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Патент USA US2108288

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`Feb. l5, 1938.
l
'.J. KUBICKY '
2,108,288
MANUFACTURE .OF PILE FABRICS
Filed May 29, 1954
2 Sheetg-Sheet 2
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ATTORNEY.
2,108,288
Patented Feb. 15, 193s
UNITED STATES ,PATENT
.
2,108,288-
oEFIcE 'Y
i
MANUFACTURE OF PILE FABRICS
Joseph Kubicky, Brandywine Summit, Pa., as
signor to Collins & Aikman Corporation', Phila
delphia, Pa., a corporation of Delaware
Application May 29, 1934, serial No. 728,142
2s claims.’ (ol. 139-397) '
' The apexes of loops on one ground overlap the
My invention relates to the manufacture of
fabrics having grounds interconnected by warps apexes of loops on the otherl ground during the
passing from one of the grounds to. the other, weaving of the fabric.. When, however, the fab
and .involves the provision of interconnecting ric is woven down toward the take-up rollers far
5 warps having, between the grounds, lengths or enough to slide off of the free ends’of the~warpsections longer than the distance between the wise-extending members, the grounds are drawn
grounds during the Weaving, thereby permitting
the further separation of the grounds. from one
10.
another-after the Weaving of the fabric.
My improvements are particularly applicable
to the> manufacture of pile fabrics having uncut
pile loops and cut pile tufts of greater height
than the pile loops and simulating and improv
ing upon the appearance oi’ cut and uncut pile
15 fabric made in single pieces upon wire looms.
By my invention, such simulations of cut and
uncut Wire-loom fabrics may be made rapidly
apart the full distance permitted by the unl'oop
ing of the ground-interconnecting warp lengths
and the uncut loops on one ground are then ma
terially spaced from the uncut loops on the other 10'
ground,‘so that the interconnecting warp lengths
may Vhel readily cut by the usual reciprocating
cutter ona double plush loom.
.
The characteristic features and advantages of
my improvements will further appear from the 15 A
following description and the accompanying
'
In the drawings, Fig. l illustrates diagrammati
and economically upon double shuttle -looms `
equipped with a single set of warpwise-extending cally the weaving, separation of the grounds and
'
2
drawings in illustration thereof.
cutting of a double pile fabric in accordance with 20
shuttles, both of the shuttles preferably laying my invention using a plurality of interconnect- .
wefts of the same size.V Certain 'of -the wefts ing warps and a separate loop-forming warp for
laid by each of the respective shuttles form vface each ground; Fig. 2 illustrates diagrammatlcally
wefts temporarily supported by the warpwise- f a section of cut and uncut fabric produced by my
25 extending members-and providing supports on invention from one fabric shown in Fig. l; Fig. 25
which are looped pile warps interconnecting -the 3 shows graphs of suitable draws and sequences
of shedding operations illustrating how my in
grounds.
'I‘he face‘wefts laid by the. upper shuttle and vention may be utilized with backlngs woven
the face wefts laid Aby 'the lower shuttle lie on l‘either “two-and-one” or “one-_and-one"; Fig. 4
illustrates diagrammatically the Weaving of a 30
30 opposite sides of the'warpwise-extending mem
members -or pile gages and a single pair of
» bers and hence .are in different planes between
- the grounds,l and each warp length interconnect
ing the grounds is preferably looped on a. face
weft laid by the one shuttle and then looped
35 on a face weft laid by the other shuttle between
the exit of 'such warp length from one ground
and its entry into the other ground.l The Warp
is preferably again looped on a face _weft laid
by one shuttle and> then on a face weft laid by
40A the other shuttle on opposite sides of the warp
wise-extending members in the passage of such
l
warp back to the ground from which it started.
dent-width of a fabric in which the same warps
form short pile loops on each ground and ground
interconnecting warp lengths which may be cut -
to form pile tufts; Fig. 4A shows graphs of a
suitable draw'and shedding operations in weav- 35
ing yarns as shown in Fig. 4; Fig. 5 illustrates
diagrammatically the weaving of a dent-width
of fabric complementary to the dent-width of
fabric shown in Fig. 4, with which it may be used
in suitable dent groupings to 'produce a fabric 40
having loops and tufts in adjacent» dent groups
staggered relative to one another.; and‘Fig. 5A
The warpWise-extending members preferably
shows graphs of a suitable draw> and shedding
consist of stationary thin metallic strips project
45 Ving through the loom reed and having'free ends
terminating within the fabric .but adjacent to
the fell line thereof. Other- suitable members,
suchas wires or cords, may, however, be used if
operations ln .weaving yarns as show'n in Fig. 4.
desired.
50
.
'
’
'
Preferably each ground is provided with'uncut
warp pile loops, which may be looped over the
wefts forming supports for the ground-inter
connecting warps or the same warps may be used
for forming short pile loops and for forming
55 ground-interconnecting warp lengths,
The manufacture of fabric in accordance >with 45 '
my invention may be carried out on a usual type
of double shuttle. loom having shuttles X and'X’
simultaneously operable in fixed ~planes to re-.
spectively lay wefts above and below stationary
Warpwise extending members or gages vA sup.- 50 »
ported on a fixed cross bar of the loom and ex
tending warpwise through dent spaces of the
reed and into the fabric being woven. The gages
preferably consist of flat metal strips, since the
height of such gages controls the relative heights 55
2
2,108,288
of the uncut loops and of the cut pile tufts formed
by cutting the ground-interconnecting warp
lengths. The actual heights of the uncut loops
and cut tufts from the grounds may be controlled
by the let-off mechanism of the loom independ
ently of the height of the gages,_'which latter
support for the bottom loop warps P5 and the
ground-interconnecting warps P3 and P4. The
weft 2B will be laid in the bottom ground when
weaving with a two-and-one backing, but may be
laid, as indicated by the dotted weft 2B', between
the bottom ground and the Warp'5 to provide a
act primarily as connecting pins for supporting
the face wefts on which the warps are looped.
one-and-one backing, in which event the ground
warps will be shedded as indicatedin the one
The loom is provided with a usual type of re
ciprocatory knife Y and with usual .take-up or
pin rolls Z and Z’.
the shuttles X and X’ respectively, the loom har
In weaving the particular fabric shown in Figs.v
1 to 3 of the drawings, which is shown by way
lower pile position the pile warps P1, P2, P3, P4,.
and-one backing draft.
