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Патент USA US2108416

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Feb. 15,1938.
A. E. SMITH ET AL
j
2,108,416
GAR
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Filed April 1o, 1935
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BY
AT1-ORNE 5 .
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Feâ@n l5, 1938.` n
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lA. E. SMITH ET Al.
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‘2,108,416
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GAR
Filed April io', 1933
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INVENTOR â .
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ATTORNEY ~v
2,108,416
Paten-ted Feb. 15, 193s
uNn'Eo "STATES
- 2,108,416
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Abram E. Smith and William- H. Runkel, yfihi
. cago, Ill.. assignors to Union Tank Car Com
pany, Chicagoplll., a corporation or New Jer
Sey
_
_
,
, ‘
Appuéauon April 1o, 1933, semina. 665,353
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13 screams.4 (ci. 105 _2471
This invention relates' to a novel and improved
form of car,‘more particularly one for handling
in the bottom sheet may be curved' as shown in
`iinely divided products, such-as fuller’sV earth.
Fuller’s earth, in'particular, presents certain dif
shown in Figs. 6,7, 8, and 9. - 1n Figs. l, 2, and 3,
ñculties in handling in large quantities. _ It has
been customary in the past to handle it in small
sacks because of the diñlculty ofv handling in bulk.
Such difficulties are overcomeby our invention,
as will be better understood. from the following
description and the annexed drawings, in which
we‘have shown a car _embodying a selected form
oi’ the invention and in which:
,
Fig. 1 is a vertical view, partly in elevation and
partly in section, showing one form of car with
the invention applied thereto; '
-
Fig. 2 is a horizontal view, partly in section
I and partly in plan, of the structure appearing inV
Fig. 1;v
Figs. 1, 2, and 3, or may have straight sides as they are shown as curved in form, either round
or elliptical, and the upper edges 'I of the walls Ol
6v in the end compartments are approximately
tangent to the lower edge 8 of the slope sheets in
those compartments. In _the center compart
ment-and at the ends of the end compartments
opposite the slope sheets, aprons 9 are provided,
likewise approximately tangent to the upper edge
'I of the wall 6 and inclined upwardly at approxi
mately the same slope as the wall- â. Since the
bottom sheet and the side walls of the car body
are all arcuate in form, being part of the cylin 15
drically shaped body ofthe car, it will be seen
that only upwardly extending surfaces are'pro
vided, both in the hopper and above it.
'
For a purpose which will appear later, the low
. Fig. 3 is a section on the line 8-3 of Fig. 1;
Fig. ‘i is a cross-section on an enlarged _scale , er part i0 of the hopper'is preferably formed of N)
<_showing one form‘oi knii'e which maybe em
ployed:
f
»
_
s
Fig. 5 is a detail perspective view of a form of
vibrator which _may be used in the practice 'of
the invention;
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'
(Figs. 6, 7, and 8 are fragmentary views show
ing part oi' the bottom sheet oi a car and illus
relatively thin sheet metal riveted to the down
wardly extending walls. as at II, or otherwise
secured' thereto and forming substantial contin- e
nations of these walls. A suitable closure I2 is
provided for the bottom of each hopper ex 25.
tending over the outlet I3. The details of this
closure may be varied considerably, and since
- trating successive steps in the formation of a _ they are not essential to an understanding of this
hopper therein;
i
Flg,_ 9 isy an elevation taken at right angles to ‘
Fig. 8.
i »
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The car shown herein is a tank car having a
generally cylindrical shaped body I and provided
with the usual frame andsupporting wheels, the
details of which will not be discussed. According
to our invention, this car is divided into a. plural
` ity of compartments, here shown as three in num
ber, the compartments being formed »by trans
versely extending partitions 2 extending verti
cally from the bottom tothe top oi' the car. The
end compartments have their end walls formed
vof slope sheets 3.
