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Патент USA US2108283

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Feb. 15, 1938.
R. 1_. DREW ET AL
AIR CONDITIONING DIIvIcIl:~
2,108,283
Filéd May 18, 19:55
am
ma?
Patented Feb. 15, 1938
n
UNITED STATES PATENT/OFFICE
am coNDrnoNiNG DEVICE
Ralph L. Drew, North'l’lymouth, and Stephen
A. Reed, Duxbury, Mass., assignors to Plym
outh Cordage Company, North P‘Ívmouth,
Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts
`~
Application May 1s, 1935, sei-inno. 22,206
1o claims. (ci. iss-49)
This invention relates to improvements in air vantages of low inertia, low cost, efficiency, and,
conditioning devices.
v
More especially it relates to air flltering
units,
and particularly to the type wherein material of
5 fibrous nature constitutes the filtering medium.
'
The invention
provides these and ` other ad
vantageous results by employing in each unit a Ul
plurality of relatively thin layers of loosely as
The invention provides improvements whereby
a fibrous medium may be sustained and main-A
tained with approximate uniformity of distributionand filtering effect at all points across-the
sociated fibre or other ñlamentary material, and
by combining them with spacing elements which
hold those layers apart and so make spaces be
tween the layers, across which the air iiows with
10 full area of cross-section through which the air
-is flowing; and wherein the combination of relatively thin sheets of the ñltering medium with
material providing intervening spaces produces
important advantages as regards uniformity of
15 filtering results, and as regards efliciency over
longer periods of use, as compared with prior art
devices of the same general sort.
less velocity than through the fine passages 1o
among fibres. Some of the suspended dust is thus
allowed to settle, and so becomes removed by'be
ing deposited in the intervening free areas, in
stead of all of it having to cling to the fibrous
material,inwhose passages it has clogging effect. 15
The nbre layers thus spaced apart may be
arranged in a holder adapted toA be set across an
It has been heretofore proposed to arrange
air-flow passage as a. iiltering unit. The holder
loosely matted material of ñbrous nature in the
may have a channelled frame, as a retainer for
2'0 ñow path of air, thus to arrest ñoating sub-
the edges of the associated fibre layers, andrhave 20
-
openwork front and rear faces, in the nature of
stances, for the air to pass on in a more whole-
some condition.
Various materials have been
proposed for such a filtering medium, such as
steel wool, spun glass, hair, and other ñlaments.
25 But problems remain unsolved, because the
fibrous material shifts its position and becomes
compacted, and because the air passages through
the filtering mass become filled at their surface
entrances, after a relatively short period of use,
s.
The desired initial looseness of mutual associa
tion of the fibres may be attained, and may be
maintained through the life of the filtering unit, 25
by spraying an adhesive liquid on the interior
surfaces of the box-like holder, and also on the
separators if desired, by means of which the
ñbrous layers become effectively securedinproper
30 so as to interfere with the desired flow of air, and relation to the holder, and resist the tendency to 30
to affect the uniformity and the eflicacy and the be compacted by the air flow.
efficiency of filtering. Vibration causes a sagging
In a. preferred form of the invention provision
and edgewise compacting, which blocks some is made for the impaling of the -fibrous layers
parts of the filter, and opens others where air on the separators; and this may be either in
35 can pass freely without being filtered.
stead of or in addition to the said adhesion. This 35
One object of the invention is to make filtering impaling when .distributed over the whole cross
`units w 'ch can be more durably effective and
section of air iiow, in a filter frame standing on
`In addition to this, the invention provides im-
toward one side of the air passage,y as a result of
efûcient,
40 provement in the action, in that >it provides for
changing the pace of air along its course through
the filtering unit, and thereby removes an in-
creased percentage of its floating matter. It does
this with a reduced body of filtering material.
45
Also it provides dust collecting air chambers
within the unit.
It is a further feature to do these things with
edge, prevents sagging of the filtering medium
vibration ‘or for other reasons. The permanent 40
success of these measures is promoted by combin
ing therewith a ñbrous material having a low
specific gravity, of which the long and hard
vegetable fibres such as sisal, java and manila
are examples, as the filaments of material such 45
as- this are long and ñrm enough to span the
supports and have negligible inertia and momen
inexpensive, single service holding appliances,` tum, attributes which coact favorably toward the
each having the double merit that it requires
50 only a fractional filling of the filtering medium
for a full charge; and that it may be discarded
with the said medium after its period of useful
service. If preferred, the holder may be of a
permanent type, reflllable. The medium itself
55 may be hard vegetable ñbre, which has the ad-
attaining of permanence of structure in the pres
ence of incessant vibration.
50
It is intended that the patent shall cover, by
suitable expression in the appended claims, what
ever features of patentable novelty exist in the
invention disclosed.