During the laying ofthe wefts 3A and 3B by
nesses position the heddles so as to hold in the
and P5, hold in the upper position of the top shed
the ground warps B2, hold in the lower position 15
the upper fabric, the backing warps B3 and B4 of the top shed the ground warp B1, and hold in
for forming the ground of the lower fabric, the~ the lower position of the bottom shed the ground
pile warp P2 for forming uncut pile loops on the Warps B3 and B4. Consequently the pick or weft
upper fabric, the pile warp P5 for forming uncut 3A forms a ground weft in the top fabric and the
pick or weft 3B lies between the bottom ground 20
20 pile loops on the lower fabric, and the pile warps
and
the bottom of the gages A and rests against
P1, P5, and P4 for connecting the grounds of theupper and lower fabrics and which, when cut, the latter to form a support for the loop pile warp
form pile tufts projecting above the pile loops P2 of the upper fabric and the ground-intercon
formed by the pile warps P2 and P5 on the upper necting pile warps P1 and P4.
of illustration only, there are utilized the back
15 ing warps B1 and B2 for forming the ground of
.25
On the next movement of the shuttles X and
and lower fabrics. The warp yarn ends in a
dent space of the reed may be drawn`through X', they respectively lay the ground weft 4A in
the upper fabric and the ground weft 4B in the
heddles mounted in heddle frames I to I 0 ar
ranged as indicated in the lower diagram of Fig. bottom fabric when >a two-and-one backing is be
ing woven. During the laying of the weft 4A and
3, which indicates the “draw” for a “two-and
30 one” backing and also the draw for a “one-and ' 4B, the harnesses of the loom so position the 30
one” backing. The same draw for the pile yarns heddles as to hold in the intermediate pile posi
may be used for either type of backing. The tion the pile warps P1, P2, and P4, hold in the
lower pile position the pile warps P3 and P5,Ahold
gages A may be fixed to a stationary heddle frame
in the upper position of the top shed the ground
or to a stationary cross bar.
35
In weaving a repeat of this fabric, the cycle warp B2, hold in the lower position of the top shed
the ground warp B1, hold in the upper position
may be considered as starting with the simul
taneous laying of the picks or wefts IA and IB of the bottom shed the ground warp B3, and
hold in the lower position of the bottom shed the
by the upper shuttle X and the lower shuttle X'
respectively; the weft yarns laid by both shuttles ground warp B4. Consequently the weft 4A
forms merely a ground weft in the upper fabric, 40
40 being preferably of the same size or count.
or if it is desired to weave a one-and-one backing
The positions occupied by the warp yarns dur
ing the laying of the wefts are indicated by the the weft 4A may be- inserted between the upper
fabric and the pile warp P2 by shedding the back
upper diagram of Fig. 3 showing the “up”, “mid
dle” or “down” position of each warp during the ing yarns in the manner indicated in the draft
of the one-and-one backing. The weft 4B forms
45 laying of each pair of picks; each vertical row of
a ground weft in the lower fabric and secures
squares of the upper diagram indicating the posi
therein the bottom pile loop warp P5 and the
tions of a `warp thread symbolized by an arrow in
ground-interconnecting pile warp P3 which are
the lower diagram aligned with such row.
During the laying of the picks IA and IB,-the
50 usual harnesses of the loom so positioned the
heddles through which the warp yarns respective
ly pass as to hold in the upper pile position the
' warps P1 and P2, hold in the middle pile position
the warps P3, P4, and P5, hold in the upper position
55 of the top shed the ground warp B1, hold in the
lower position of the top shed the ground'warp
B2, hold in the upper position of the bottom shed
the ground warp B4, and hold in the lower posi
tion of the bottom shed the ground warp B2. The
60 weft IA therefore forms a ground weft in the
upper fabric and secures thereto the pile warps P1
and P2, while the weft IB forms merely a ground
weft in the bottom fabric.
65
During :the reverse movement of the shuttles
X and X’ to lay respectively the picks or wefts
2A and 2B, the harnesses so position the heddles
as to hold in the upper pile position the pile warps
P1, P2, P2, P4, and P5, hold in the upper position
of the top shed the ground warps B1 and B2, hold
70
in the upper position of the bottom shed the
ground Warp B4, and hold in the lower position of
the bottom shed the ground warp B5.
Conse
quently the weft 2A will be laid between the
75 gauges A and the top ground and will provide a
looped under the weft 4B. ~
~ During the laying of the weft 5A and 5B by the 50
respective shuttles X and X', the loom harnesses
so position the heddles as to hold in the upper
pile position the pile warps P2 and P4, hold in the
intermediate pile position the pile warps P1, P3,
and P5, hold in theÁ upper position of the top shed 55
the ground warp B1,-hold in the lower position of
the top shed the ground Warp B2, hold in the up
per position of the bottom shed the ground warp
B4, and hold in the lower position of the bottom 60
shed the ground warp B3. Consequently the weft
5A forms a ground weft in the upper fabric and
secures therein the loop pile warp P2 and the
ground-interconnecting pile warp P4, which are
looped' over'the weft 5A. The weft 5B forms
merely a ground weft in the lower fabric.
During the laying of the weft 6A and 6B by
the respective shuttles X and X', the loom har
nesses so position the heddles as to hold in the
upper pile position the pile warps P1, P2, P3, P4, 70
and P5, hold in the upper position of the top
shed the groundA warps B1 and B2, hold in the
upper .position of the bottom shed the ground
warp B4, and hold in the lower position of the
bottom shed the ground warp B3. The weft 6A 75
2,108,288
is laid between the tops of the gages A and the
d
3
,
lof the wefts 3A and 3B. The weft IIA merely
upper ground, and rests upon the gages A to pro
forms a ground weft in the upper fabricwhile‘
vide a supportl for the bottom loop pile warp P5,
the ground-interconnecting pile warps P1 and P3.