At the bottom of each compartment is disposed
_ a hopper I having downwardly inclined walls ar--
45 ranged approximately at the same angle to the
horizontal as the slope sheets 3. Preferably, the>
bottom of thecar is lformed of a single sheetl 5
having holes vtherein surrounded by downwardly
extending walls l forming the upper parts of the
respective hoppers.« "These downwardly extend
ing walls are preferably integral with the bottom.
and are of the same thickness as the bottom`
invention, they will not be further discussed. .
Extending through the wall oi' each hopper, and « v30
spaced around theA periphery thereof, are air jets . _
or nozzles I4, a plurality of such jets being shown
herein and so arranged as to discharge air or
other suitable fluid horizontally. One of the ad
vantages of having the hopper of a curved form 35
as appearing in ahorizontal view thereof is that
the air jets may> be conveniently arranged to give
a better` swirling action to the material in the
hopper.` The jets may be of any form desired, so
as to give the desired cross-sectionto the stream
_issuing therefrom. 'I'hey may be placed on the
same horizontal plane or on different planes, as
shown in Fig. 3, but preferably they all point in
the same rotative direction. For example, if the
material is to be given a swirling motion in a 45
clockwise direction, all jets discharge in that di'-A
rection.
-
'
Also' mounted on the bottom part I Ii of each
hopper is a pair of wedge-shaped holders lI5 with
In which i'lts a correspondingly shaped pad on a
bracket I8 supporting-a vibrator I1 of conven
tional or other suitable form. Vibrators of this
general type are well known in the art, and no
detailed description thereof will be given. Ob
sheet, this sheetbeing preferably formed with a
cylindrical surface corresponding to the cylindri
cal form of the body oi' the car. The openings --vlously also, the brackets may, if preferred, be 55
2
2,108,416
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fastened in place by suitable bolts. Similar hold
_ somewhat by the vibrator, will respond‘to the ac
ers I5 may be placed on the under side of the tion of the air and will probably become more or
slope sheets 3, as indicated in 11g. 1.
,
Extending across the top of each hoppery is a
shaft I8 preferably disposed in bushings I9 on op
posite sides of the car and having one or both
ends 20" thereof shaped to receive a wrench han
dle and disposed outside of the car. )within the
car, the shaft carries an agitator, here shown as
10 comprising a sleeve 2| fastened Von the shaft and
having a plurality of knife blades 22 and 23 ex
tending upwardly into the bodyof the car or
downwardly into the hopper. These blades may
be connected by cross bars 24 which act as braces
15 to hold the blades together and also for another
purpose which will be explained directly.
'
Air may be applied to the jets |4 from suitable
piping 25'which may be connected to any con
venient source of compressed air and which may
20 also furnish air for operation of the vibrator i1,
- less aerated.
Vibrators may also be used on the
slope Asheets 3, these sheets in the form shown
bounding the space at the end of the car, and a
wall of this space being provided with a manhole
28 to give access to this space.
We have described above the various steps
which are taken and in the order which at pres
ent seems to give the best results, although it is
to be understood that this order may be varied as
desired and as found most expedient. If found
necessary, an air line may be put through one of
the openings 21 in the upper part of a compart
ment, and any residue o_f material may be blown 15
out through the hopper by this means.
Referring now to Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9, we have
shown therein a part of a hopper of different
form than that appearing in Figs. 1, 2, and 3,
andhave illustrated one way in which such a 20
this air being supplied to a suitable inlet 26 on
hopper may be formed.
the vibrator. Preferably. eac'hcompartment is
In Fig. 6, we have shown a portion of the bot
tom sheet 5 disposed between two adjacent par
provided with one or more openings in the top of
the car indicated at 21 kand provided with suit
25 able removable closures.
'I‘he operation of the invention will now be
briefly described. Fuller’s earth, in particular, is
a material which, when handled in bulk, packs
`
titions before the hopper is formed therein.
While the partitions have been shown in Figs. 6, -25
'7, -and 8, it will of course be understood that the
hopper may be formed either before or after the
partitions are put in place, and even before the
very closely and has great cohesion. For ex ` Sheet is put in the car, if found desirable.