,
However, the scope is not limited to the specific 55
2
2,1os,ass
"
~
*_ devices which are selected for portrayal as illus
trative embodiments.
trated the unit represented may be considered to
In the accompanying drawing:
Figure 1 is an isometric view of a filtering unit
be two inches thick, one-half of which is two half
inch spaces, so that each nbre pad illustrated
would be only about one-third of an inch in thick
front face indicated only in- part, and with a por „ ness. The open space.---acting as a honeycomb
tion of the unit broken away to cross sections of dust-catching chambers-constitutes a device
parallel with the face at successive stages of dls-' for reducing the quantity of nbre which would be
tance therefrom;
required' to nll it, if the nbre' mass were con
10
Figure 2 is an elevation, on a larger scale, of tinuous from face to face of the unit as cus
a. corner fragment, with the outer portion of the tomary heretofore, without to a proportionate ex 10
box holder removed;
'
tent reducing the enicacy. The air flow through
Figure 3 is an elevation, on a larger scale, in> any one of these chambers has a relatively large
section on 3~3 of Figure l;
cross-section as- compared with the net area. open
15
Figure 4 is an isometric view of a fragment of to air_now through a mass of nbre ‘of area. equal
one of the separator elements;
to the area of that chamber. And the now is
relatively quieter than in the repeated and quick
Figure 5 is an elevation, in section. of a frag
bailiings of air passing through a ñbrous layer“
ment of a nlter unit with a modified form of -’cas
-ing or holder, and with a dinerent way of em
Il. The chamber space therefore provides a
embodying features of the invention, with the
20 bodying the spacing device between nbre pads;
and.
Figure 6 shows similarly another embodiment
of spacing device.
'I'he drawing portrays a nltering unit of a type
25
suitable for use under a variety of conditions and
in various locations where nltration of airmay be
desirable. It is especially suited for use in Pull
man and other railroad cars, where dust and soot
30
are prevalent, and where the en‘lciency and dura
bility of filtering units heretofore have suifered
from the almost continuous vibration to which
they are subject.
A
According to the invention the nlter has a plu
rality of rlayers I f of nbre, set normal to the direc
35
tion of air flow through the unit, and spaced
'apart within the unit. Each layer I I constitutes
20
Illzatter is arrested among the nbres of the layers
The making of the nlter so that, when it is in
service, its eifectiveneas and its eiliciency, for n1
tering, will be maintained throughout the full 25
cross sectional area of the unit are two impor
tant attributes of the invention. This is particu
larly important in installations subject to vibra
tion or shock; and it is attained by either or all of
three devices: impaling means for the nbre; stif 30
fening means dlierefor; and adhering means
therefor.
,f
Any reasonably sharp elements or projections
on the separators I8 will be sunicient for the im
35
a solids-screening section organized as a sheet
form mass. Any usual or suitable nbre or nbre
like material may be employed as the nltering
medium, but hard vegetable nbre combines well
for the purposes in hand, each layer being ar
ranged in several veils of the nbre, deposited
loosely, one upon the other, to the desired thick
ness.
Three such layers I0 are >represented in
45 Figure 3, mounted in a
r-casing I2 which
may be of metal or cardboar »
y
and rear faces are foraminous, being of open
work grid construction as seen at I4, I6.
{craters-I8, which also may be of metal or card
board, set edgewise in the air now, are positioned
between adjoining layers Il of nbre, maintaining
the layers equally spaced apart. Each separa
tor I8 constitutes a thick grid, being preferably
a series of parallel elements 2l crossed in' the
55 same
zone by a series of parallel elements 22 and
interlocked‘therewith or otherwise secured there
tinuous pressure of
these devices save the individual layers I0 from>
>becoming
seriously compacted. 'I'he surface, or
all layers, may be treated with a
compound, thus rendering .the whole nre re
sisting. As examples of the practice of the in 55
vention in utilizing nlamentary material for the
ness of the grid, intervening between adjoin
ing layers I0' of nbre, constitutes a sheet-form
solids-settling section which by Said grid. is
blocked into a multiplicity of rectangular areas.
being contiguous sub-chambers,
multiplying of these across the airnow area makes
65 it
so that a particle-'of dust,
floating at the axis or at the very top of the air
stream, can be caught,-for upon settling but a
short distance it reaches a noor where it can rest.
The said crossed elements of the separators pro
vide struts, distributed over the whole area across
the airnow, for maintaining the nbre against se
rious displacement from its initial uniform dis
. tribution across the air now.