The weft 6B is laid in the ground of the lower
the weft IIB lies between the lower ground and
the gages A and bears against the latter to sup
port the upper loop pile warp P2 and the ground
.
fabric when a two-and-one backing is being interconnecting pile warps P1 and P3.
During the laying of the wefts I2A and IZB,
woven or is laid between the bottom backing and '
the loop pile warp P5 as indicated at 6B' when a the ground warps B1, B3, B3, and _B4 and the pile
warps P1, P2, andP5 occupy the same positions
one-and-one backing is being woven in accord
-as during the laying of the wefts 4A and 4B, but
10 ance with the shedding indicated by the one
the pile warp P3 is in the intermediate pile posi
and-one backingl diagram.
`
During theh laying of the wefts 1a and 1B by tion and the pile warp P4 is in- the lower pile po
sition. The weft I2A»consequently forms merely
-the respective shuttles X and X', the loom har
a ground weft in the upper fabric, when the latter
nesses so position the heddles as to hold in the
15
lower pile position the pile warps P1, P2, P3, P4,
is woven as a two-and-one backing, or lies as an 15
and P5, hold in the upper position of the top
idle pick between the upper ground and the loop
shed the ground warp B3, hold in the lower posi- . pile warp P3 when the upper fabric is woven as a '
tion of the top shed the ground warp B1, hold
in the lower position of the bottom. shed the
20 ground warps B3 and B4. The weft 'IA is laid in
the ground of _the top fabric and the weft 'IB is
laid between the bottom ground and -the gages
A, againstwhich it bears to‘support the top pile
i -loop warp P3 and the interconnecting pile loop
25 warps P3, and P4.-
During the laying of the wefts 8A and 8B by
their respective shuttles X and X', the loom har
nesses so position the- heddles as to hold in the' middle pile position the pile warps P2, P3, and P4
30 and hold in the lower pile position the pile warps
P1 and P5, hold in the upper position of the top
shed the ground warp B2, hold in the lower posi
tion of the top shed the ground warp B1, hold in
the upper position of the bottom shed the ground
warp B3, andv hold in the lower position of the
bottom shed the ground warp B4. Consequently,
the weft 8A formsmerely a ground weft in the
,upper fabric when this. fabric is woven with a
two-and-one backing: If it is desired to weave
40 the upper fabric with a one-and-one backing the
weft4 8A may be inserted between the upper
ground and the pile warp P3' by shedding ther
backing yarns in the manner indicated in the
graph of~ the one-and-one backing. The weft
8B forms a ground weft in the lower fabric and
secures therein the lower loop pile warp P5 and
the ground-interconnecting pile warp P1 which
are looped under the weft 8B.
During the laying ofthe wefts 9A and 9B, the
the bottom fabric _and secures therein the lower
pile loop warp P5 and the ground-interconnecting
' pile warp P4.
It will thus be seen that my improvements per
mit the manufacture of two fabrics face to face 25
at the same time with the ground of the 'upper
fabric on one side of the warp-wise extending
members or pile gages A and the ground of the
lower fabric on the opposite side of the warp-wise
extending members or pile gages A and the secur 30
ing of a ground-interconnecting pile warp in one
ground, the looping of such warp on a weft be
tween the gages and the opposite ground, the
further looping of such warp on a weft between
the pile gages and the fground in which it
originated, and the securing of such ground-in
terconnecting warp in the opposite ground.
'I'he .withdrawal of the fabrics from the ends~
of the gages A permits the separation of the
grounds a. distance equal to the distance diag 40
onally across a gage A from a weft on one side
thereof to a weft on the other side thereof on
both of which the ground-interconnecting warp
is looped.
»
d
-
Any desired number and sequence of different
ground-interconnecting pile warps may be uti
lized by starting each of them at an appropriate
weft in an appropriate ground.v
‘
~
. The same wefts which support and iioat the
ground warps B1,A B3, B3, and B4 and the pile
ground-interconnecting pile warp lengths be
warps P1, P2; and P5 occupy the same positions as
tween the grounds may serve as face wefts for
during the laying of the wefts 5A and 5B, „but
supporting pile loops of the respective grounds,
the warp P3 is in the upper pile position and the
warp P4 is in the middle pile position, conse
quently the weft 9A forms a ground weft- in the
whose lengths may be regulated by the loom take
offl mechanism but is always less than half the
length of the ground-interconnecting warp
upper ground and secures therein the upper pile
sections.
loop vwarp P3’ andthe ground-interconnecting
pile warp P3.
The weft 9B forms merely a ground
-
'
`
`
50
.«
Any of the warps may be iioated, by means
of a dobby or Jacquard', to secure desired orna
ground-interconnected warps P1 and P4.- The
mental effects. Other types of backing weaves
or of pile interlacings with the vgrounds may 60
also be used. The arrangement illustrated in
Figs. 1 to 3, however, give a very desirable effect
since, as shown in Fig. 2, it provides', in each
fabric, rows of cut pile tufts, which may be of
three diiïerent colors, and uncut loops between
each two rows of pile tufts and shorter than
weft IIlB forms a ground weft in the lower fabric
the pile tufts.
weft in the lower ground.
60
one-and-one-backing by shedding the ground
warps as indicated in the one-and-one backing
graph. The weft IZB forms a ground weft for 20
'
DuringA the laying of the wefts IBA and IIlB,
the pile warps and the ground warps all occupy
the same positions as during the laying of wefts
2A and 2B,-and the rweft IDA forms a face weft
between the top groundand pile gages A and
65 support the lower pile loop warps P5 and the
`
These cut pile tufts of greater height than
when weaving the latter as a two-and-one back- .
ing, ormay be caused to lie between the bottom - the pile loops result from> the cutting of the
fabric and the pile loop P5 as_indicated at IUB'
by shedding the ground warps as »indicated in the
« one-and-one backing graph.
During the laying of the wefts IIA and IIB,
the pile warps and> ground warps occupy the same
ground-interconnecting pile warps P1', P3, and
P4 by the usual cutting motion of a double shut
tle_loorn after the fabric has woven down off the
ends of the gages A so as to permit the separa
tion of the grounds a` distance equal to the
ïrelative positions as they do during the laying .distance diagonally between the two wefts on`
4
2,108,288
I opposite sides of the gages A overv which an
interconnecting pile warp is looped.