30 ample, it has been found that an ordinary use of
The sheet is first cut to form slits therein, here 30
an air jet in a ñxed path will result merely in shown as a slit 29 extending transversely of the
cutting a channel through the material without
substantially disturbing it, as the material has
an angle of repose of approximately 90°. In other
35 words, the face of the material jwill remain ver
tical, and unusual devices must be employed for
breaking it up and removing it.
The car illustrated and described herein has
Ybeen found to successfully solve the problem. It
40 will be seen that the material Awill contact only
with upwardly extending metallic surfaces, _to
which it will- adhere to a minimum extent.
Therefore, when the material in the middle of a
compartment or at any point remote from the
45 walls thereof begins to move downwardly, the
power of cohesion within the mass will normally
be greater than the power of adhesion to the me
tallic surfaces. We also contemplate surfacesA
formed of other material than metal, to which
the power of adhesion of the material is rela-'
tively small.
'
Now assuming that a car of fuller’s earth is to
be unloaded, the closure I2 over the discharge
outlet of one hopper and its corresponding com
55 partment is` removed and suitable conveying ap
paratu's may be attached thereto in a manner
well known in the art. Next, a vibrator is fasten
ed in place on one wall of the hopper and put in
operation. 'I'his appears to loosen the material
length of the sheet and meeting at its opposite
ends slits 30 extending generally transverse of the
sheet'but preferably curved, as indicated, so that
their central portions are nearer each other than 35
their ends. This construction results in the for
mation of two leaves 3| on opposite sides of the
slit 23 and also of leaves 32 within the arcs o‘f the
curved slits 30.
.
The next step is to bend the leaves 3| and 32 40
downwardly, as indicated in«Fig. 7, this bending
down forming, in this instance, straight top edges
33 and 34 for the hopper. The leaves 3| are bent
again at 36, preferably along a. curved surface
so as to form a rounded corner, so that the 45
corners 35 thereof form part of the Walls of the
hopper extending transversely of the leaves 3|.
'I'he process thus far described results in a re
tention of the thickness of the sheet, as no sub
stantial stretching or drawing thereof has taken
piace. The next step is to add to the structure
`thus partly formed, by placing inserts 31 in place,
these inserts being plates of such shape that they
will ilt into the spaces between the bent-down
leaves 3| and 32, and of the same thickness as 55
those leaves. A detailed description of this shape
is not deemed necessary. These inserts may now
be welded along the edges which contact with' the
bent-down leaves 3| and 32, as indicated at 38,
immediately adJacent the discharge outlet and for example.- After welding, any excess metal on
to some extent throughout the hopper. Then the the interior of the hopper may be smoothed off so 60
agitator is operated by means of a wrench applied vas to prevent formation kof rough surfaces and
to the end 20 of the shaft I3 or by other suitable so as to provide a smooth hopper surface.
means. The blades 22 of the agitator preferably
After the inserts have been fastened in place,
65 have knife edges 22', as shown in Fig. 4, and may the hopper may be completed by the addition of 65
be wedge-shaped, as indicated, or of any other bottoms I0 of thin sheet metal, as described
>suitable form, to help in agitating the material, above, or, under some circumstances, the hopper
both in the hopper land in the body of the car. formed by the process described above may be
The cross bars 24 also aid in breaking down the considered complete. Air jets are likewise in-'
70 material, and, in fact, these bars, with the blades, stalled, as in the form shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, 70
form a sort of grill, as plainly shown in Fig. 3. but for the sake of simplicity these jets, together
Next, airis supplied> to the line leading4 to the with the additional plates, have been omitted
jets |4, which will> cause the material to form a from Figs. 6,7, 8, and9.
vortex because of the swirling action set up by
The method described above can be used with
60
Q15 the air. The material, having been ilrst loosened
various shapes of hoppers, as, for example, the 7|
l 2,109,416
y
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"3
_ shape shown in> Figs. 1, 2, and 3. While, for the
sake'of convenience, one continuous bottonr sheet
is shown in Figs. l, 2, and 3, nevertheless it is
each other than their- ends andl the longitudinal
and transverse portions defined by said cuts bent
downwardly to' form _hopper walls of the same
' obvious to those skilled in the art that the same
thickness as that of the sheet. and inserts dis
method can be practiced with smaller sheets, for j posed between the bent-down portions of the
example with sheets of such a size as to form in
sheet and secured thereto to- _form part of the
dividual hoppers which may then be riveted -in
place on a bottom sheet already on the. car.
