 as to its cylindrical wall 25 and has a
this forces the rod 4|, the plug 40 and the head
central opening 34 which is smaller in diameter of
carrying the toggle links 54 outwardly. This
than the bore 28.
_
‘
toggle
action forces the cutter tools in an outward
A heavy cylindrical plug 40 having an integral
rod 4| preferably cylindrical is part of the toggle direction and thus causes‘ the perforation of the
actuating assembly, the plug being located in the casing. On account of the perforator cutters
having a sharp cutting edge 6| at the bottom and
10 large bore 28, this plug having an upper shoulder
a
bevel face, a straight horizontal sheer cut is
42 engaging underneath the heavy ring 32. This
ring and the upper and lower blocks are securely made by the cutter and also the side edges of ap
bolted together by a series of, longitudinal bolts . proximately a straight out, this causing a lip
43. Thus by suspending the rod 4| the plug40 indicated at 82 to be forced outwardly above the 15
perforation. Such lip tends to restrict the flow
15 may engage underneath the ring 32 and suspend
the whole block assembly H and a portion of a of sand into the casing. The perforating cutters
are also operative to crack any cementing wall on
drill string as hereinunder described, secured to
the lower end of the solid rod l1.
_,
'
The plug 40 has a recess 44 from its undersur
20 face 45 and in this is ?tted the upper end of the
toggle plate 46.
This plate is rectangular in hori
zontal section as indicated in Fig. 3 and has a
shoulder 41 bearing on the undersurface 45, this
plate being secured by a pin 48 or the like extend
25 ing through the plug 40 and through an opening in
the portion of the plate inserted in the recess 44.
The toggle assembly 50 has two pair of parallel
toggle links 5|. The-upper end 52 of each pair is
pivoted to the toggle plate 46 by substantial toggle
30 pins 53. The lower ends 54 are pivoted also by
substantial pivot pins 55 to the perforating cut
ting tools 56. Such perforating tools have a ?at
lower surface 51, parallel sides 58 and a flat top
59. There is a sloping cutting end 60 with a sharp
35 forward cutting point 6|.
The two side edges of
the sloping face of the cutter are slightly beveled
as indicated at 62 and also adjacent the sharp
edge 6| there may also be a slight bevel 63.
The manner of assembling the tool in a string of
40 drill pipe may be in any suitable way, the manner
the outside of the casing and thus allow a flow
of oil through such cement.
Various changes may be made in the details of 20
the construction without departing from the spirit
or scope of the invention as de?ned by the ap
pended claims.
I claim:
1. A casing perforator comprising in combina 25
tion a substantial block assembly having dia
metrically opposite straight transverse guide
openings and a central bore connected thereto,
perforators rectilineally slidably mounted in the 30
openings, a plug slidably mounted in the bore,
toggle links, means connecting the toggle links
between the plug and the perforators, a support
ing means connected to .the lower end of the
block assembly for supporting the block in a de
sired position in a well casing, means attached to 35
the plug for connection to a string of drill pipe
for raising and lowering the plug whereby when
the plug is elevated the perforators are retracted
and when the plug is lowered. said perforators are
40
forced outwardly to perforate the casing.
2. A casing perforator comprising in combina
illustrated showing an upper “sub” 10, the upper
tion a block assembly having a lower block and
end of the solid rod 4| being threaded therein as
an upper block, said blocks having contiguous
indicated at 1|, these being tight threads not in ‘ horizontal
surfaces with a pair of diametrically
tended to unscrew in disconnecting stands of the
opposite straight radial transverse guide open
drill
string.
This
sub
is
shown
as
having
a
taper
45
ings, the upper block having a central bore, a plug
threaded box 12 to which a pin of a tool joint
having
a shoulder and slidable in the said bore, a
coupling may be connected, ‘this forming part of retaining
means on the upper block, bolts through
the drill string with the tool inserted in the string.
As it is usually necessary to perforate the casing said retaining means and the upper and lower
blocks for retaining the block assembly, the said
50 at some distance above the bottom of the well,
retaining means being adapted to engage the
the lower solid rod H is shown as threaded into
upper
end of the plug, perforators rectilineally'
a lower “sub” 15, this having a tight ?tting
slidably mounted in the guide openings, toggle
threaded section ‘l6. This “sub” may also have a
links pivotally connected thereto, means connect
pin on its lower end for connecting to the lower
ing the upper ends of the toggle links to the said '
part
of
the
drill
string
by
a
tool
joint
coupling
and
55
below this there may be a further portion of the plug, a supporting means connected to the lower
drill string indicated at 11. This is shown as block for retaining the block assembly in the de
resting on the bottom of the well hole indicated at sired position in a well casing, means connected
to the plug for attachment to a string of drill
18. The bore of the hole is indicated at 19 and
pipe
whereby the block assembly may be lowered in 60
60 the casing at 80. It sometimes occurs that out
a
casing
and when the supporting means supports
side of the casing there is a body of cement indi
cated at 8|, and although the cement is usually the block assembly in the desired position the
'for the purpose of cutting off water from the well, continued downward movement of the plug forces
the perforators outwardly laterally to perforate
sometimes this cement is found to be in an oil
65
the casing.
_ '
65 bearing strata.
3.
A
casing
perforator
as
claimed
in
claim.