In other
words, the upper and lower grounds may be
separated, prior to cutting, a distance equal to
the distance between the wefts 3B and 6A. ' This
separation of the grounds results in the move
ment of the apexes of the upper and lower loops
from the overlapping, but self-separating, rela
b1, b2., b3, and b4 in this dent being mounted
and drawn in the same manner as shown in the
lower diagram of Fig. 4A but the pile warps
p3 and p4 being drawn through heddles in the
heddle frames 3 and 5 respectively.
The shedding of the warps in a dent of the
first group throughout a complete repeat are
shown by the upper diagram of Fig. 4A wherein
tion in which they are woven to a spaced rela
there is shown for each pair of picks the warps
tion permitting cutting of the interconnecting
warps P1, P3, and P4 without danger of cutting
that are in an upper position, indicated by a
the loops on the top fabric or on the bottom
fabric, as illustrated at the left of Fig. l.
The projection of the cut pile tufts above the
uncut loops may be regulated by varying the
width of the gauges A, suchv width of the gauges
determining the relative heights of the uncut
loops and the cut pile tufts. But the absolute
height of the pile loops and the cut tufts are
independent of the width of the gauges A and
may be varied by regulating the pile warp let
oif mechanisms.
-
Instead of using different warps to form the
uncut loops and the interconnecting warps which
form the cut pile tufts, the same warp may be
used for forming uncut loops on one fabric,
then forming floating interconnecting warp
lengths between the fabrics, and then forming
30
uncut loops on the first fabric and vice Versa.
If desired, the warp yarns in one group of
dents may be so arranged relative to the Warp
yarns in an adjacent group of dents that a gauge
supported weft may support an uncut pile loop
warp of one fabric along a portion of the length
of the weft and a ground-interconnecting warp
along another portion of the length of the weft.
When such ground-interconnecting warp lengths
are cut, areas of cut tufts are left in transverse
alignment with rows of uncut loops.
An illustrative layout for weaving fabric uti
40
lizing the same warps for both uncut loops and
the pile tufts is shown in Figs. 4, 4A, 5, and 5A,
wherein in Figs. 4 and 4A illustrate the inter
lacing, draw and shedding of yarns in dents of
one group, and Figs. 5 and 5A illustrate the
interlacing, draw and shedding of yarns in dents
of an adjacent group where a fabric is to'be
patterned byv alternating groups of uncut loops
and areas of cut tufts weftwise of the fabric.
It will, however, be understood that the draw,V
shedding and interlacing of either Figs. 4 and 4A
or of Figs. 5 and 5A may be used alone in mak
ing cut and uncut fabric double.
In weaving a fabric having groups of uncut
pile loops and groups of pile tufts in weftwise
alignment, the same double shuttle loom may
be used having the shuttles X, X’ and the fixed
warpwise extending members or gauges A. 'I'he
60
warpends for a dent of one group may be drawn
through heddles mounted in heddle frames ar
ranged as shown in the lower diagram of Fig.
4A, the wires A being mounted in a stationary
heddle frame or fixed to a cross-rod I. the pile
warp p1 being mounted in a heddle of the heddle
frame 2, the pile warp p2 being mounted in a
heddle of the heddle frame 4, the top backing
warps bl and b2 being mounted respectively in
heddles in the heddle frames 'I and 9, and the
back warps b3 and b4 for the bottom ground
being mounted respectively in heddles of the hed
dle frames 6 and 8.
_
The warp ends for a dent of an adjacent group
may be drawn through heddles mounted in hed
dle frames arranged as shown in the lower dia
gram of Fig. 5A, the Wires and backing yarns
dot, the warps that are in a lower position, in
dicated by a blank square, and the warps that
are in a middle pile position, indicated 'by a
cross.
v
l
The shedding of the warps in a dent of the 15
second group throughout a complete repeat are
shown in the upper diagram of Fig. 5A wherein
there is shown for each pair of picks the warps
that are in an upper position, indicated by a
dot, the warps that are in a lower position, in 20
dicated by a blank square, and the warps that
are in a middle pile position, indicated by a
cross.
_
By reference to Figs. 4 and` 5 the interlacings
of the warps with respect to each pair of picks 25
may be traced.
As will be seen by reference to these diagrams,
the pick la of the ñrst pair is laid in the upper
ground and binds therein the pile warp p2 in
the dent of one group and binds therein the pile 30
warp p4 in the dents of the other group. The
weft Ib of the first pair is laid in the ground
of the bottom fabric and secures therein the
pile warp p1 in dents of the first group and binds
therein the pile warp p3- in dents of the second 35
group.
The weft 2a of the vsecond pair of wefts is
l laid between the top ground and the gauges A
and rests on the latter to support the pile >warp
p1 in dents of the first group and to support 40
pile warp p3 in dents of the second group. _The
weft 2b of the second pair forms a ground weft
in the bottom fabric.
The weft 3a of the third pair forms a ground
>weft in the top fabric, and the complementary
weft 3b is laid between the ground of the lower
fabric and the gauges A and rests on the latter
and has looped thereon the pile warps p1 and p2
in dents of the first group and has looped thereon pile warp p4 in dents of the second group.
The weft 4a. of the fourth pair is laid in the
ground of the top fabric and secures therein
the pile warp p1 in dents of the first group and
secures therein pile warp p4 in dents of the sec
ond group. The weft 4b is laid in the ground
of the bottom fabric and secures therein -the
pile warp p3 in dents of the second group.
The weft 5a of the fifth pair is laid between
the ground of the upper fabric and the gauges
and rests on the latter and has looped thereon
the pile warps p2 in dents of the first group and
has looped thereon the pile warps p3 in dents of
the second group. The complementary weft 5b
forms merely a ground weft in the bottom fab
ric.