7. A tank car having a cylindrically-shaped
While we have shown-the invention as em
body with the axis of the cylinder extending hor
hopper.
.10 bodied in a specific form, it is to be understood
that various changes in details may' be made
without departing from the scope of theîinven
tion, and we therefore do not intend to limit our
selves except by the appended claims.
I
_ 1. A car havinga bottom comprising a sheet
of relatively thick metal, said sheet 'having an
` opening therein surrounded by downwardly ex- .
_
l
_
,
izontally, thereby providing a bottom sheet of
arcuate form. said bottom sheet having an open
ing therein with a continuous curved edge,_a
hopper having a downwardly extending wall like
wise continuously curved horizontally and hav-- '
‘ lng a top edgeoi' the same curvature as the edge 15
of said opening. said top edge of the hopper wall '
« and .said
united.
'
edge of the opening being integrally
.
’
-
tending walls integral with said sheet. a hopper
8. Atank car having a_.cylindrlcally shaped
20 having side walls formed in part bysaid down
body with the axis of the cylinder extending hor 20
wardly extending walls of the opening and in izontauy, thereby providing a bottom'> sheet of
part by downward continuations thereof formed 'arcuate form, said bottom sheet having an open
of relatively thin sheet metalsecured to the re1
atlvely thick metal of the bottom sheet, and a
“closure _for said hopper removable to permit
withdrawal of the contents of the car and hop
ing therein with a continuous curved edge, a
hopper having a downwardly extending wall like’
wise` continuously curved horizontally and'having v25
a top edge of the same' curvature >es the edge
of said opening, said top edge of the hopper wall
2. A car having abottom'comprising a sheet and said edge of the opening being integrally
of relatively thick metal. said sheet having an united, and.` an inclined apron *extending- up
opening therein surrounded by downwardly ex
wardly fromsaid hopper and disposed trans-- 30
tending walls integral with said sheet, a hopper versely of the car and forming a partial contin
uation of said hopper wall.
. »
having side walls formed in part by said down
-wardly extending walls of the opening and in
9.a tank car having a cylindrically-shaped
part by downward continuations thereoflformed ¿body with the axis of the cylinder 'extending hor
izontally, therebyI providing a bottom sheet of 35
of relatively thin sheet metal secured to the rel
atively-thick metal of the bottom sheet, a closure arcuate form, said bottom sheet having therein»
for said hopper vremovable to permit withdrawal an opening with an edge which is continuously
per.
¥
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.
.
of the contents of the car and hopper. and means; curved horizontally, a hopper having an outlet
for detachably securing a vibrator to said'hopper' ‘ at its bottom and having a downwardly extend
in position to operate on the thin-walled portion
ing wall which is »likewise continuously curved
thereof.
horizontally and whose top edge has the same
3. A car having a bottom _comprising a sheet» curvature as the edge of said opening. said top
of relatively thick metal, said sheet having an edge of the hopper wall and said edge of the
opening beingintegrally. united, an agitator com-Vopening therein surrounded by 'downwardly ex
tending walls integral with said sheet, and a prising a shaft extending horizontally across said
hopperhaving side walls formed at least in hopper substantially diametrically thereof and
part -by said downwardly extending walls of the journaled in the longitudinal sides of the car
opening, saidwalls forming al substantially con
adjacent the top of the hopper, blades on said
tinuous horizontally curved interior surface free shaft extending downwardly a substantial dis
of corners.