'I‘he relatively thin
dimension of individual layers tends to minimize
.75 the compacting of the nbre. In the case illus
be treated.Í
65
@The eniciency and eifectiveness of the unit
may' be made >to continue longer in service by
constructing the nltering layers Ill with gra
dation of density. Assuming air to be nowing 70
3
2,108,283
this way, the first layer I0 may permit the pass
ing of some of the medium-fine and fine par
ticles in the air, and they may be caught in a
later layer. Clogging of the entrance spaces by
a building up of deposits of fine material is thus
delayed, and that ñne material is distributed
throughout the unit. But the first layer I0 pre
dominantly stops relatively coarse foreign sub
stances; the mid-layer III intercepts some of the
10 finer foreign matter; and the third layer I0 is
grid, crossing the container beside a face ci the
mat, and pressing against the fibres at said face,
having thin strips of substantial breadth set
edgewise in the direction of air flow, crossing
each other and halved together.
so dense as effectively to ñlter out the finest par
ticles which may have continued in the air to
this' stage. The eñiciency is increased in this re
spect by spraying the fibre with a heated liquid
2. An air filtering unit comprising a container
having openwork front and rear faces; filtering
contents therefor comprising a flat mat of loose
ly associated hard vegetable fibres; and supports
for the fibre, extending beside a face of the mat, 10
transversely of the direction of air ñow through
the unit, comprising thin strips of substantial
breath set edgewise in the said direction of air
flow and pressing against the fibres at said
15 or a solution which cools or evaporates so as to
leave a tacky dust-catching surface.
face of the mat.
This may
at choice be applied in varying degrees of tackl
ness. An illustration of such, applied when heat.
ed, is petroleum jelly.
In Figure 3, this gradation of filtering effect
is portrayed by variation in the density of the
respective layers I0. This can be accomplished
with precision by building up the filter .pads og
hard fibre carded into thin veils, several veils be
25 ing put together to make a single pad. By vary
20
15
direction of air ñow, spacing said mats apart in
the direction of flow through the unit; and pro
jecting points on the separator, distributively po
ing the number assembled for a pad, but ulti
mately compressing the assembly to the dimen
sion of thickness predetermined for the pads,
variations of size of air passages result.
If desired, successive veils may have their fl
30
bres predominantly crossing each other, thereby
to produce a criss-cross arrangement of ñbres
in the ultimate pad, which tends toward a great
er uniformity of filtering effect‘than when the
35 fibres are predominantly in approximate paral
lelism.
If the casing or box l2 is an inexpensive card
board or metal container as represented in Fig
ures l-3, it may be discarded with the filter ma
40 terial after the latter has become covered or
choked. Ii a reñllable container be employed, it
may take the form of a channel frame 32 as in
dicated in Figure 5, the front and rear grids 34,
36, being of metal or any other suitable ma
45 terial. In either case, as represented, the parts
may be secured together in any desired way, the
ties 38 being one way that is both practicable and
convenient.
The grid illustrated in Figure l can be recog
50
“
3. An air filtering unit comprising a container
having face and back open for air flow, adapted
to be set in a conduit of air flow; a plurality of
mats therein, of loosely associated hard vege
table fibres; a separator extending between side 20
Walls across the container, transversely to the-v
nized as one variety of any coarse filling, main
taining space between adjacent ñlter pads. This
spacing-filling is not necessarily symmetrically
organized; and there is observable advantage even
when the grid construction which provides multi
55 levels of chamber-floors is omitted. The spacing
material may be any suiiiciently stiff aggregate
of filamentary form; and Figure 5 illustrates an
embodiment of the spacing device which is a
sheet of coarse-meshed fine wire 38 or screening
60 of any inexpensive type, as chicken wire, folded
into corrugations which reach across the space
between adjacent pads. 'I'he crests of the corru
gations constitute supports for the fibres in the
pads, and may engage them at frequent intervals
65 both by impaling points (not shown, but which
may be provided by cutting and bending out
wires) or by pressure of the wires, and by ad
hesion of a glue. Similarly the support may be
such a meshed wire 40 arranged in a plane on
70 the face of a ñbre pad, as in Figure 6.
We claim as our invention:
l. An air filtering unit comprising a container
having openwork front and rear faces; filtering
contents therefor comprising a flat mat of loosely
75 associated hard vegetable fibres; and an interior
sitioned over the area thereof, for engaging in '25
surface parts of the mass of fibre, thereby to
maintain the distribution of the fibre within its
y
mat; the separator having broad thin strips,
set edgewise to the direction of air now and in
whose edges are recesses into which fibres pressed 30
edgewise against the strips can enter, the said
projecting points being in pairs at the entrances
of the> recesses, one on each side of a recess,
extending in approximate parallelism with the
general direction of the edge in which the re
35
cess is.