_
65
The weft 6a of the sixth pair forms merely
ground weft in the top fabric. The complemen
tary weft 6b is laid between the ground of the
bottom fabric and the gages A, rests on the lat
ter, and has looped thereon the pile warp p1 in 70
dents of the first group and has looped thereon
the pile -warp p4 in dents of the second group.
The weft la of the seventh pair is laid in the
ground of the top fabric and secures therein the
pile warp p4 in dents of the second group. The 75
2,108,288
complementary weft 1b is laid in the ground of
the bottom fabric and secures therein the pile
warp p2 in dents of the first group' and secures
therein the pile warp p3 in dents of the second
group.
c
.
The weft 8a of the eighth pair is laid between
the ground of the top fabric and the gauges A,
rests on the latter and has looped thereon pile
warps p1 and p2 in dents of the first group and
10 has looped thereon the pile warp p3 in dents of
the second group. The complementary weft 8b
merely forms a ground weft in the lower fabric.
The weft 9ar of the ninth pair forms merely a
ground weft in the top fabric. The complemen
15 tary weft 9b is laid between the ground of the
bottom fabric and the gaugesA, rests on the lat
ter, and has looped thereon the pile vwarp p2 in
The weft lla. of the seventeenth pair is laid
between the ground of the top fabric 'and the
gauges A, rests on such gauges and has looped
thereon pile warp p1 in dents of the first group
and has looped thereon pile warps 'p3 and p4 in
dents of the second group. The complementary
weft llb merely forms a ground weft in the bot- '
-tom fabric.
`
The weft `lila of the 'eighteenth pair lies in
the ground of the top fabric. The complemen 10
tary weft lab is laid between the ground of the
bottom fabric and the gauges A, rests on such
gauges and has looped thereon the pile warp p2
in dents of the first group and has looped thereon
pile -warp p4 in dents of the second group. This 15
completes a repeat where all'the uncut loops on
one fabric are made from ends of the same warp,
dents of the first group and has looped thereon 'but it will be ~understood that,` if desired, the
same warp ends may first form loops on one fab
-pile warp p4 in dents of the second group.
'I‘he weft Illa' of the tenth pair is laid in ric, then be looped on a pair of picks on opposite 20
20
the ground of the top fabric and secures therein sides of the gauges A, then be secured in> the
the pile warp p2 in dents of the first group and second fabric, and then form loops on the secondy A
secures therein the pile warp p4 in dents of the >fabric before being returned to the first fabric.v
It will be understood that as the fabrics weave
second group. The 'complementary weft Ißb is
down
towards the take-up rolls and ofi’ the free 25
laid
in
the
ground
of
the
bottom
fabric
and
se
25
cures therein the pile warp 'p1 in dents of thefirst ends of the gauges A, the upper ground and the
group and secures therein the pile warp p3 in lower ground are separated a further distance
equal to the length of the pile warp sections
dents of the second group.
‘ 'I‘he weft Ha. of the eleventh pair is laid be
30 tween the ground of the top fabric and the
fioating diagonally from a weft on one side of
the gauges A to a weft on the opposite side 30
gauges A, rests on such gauges, and has looped of the gauges A. The width of the gauges A is
thereon the pile warp p1 in dents of the first preferably made sufficiently great that when the
group and has looped thereon the pile warp p3 grounds are so separated the apexes of the uncut
in dents of the second group. The complemen ' loops which are woven in overlapping, but self'
35 tary weft »IIb forms merely a ground weft in' separating, 4relation are spaced suñiciently from 35
one another to permit the cutting of the pile
the bottom fabric.
,
.
The weft I2a of the twelfth pair forms merely
a ground weft on the top fabric and the comple
mentary weft I2b is laid between the ground of
40 the bottom fabric and the gauges A, rests on
such gauges and has looped thereon the pile
warp p2 in dents of the ñrst group and has looped
thereon pile warps p3 and p* in dents of the
second group.
45
.
l The weft I3a of the thirteenth pair is laid in
the ground of the top fabric and secures therein
the pile warp p2` in dents of the first group and
secures therein the pile warp y in dents of the
second group. ' 'I'he complementary weft I3b is
50 laid in the ground of _the bottom fabric -and se
warp lengths interconnecting the ground of one
fabric with the ground of the other fabric. Such
cutting may be done by the usual reciprocating
cutter of a double shuttle loom.
40
Each of the resulting fabrics has uncut pile
loops and cut pile tufts greater in height than the
uncut loops.
’
‘
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. In the manufacture of pile fabric face to
face withthe ground of one fabric- on one side
of warpwise extending members having fre'e ends
and the ground of the other farbric on the other
side of the warpwise extending members, the
steps which include-interconnecting said two 50
cures therein pile warp p1 in dents of the first
grounds by temporarily looping cut tuft pile
group.l
forming yarn for interconnecting the grounds on
«
The weft Ma of the fourteenth pair is laid ' wefts of sets of wefts supported freeA from inter
between the ground >of the top fabricand the
55 gauges A, rests on the latter and has looped
lacing with the grounds between the selvages on
opposite sides of said members and thereby form 55
ing bights of such yarn on opposite sides of said
group and has looped thereon the pile warp p* ‘ members, weaving off the interconnected por
tions of said grounds from the ends of said mem
in dents of the second group. 'I‘he complemen
tary weft Mb forms merely a ground weft in the - bers, spreading the grounds apart so that the
yarn sections forming bights on one side of said 60
.
‘
60 bottom fabric.
The weft l5a of the fifteenth pair forms merely- members are shifted from such positions and the
thereon the pile warp p1 in dents of the first
a. ground weft in the top fabric. -The comple
mentary weft I5b is laid between the ground of
the bottom fabric and the gauges A, rests on such
65 gauges, and has looped thereon the pile warp p2
in dents of the first group and has looped- there
on pile warp p3 in dents of the second group.
_
The weft |6a of the sixteenth pair is laid in
the ground of the top fabric and secures therein
70 the pile warp p2 in dents of the first group. The
complementary weft I8b is laid in the ground of
the bottom fabric, and secures therein the pile
warp p1 in dents of the first group and secures
therein the pile warp p4 in dents of the second
75
group.
,
‘
y
yarn sections which previously lay between the
sets of bights provide a zone for cutting said in
terconnecting yarns, and‘cutting such yarn sec
tions.