2,
In the operation of my invention it will be
the supporting means comprising a rod con
understood that a survey of the well has made it
nected to the lower block, a sub connected thereto,
known what locality of the casing is to be per
forated, therefore the drill string is made up with
70 the perforating tool in the proper place so that
the lower end of the string may ‘rest on the bottom
of the hole. In lowering, the plug 40 engages the
ring 32 and carries the weight of all of the string
below the solid rod 4|. While the string is being
75 lowered the toggle links are in the upper'position
said sub being adapted to engage the bottom of
the well hole.
4. A casing perforator comprising in combina
tion a block assembly having a lower block with
a horizontal upper surface, an upper block with
a complementary surface and a pair of diametri
cally opposite straight radial guide openings ex
2,108,172
tending upwardly from the lower surface of the
upper block, the upper block having a central
bore, a ring on the upper block, bolts extending
through the ring and the upper and lower blocks,
a plug slidably mountedin the said bore. perfo
rators rectilineally slidably mounted in the guide
, openings and bearing on the upper surface of the
lower block, toggle links connected to the per
3
into a‘well, the ring engaging the said plug and '
thereby ‘retracting the perforators, the said» sub
on engaging the bottom of the well hole forming
a solid support for the block assembly whereby
the/ continued downward movement of the plug
forces the perforators rectilineally outwardly to
perforate the casing.
'
8. A casing‘ perforator as claimed in claim 7, I
forators, means pivotally connecting the upper the perforators being rectangular in vertical
10 ends of the toggle links to the said plug, the plugv cross-section and having a ?at lower surface with
having a shoulder engaging the under side of _ a horizontal. outside cutting edge and upwardly 10
the said ring, means for attaching the plug to a sloping cutting ends, the said ends on each side
string of drill pipe, a supporting means connected having a slight bevel whereby on perforating a
to the lower block for supporting the block assem
casing a clean horizontal sheer cut is formed at
15 bly in a desired position in a well casing, the said
the bottom of the perforation and lips are outblock assembly and the supporting means being wardly bent at the upper part of the perforation. 15
adapted to be lowered into a well suspended from
9._ A casing perforator comprising in combina
the plug and with the perforators retracted, a tion a block assembly having a lower block with
downward movement of the plug when the-block a horizontal upper surface, an upper block hav
20
assembly is held‘ stationary being adapted to force
the perforators diametrically outwardly to per
forate the casing.
‘
a
5. A casing perforator as claimed in claim 4,
theperforators having a ?at lower surface termi
25 nat'ng in a horizontal outer cutting edge, an up
wardly sloping. cutting end from the cutting edges
whereby in perforating the casing an outwardly
projected lip is. formedabove the perforation.
6. A casing perforator asv claimed in claim 4,
30 the means connecting the toggle links to the plug
comprising a toggle ‘plate connected to the lower
end of the plug, the upper ends of the toggle links
being pivotally connected to the said plate.
.
7. A casing perforator comprising in combina
35 tion a block assembly having a lower block with
a horizontal upper surface, a rod projecting down
wardly and having means for connection to a
ing a complementary lower horizontal surface
with a pair of diametrical straight radial .slots in
its lower surface de?ning with the upper surface
of the lower block straight radial guide openings
rectangular in cross section, the upper block hav
ing enlargements at the inner end of said slots 25
and a central circular bore connecting to said
enlargements, a ring ‘on the upper end of the
upper block, bolts through the ring and the two
blocks,v a cylindrical plug mounted in the bore and
having an, upper shoulder engaging the ring, per 30
forators rectangular in cross section slidably rec
tilineally transversly in the said slots, toggle links
having their lower ends pivotally connected to
the inner ends of the perforators, means pivotally
connecting the upper ends of the toggle links to 35
the said plug, the lowerblock having a solid lower
rod of much smaller diameter than .the block
extending downwardly and a lower sub connected
surface contacting the ‘upper surface of the lower I to said lower rod, the plug having a solid upper
block, the upper block having'diametrically op
rod extending upwardly through the ring and
posite straight ra’dial guide openings forming two having
means for connection to astring of drill
guide slots de?ned by opposite vertical sides, a pipe whereby the assembly may be lowered into
horizontal top and the upper surface of the lower a well, the shoulder of the plug engaging the
block, the upper block having a central bore con
said ring and when the lower sub contacts the
45 necting with the said slots, aring on the top of bottom of the well hole the continued downward
the upper block and having an opening smaller" movementof the plug forces the perforators out
' than the said bore, bolts connecting the two blocks wardly.
'
>' and the ring, a plug slidably mounted in the .said
' 10. A casing perforator as claimed in‘claim 9,’
bore and having-a toggle plate connected thereto the means connecting the toggle links to the plug
comprising a toggle plate ?at on its two opposite
50 at the bottom, a pair of toggle links pivotally ‘con
nected to said plate, a pair of perforators in the sides and connected to the lower end of the plug,
' said slots and pivotally connected to the lower the toggle links comprising a pair of links pivotally
end of the toggle links, means connecting the connected to each perforator and pivotally con
plug and adapted for attachment to the lower nected on the opposite ?at sides of the toggle
55 end of a; string of drill pipe whereby the assembly plate. ,
of the blocks and thelower sub may be lowered
lower sub,’ an upperblock having a ?atJower
o. n'umomvn.
5“
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