4. An air filtering unit comprising three blocks
of loosely associated hard vegetable fibres, said
blocks having broad front and back surfaces, to
which the air flow is normal, and being set par 40
allel, in succession, in the unit, in the direction
of air ñow; edgewise strips, criss-crossed over
each other, providing spaces between each two
adjacent blocks, each space having length in
direction of air ilow exceeding the thickness of 45
fibre blocks, in direction of air flow through the
unit; said unit having exterior front and back
face grids; and ties at intervals between the
grids.
5. A filter for removing solids from a gas 50
stream, comprising a chamber-casing having fo
raminous front and back faces and containing
a solids-settling section between two solids
screening sections, the whole being combined as
a unit adapted to stand vertically and removably
across a gas duct; the said screening sections
being sheet-form masses of ñbres loosely as
sembled together; and the said settling section
being a sheet-form succession of contiguous sub
chambers, into which this part o-f the main 60
chamber is divided, constituted by thin strips
having width several times as great as their
thickness, set edgewise and perpendicular to the
faces of the screening sections and holding the
screening sections apart; some of the said parti 65
tions constituting iloors at locations distributed
across the height of the settling section, thereby
arresting solids which settle a short distance
from any level in this part of the main chamber
and others of the said partitions constituting 70
supports preventing sagging of the said floors.
6. An air filter unit, comprising fibrous filter
ing material organized in a plurality of masses
of fibre in the shape of blocks, in each of which
blocks the fibres extend across the direction of 75
4
2,108,283
flow of air through the unit, and are loosely
tributed over their edges for engaging fibres and
matted to a substantial thickness of block in the
providing distributed support for the fibre
said direction of flow of air; means for maintain
ing the blocks spaced aparta substantial dis . against movement in directions transverse to the
tance in the said direction of fiowof air, said direction of flow of air through the unit.
9. An air filter unit, comprising fibrous filter
means comprising thin sheet elements set edge
wise between blocks thereby'oii’ering but little ing material organized in a plurality of masses
obstruction to flow of air through the unit; said of fibre in the shape of blocks, in each of which
elements having means distributed over their blocks the fibres extend across the direction of
flow of air through the unit, and are loosely
10 said edges for engaging fibres of the blocks, con
stitutingl supports against movement of those matted to\a substantial thickness of block in the
ñbres in directions transverse to the direction of said direction of iiow of air; means for main
iiow of air through the unit.
f
'7. An air-filter unit, comprising ñbrous filter
15 ing material organized in a plurality of masses
of fibre in the shape of blocks, in each of which
blocks the fibres extend across the direction of
iiow of air through the unit, and are loosely
matted to a substantial thickness of block in the
20 said direction of 110W of air; means for maintain
ing the blocks spaced apart a substantial dis
tance in the said direction of flow of air, said
means comprising thin sheet elements set edge
Wise between blocks thereby offering but little
25 obstruction to iiow of air through the unit; said
elements having impaling points distributed along
their said edges for impaling fibres at the surface
of a block, thereby distributively supporting the
fibre against movement in directions transverse
to the direction of flow of air through the unit.
8. An air filter unit, comprising fibrous filter
taining thefblocks spaced apart a substantial dis
tance in the said direction of flow of air, said
means comprising thinsheet elements crossing
each other between the blocks and set edgewise 15
thereby offering but little obstruction to flow of
air through the unit.
10. An air filter unit, comprising fibres organ
ized in a plurality of masses in the shape of
` blocks, in each of which blocks the fibres extend 20
approximately parallel to the face of; the block,~
thus lying across the direction oi’ iicw of air
through the unit, and are loosely matted in a
substantial thickness of block in the said direc
tion of air flow; combined with a plurality of 25
thin strip elements, each being parallel-sided and
having its edges extending in directions which
'are parallel to each other and to the faces of said
blocks of ñbre, each strip being set edgewise to
ward the face of the block, with its width extend 30
ing material organized in a plurality of masses of f ing in direction perpendicular to the faces of said
fibre in the shape of blocks, in each of which blocks of fibre, and each strip having width sev
blocks the fibres extend across the direction of
fiow of air through the unit, and are loosely
matted to a substantial thickness of block in the
said direction of iiow of air; means for main
taining the blocks spaced apart a substantial dis
tance in the said direction of ñow of air, said
40 means comprising thin sheet elements set edge
wise between blocks thereby oiiering but little
obstruction to flow of air through the unit; said
elements having an adhesive substance dis
eral times as great as its thickness, for spacing
theblocks apart a distance approximating the
width of said strip elements in the direction of 35
flow of air; some of said strip elements having
their broad faces upward and constituting floors
for settling chambers between said blocks; the
said fibres being long hard vegetable fibres, and
the strip elements being distributed at intervals
across an area parallel to the face of the block.
.
RALPH L. DREW.
STEPHEN A. REED.
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