-
65
2. In the manufacture of pile fabric face to
face with the ground of one fabric on ,one side
of warpwise extending gauge members iiaving
free ends and the ground of the other fabric on
the other side of said members of a loom having 70
means for cutting pile yarns interconnecting the
grounds, the lsteps which include-interconnect
ing said two grounds by temporarily looping pile
forming yarn for interconnecting the grounds on
wefts of sets of wefts supported free o_f interlac
6
2,108,288
individual-sets of wefts supported by said warp
wise extending' members, the apexes of loops
ing with the grounds between the selvages on op
posite sides of said members, weaving off the
interconnected portions of said grounds from the
ends of said members, spreading the grounds to
formed on one ground projecting between the
apexes of loops spaced warpwise of the other
move the wefts of one set from a plane on one
side to a plane on the other side of the second
forming warp sections having greater length be
ground, interconnecting said grounds by pile
set of wefts, advancing the grounds toward said tween said ground than the distance between
cutting means, and cutting the pile-forming said ground when said apexes are interposed,
yarns extending between said grounds in a plane ì spacing the grounds from one another by weav
ing the fabric off of said members while main
10 between the final planes of said sets of wefts.
taining substantially constant the warpwise
3. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face with the ground of one fabric on one side spacing of the loop-forming weft of the respec
of warpwise extending members having free ends tive grounds, and cutting said interconnecting
and the ground of the other fabric on the other
15 side of the warpwise extending members, the
steps which include-_securing a pile warp in one
of said grounds, looping said pile warp on a weft
between said members and the other of said
grounds, then on a weft between said members
20 and said first ground, securing said pile warp in
said other ground, each of said pile-forming wefts
being free from interlacing with the ground ad
jacent thereto between selvages thereof, moving
said weft off said members, spreading said
25 grounds and moving the last specified weft to a
plane between the first specified weft and the
second named ground, and cutting said warp
between the final planes of -said wefts.
4. In the manufacture of pile fabric face to face
warpwise extending members and the ground of
the other fabric on the other side of the warpwise
extending members, the steps which include
of individual wefts supported by said warpwise
extending members, the apexes of loops on one
ground projecting between the apexes of warp
wise spaced loops on the other ground, intercon 25
wise extending members having free ends and
the ground of the other fabric on the other side
wefts of one set past the wefts of the other set
of the warpwise extending members, the steps
which include-weaving interconnecting pile
35 forming threads over and under wefts supported
on opposite sides of said members, weaving olî
such interlaced portions of said interconnecting
pile-forming threads from the free ends of said
members, shifting the weft on one side- of the
40 center line of said members to a plane on the
other side of the center line of said members by
spacing the grounds to expand and extend said
interconnecting pile to a' greater height than the
space separating said grounds at the weaving
point,
and serving an interconnecting pile-form
45
ing thread to form cut pile tufts each having a
height in excess of >one-half the distance sep
arating the grounds at the weaving point while
the aforesaid wefts remain between the grounds.
5. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
50
face with the ground of one fabric on one side of
warpwise extending members and the ground of
the- other fabric on the other side of the warp
wise extending members having free ends, the
to substantially straighten the interconnecting
warp section looped about such weft, and cutting
said interconnecting warp sections between the 35
final planes of the sets of wefts.
8. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face with the ground of one fabric on one side of
warpwise extending membersv and the ground of
the other fabric on the other side of the warpwise 40
extending members, the steps which include
securing a pile warp in one of said grounds, loop
-ing such pile warp over a weft between said mem
bers and the opposite ground, securing said pile
warp again to the ground to which it was first 45
secured, looping said pile warp on a weft between
said members and the opposite ground, looping
said warp on a weft between said members and
the ground to which it was ñrst secured, securing
said warp to the ground opposite that to which 50
it was first secured, each of said pile-supporting
wefts being free from interlacing with the ground
adjacent thereto between the selvages thereof,
weaving said wefts down off said members,
steps which include-_weaving interconnecting
spreading said grounds apart and moving the 55
pile-forming threads over and under`sets of wefts
supported on opposite sides of said members,
weaving off such interlaced portions of said in
wefts past one another a distance substantially
terconnecting pile threads from said members,
60 spacing the grounds to move the sets of wefts
equal to the length of the interconnected warp
section between them; and cutting such intercon
necting warp section between said wefts.
9. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to 60
, past one another and to substantially straighten '
face with the ground of one fabric on one side
and extend said interconnecting pile-forming
threads, and severing said interconnecting pile
forming threads between the ñnal planes of the
sets of wefts to form cut pile tufts each having
of warpwise extending members and the ground
65
a height in excess of one-half the distance sep
arating the grounds at the weaving point and
while the aforesaid wefts remain between the
grounds.
6. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face with the ground of _one fabric on one side
of warpwise extending members and the ground
of the other fabric on the other side of the warp
wise extending members, the steps which in
75
20
forming pile loops on each ground and over sets
necting said ground by pile warp Isections each
looped about wefts of both sets and having greater
length between said grounds than the distance
between said grounds when said apexes are inter
posed, spacing the grounds from one another by 30
weaving the fabric off said members, moving the
30 with the ground of one fabric on one side of warp
55
warp sections between the final planes of such
sets of wefts.