tance into said vhopper and upwardly a substan
.4. A car having a `bottom comprisinga sheet tial distance into said body, said shaft having an
.y of relatively thick metal, said sheet having an -,end disposed outside the car and of non-cylin
opening therein surrounded by downwardly ex
drical shape 'to receive ra detachable handle to
tending walls integral with said sheet, a hopper rock the shaft._
»
_
havingside walls formed at least in part by said ' ^ l0. A tank car having a cylindrically-shaped
`ist vdownwardly
extending walls of the opening, said body with the axis of the cylinder extending hor
izontally, thereby providing a bottom sheet of
walls forming a substantially continuous hori
zontally curved interior surface free of corners, arcuate form, said bottom sheet having therein
and a' downwardly extending 'continuation an opening with an edge which'is continuously
formed of'relatively thin vsheet, metal and like
curved horizontally, a hopper having an outlet at
wise forming a substantially continuous curved
interior surface free of corners.
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5. A car having an 'arcuate shaped bottom
` sheet cut along `a central lineextending length
40
'
45
55
its bottom and having a downwardly extending
wall which is likewise continuously curved hori
zontally and whose top edge has the same cur
vatureas the edge of said’opening, said top edge
wise thereof'and along lines yat the end of said - of the hopper wall and said edge of the opening 65
central cut andtransversely thereof. said trans being integrally united, an inclined apron ex
'verse cuts having their central portions nearer . tending upwardly from said ,hopper and disposed
each other than their ends and the longitudinal -transversely `of the car and forming a partial
and transverse portions defined by said cuts bent ’ continuation 'of the hopper wall. an agitator
downwardlygto form hopper walls.
comprising a shaft extending horizontally across 70
6. A car having an arcuate shaped bottom said'` hopper substantially diametrically thereof
sheet cut along a central line extendinglength
and journaled in the longitudinal sides of theI
wise thereof and along lines. at the end of said car adjacent the top of the hopper, blades on said
- central cut and transversely thereof, said trans
shaft extending downwardly a substantial dis
475 verse cuts having their central portions nearer tance into said-hopper and upwardly asubstan
'
2,105,416
4
tial distance into said body, said shaft having an
.end disposed outside the car and of non-cylindri
cal shape to receive a detachable handle to rock
the shaft.
-
outside the car,- and means outside the car for
Operating Said Shaft.
12. A car having an arcuate shaped bottom
‘ sheet with an opening therein, the material of
body with the axis of the cylinder extending
horizontally, thereby providing a bottom sheet
said sheet being bent downwardly v~@substantially 5
throughout the periphery of the opening to form
the upper portions of hopper walls, and plates
of arcuate form, said bottom sheet having there
in an opening with an edge which is continuous
welded tosaid -upper portions and extending
11. A tank car having a cylindrically-shaped
10 ly curved horizontally, a hopper having an out
let at its bottom and having a downwardly ex
tending wall which is likewise continuously
curved horizontally and whose top edge has the
downwardly therefrom to complete the hopper
walls.
10
13. A car having an arcuate shaped bottom
sheet with an opening therein formed by a lon
gitudinally extending central cut and transverse-A l
the opening being integrally united,` an agitator
ly extending cuts at the lopposite ends thereof,
said transversely extending cuts being convex to 15
wards each other, thus providing four leaves,
comprising a shaft extending horizontally across
which 'leaves are bent downwardly to form the
said hopper substantially diametrically thereof
upper portions of hopper walls, and plates weld
ed to said upper portions and extending down
wardly therefrom to completev the hopper walls. 20
same curvature as the edge of said opening, said
15 top edge of the hopper wall and said edge of
and journaled in the longitudinal sides of the car
20 adjacent the top of the hopper, blades on said
shaft extending downwardly a substantial dis
‘ tance into said hopper and upwardly a substan
tial distance into said body, said shaft extending
ABRAM E. S15/HTH.
AVVIIJIZ‘ÍIIAMÍ H. RUNKEL.
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