'7. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face with the ground of one fabric on one side of
clude-forming pile loops on each ground and over
of the other fabric on the other side of the warp
wise extending members, the steps which in- -
clude-forming warp pile loops on each ground,
the apexes of the loops on one ground projecting
between but being self -separating from the apexes
of the loop of the other ground, simultaneously
with the formation of such loops laying other pile
warps interconnecting the ground of one fabric 70
with the ground of the other fabric after looping
said other pile warps around wefts positioned on
opposite sides of the warpwise members, spread
ing the grounds to move the wefts originally laid
in a plane on one side of the warpwise members to 75
7
aioaass f
a plane on the opposite side of the warpwise
face with the ground of one fabric on one side
members, 'and cutting the interconnecting warps
between such planes.
of warpwise extending members and the ground
of the otherfabric on the other side of the warp
wise extending members, the steps which in
-10. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face with the ground of one fabric on one side of
clude-_forming uninterlocking self-separating
warpwise extending members and the ground of
uncut pile weft loops over wefts supported on
the other fabric on the other side of the warpwise l
opposite sides of said members, each loop being
extending members, the steps which include
forming warp pile loops on each of said grounds,
secured to a single ground, interconnecting said
ygrounds with pile warp threads'interlaced with
sets of wefts which are free from interlacing with 10
the grounds between the selvages and are sup
of the loops on the other ground, simultaneously . ported on opposite sides of said members to pro
with the formation of such loops laying other pile vide yarn for cut pile having greater height than
Warp interconnecting the ground of one fabric said loops, weaving off the weft-supported loops
15 with the ground of the other fabric after looping and the interconnecting interlaced pile threads 15
10 the apexes of the loops on one ground projecting
between but being self-separating from the apexes
said other pile warp around wefts positioned on;v from said members, separating the grounds and
opposite sides of the warpwise members, each of ,moving the loop supporting weft laid in a plane
on one side of the center line of the warpwise
said pile supporting wefts being free from inter
lacing with the ground adjacent thereto between membersginto a, plane on Athe other side of the
20 the selvages thereof, spacing the ground so that center line of the warpwise members and thereby
- the wefts laid closest to the ground are moved .increasing the spacing between said ground to a
to a position further removed from such ground distance greater thanthe combined length of a
_than from the other ground, and cutting the pile loop on each of said grounds, and severing the
warps interconnecting said ground while the up _ interconnecting threads kto form cut pile on the
separated grounds.
per and lower wefts on which said warps have
,
, been supported on the warpwise extending mem
14. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
bers remain in the fabric but in planessubstan
face with the ground of one fabric on one side
of warpwise extending members and the ground
of the other fabric on> the other -side of the warp
tially transposed from the positions in which they
were originally laid.
l
_
,
wise extending members, the steps whichin
11. In the manufacture-of pile fabrics face to
ing such pile warp about a weft between said
of warpwise extending members and the ground of
` the other fabric on the other side of the warpwise
extending members, the steps _which include
v35 forming Warp pile loops on each of said grounds,
30'
cludeàsecuring the pile warp in a ground, loop#
face with the ground of one fabric on one side
l
members and the opposite ground, securing said
- pile warp in the ground to whichl it 4was first se- .
cured, looping said pile warp around -a weft be 35
the apexes of the loops on one ground proiecting tween said members and the opposite4 ground,
between but being self-separating from the apexes»- looping said warp aroundl a weft between said
of the loops on the other ground, simultaneously members and the ground to -which it was iirst
with the formation of such loops, laying other secured, and securing said warp to the opposite
ground, said loop-supporting wefts being free
40 pile warps interconnecting the ground of one from interlacing with said ground between the 40
fabric with the groundof theother fabric after
looping said other pile _warps around'sets of wefts
positioned on opposite sides of the warpwise mem
bers, each of said pile-supporting wefts being
free from interlacing with the ground adjacent
thereto between the se1vages,spacing the grounds
and tran-sposing the upper and lower loop-forming
wefts, and cutting the saidinterconne'cting pile
warps between such wefts and before the removal
50 `of `such wefts from the fabric. -
12. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face with the ground-of one fabric on one side
of warpwise extending members and the> ground
‘of the other fabric on the other side of the warp
55
wise ,extending members, the`steps_ which in
clude-_forming uninterlocking and self-separat
ing warp pile uncut loops over wefts supported
`on opposite sides of said members, each loop bue,
ing secured to a single ground interconnecting
'saidv grounds with pile warp threads interlaced
with sets of wefts which are free from'interlac
ing with the grounds between the selvages and
are supported on opposite sides of said members.)
to provide yarn for cut pile having greater height
65 than said loops, weaving ofi.’ the weft-supported
60
selvages thereof.
-
15. In the manufacture of pile fabrics, the
steps which include-weaving a pair of grounds
spa/ced apart, concurrently therewith laying a
pair of sets of temporary loop-supporting wefts `
between said 'grounds and free from interlacing
with ground warps and in planes spaced from
one another in a direction lnormal to said
grounds, the temporary _loop supporting wefts
50
in one plane being staggered warpwise of the
fabricA relatively to the temporary loop supporting wefts in the other plane, and looping pile
warp yarns, some of which are secured in each
of said grounds, about the temporary loop sup-_ 55
porting wefts lying between the grounds, pile
warp yarns secured to both grounds being looped
about certain same wefts in each of said planes,
such pile warp yarns looped on the same weft
being on the same side thereof so that 'the pile 60.
WWP Yarns llooped on each of such temporary
loop supporting wefts are self-separating,
`’ >16. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to l
face,' the steps which include-_weaving a plu
rality of grounds spaced from one another, con 65
loops >`and the interconnecting -interlaced pile currently therewith laying two sets of wefts free
threads from'said members, increasing the spac >from interlacings with ground warps, said sets
ing between said ground to extend and tension of wefts lying between said grounds and in planes
said interconnecting pile threads and transpose parallel with said grounds and spaced from one
75
each set of wefts from the plane in which it was
laid intoA a plane on the opposite'side of said
warpwise members, and severing said intercon
necting threads between said transposed wefts to
form cut pile on the separated ground.
13. In the manufacture ,off pile fabrics face to
another in a direction normal to the grounds, 70
the wefts in one plane being staggered relative
to the wefts in the other plane warpwise of the
fabric, looping a pile-forming warp secured to
one of the grounds about a weft in the plane more
remote from such ground, then looping such pile
75
8
2,108,288
forming warp and a pile-forming warp secured
to the second ground about a weft lying in the
plane nearer to the ñrst named ground, both of
said warps being looped in the same direction
about the same side of said weft, then looping
said second named warp about a weft lying in
the plane more remote from the first ground,
thereafter securing said warp in said grounds,
each of said warps crossing the distance between
the planes of said sets of wefts at least three
times between the points Where the warps are se
cured in the grounds and said warps being self
separating.
17. In the manufacture of pile fabrics, the
15 method of forming elongated pile which includes,
temporarily forming a plurality of sequential
loops, free of interlacing with the ground, in a
pile warp, yarn and supporting said loops at their
pile yarn in the ground of .the fabric oppo
site to its origin, releasing the support of lthe
bights, and cutting the interconnecting pile
forming yarn to separate the fabrics.
22. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face, with the ground of one fabric woven sub
stantially parallel to the ground of the other
fabric, the steps which include forming pile
loops on each ground, the apexes of the loops
formed on one ground being positioned between 10
the apexes of the loops of the other ground and
spaced in one direction of the fabric to the
apexes of the loops of the other ground, inter
connecting the grounds with cut-pile-forming
yarn, temporarily forminga plurality of sequen 15
tial loops, free of interlacing with the grounds,
in such yarn and supporting said loops at their
bights in different planes which are spaced from
bights by supported elements lying in differentv one another in a direction normal to the grounds,
releasing the support of the bights, spreading the
direction normal to the ground and releasing said ground, and cutting the interconnecting pile
forming yarn to separate the fabric.
elements supporting said bights.
20 planes which are spaced from one another in a
18. In the face to face manufacture of pile
fabrics having grounds, the steps which include
25 interconnecting the grounds with» pile-forming
yarn, temporarily forming a plurality of sequen
tial loops, free of interlacing with the grounds,
in the pile warp yarn and supporting such loops
at their bights by supported elements lying in
different planes which are spaced from one an
other in a direction normal to the grounds, re
grounds, and cutting the interconnecting pile
forming yarn to' separate the fabrics.
19. In the face to face manufacture of pilefabrics having grounds, the steps which include
fabric, temporarily forming a plurality of se
quential loops, free of interlacing with the
grounds, in such yarns and supporting said
spaced in a direction normal to the grounds,
securing said pile yarn in the -ground of the fab
loops at their bights in different planes spaced
in a direction normal to the grounds, securing
said pile yarn in the ground of the fabric oppo
site to its origin, releasing the support of the 40
bights, and cutting the interconnecting pile
forming yarn to separate the fabrics.
24. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face, with the ground of one fabric woven sub
stantially parallel- to the ground of the other, 45
the steps which include forming pile loops on
each ground, the apexes of the loops formed on
one ground being positioned between the apexes
of the loops and spaced in one direction of the
fabric to the apexes of the loops of the other 50
ground, interconnecting the grounds with cut
pile-forming yarn by securing some of the said
cut-pile-forming yarn in the ground of each fab
ric, temporarily forming a plurality of sequen
tial loops, free of interlacing with the grounds, 55
in such yarns and supporting said loops at their
bights in different planes, spaced in a direction
normal to the grounds, securing said pile yarn
in the ground ofthe fabric opposite to its ori--
ric opposite to its origin, releasing the support
of the bights, and cutting the interconnecting
pile-forming yarn to separate the fabrics.
gin, releasing the support of the bights, spacing 60
straighten
21. In the face to face manufacture of pile
fabrics having grounds, the steps which com
threads, and cutting the interconnecting pile
forming yarn to separate the fabrics.
65
25. In the manufacture of pile fabrics, the
method of forming elongated pile which includes
securing a pile-forming yarn to the ground of
the fabric, temporarily forming a plurality of
sequential loops,.free 'of interlacing with the 70
ground, in the pile warp yarn and supporting
said loops at their bights by supported elements
lying inI diiferent planes which are spaced from
one another in a direction normal to the ground,
securing said pile-forming yarn to a fabric 75
, forming a pile loop secured at both ends in a
single ground, interconnecting the grounds with
40
pile-forming yarn, temporarily forming a plural
ity of sequential loops, free of interlacing with
the grounds, in the pile warp yarn and support
ing said loops at their bights -by supported ele
ments lying in different planes which are spaced
from one another in a direction normal to the
grounds, releasing the support of the bights,
spreading the grounds, and cutting the inter
connecting pile-forming yarn to separate the
fabrics.
20. In the face to face manufacture of pile
fabrics having grounds, the steps which com
prise interconnecting the ground with pile-form
ing yarn by securing some of the pile-forming
yarn in the ground of each fabric, temporarily
forming a plurality of sequential loops, free 'of
interlacing with the grounds, in the pile warp
yarns and supporting said loops at their bights
by supported elements lying in different planes
65
stantially parallel to the ground of the other, the 25'
steps which include forming pile loops on one
ground, the apexes of the loops form-ed on one
ground being positioned between the apexes of
the loops of the other ground and spaced in one
direction of the fabric to the apexes of the loops
of the other ground, interconnecting the grounds
with cut-pile-forming yarn by securing some of
said pile-forming yarn in the ground of each
leasing the support of the bights, spreading the
CD
23. In the manufacture of pile fabrics face to
face, with the ground of one fabric woven sub
prise interconnecting the grounds with pile
forming yarn by securing some of the pile-form
ing yarn in the ground of each fabric, tempo
rarily forming a plurality of sequential` loops,
free of interlacing with the grounds, in the pile
70 warp yarns and supporting said loops at their
bights by supported elements lying in different
planes spaced in a direction normal to the
grounds, the pile yarn from each ground being
supported independent of the tension of the pile
75 yarn from the other ground, securing said
the ground from one another to substantially
the
interconnecting
pile-forming
2,108,288
ground and then releasing said'support for the
their bights by supported elements lying in dif
ferent planes spaced in a direction normal to
the grounds, said bights of the pile yarn originat
rics having grounds, the steps which comprise „ ing‘from both grounds passing about the same
loops.
f
26. In the face to face manufacture of pile fab
interconnecting the grounds with pile-forming
yarn by securing some of the pile-forming yarn
in the ground' of each fabric, temporarily form
ing a plurality of sequential loops in the pile
yarn from both grounds, free of interlacing
10 with the grounds, and supporting said loops at_
side of the spaced supports, securing said pile
yarn in the ground of the _fabric opposite toits v
origin, releasing the support of the bights and
cutting the interconnecting pile-forming yarn
to separate the fabrics.
.
'
JOSEPH KUBICKY.
10
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