Патент USA US2108416код для вставки
Feb. 15,1938. A. E. SMITH ET AL j 2,108,416 GAR A Filed April 1o, 1935 V '5 sheets-sheet >2U \ I l Ll» ` ` l v BY AT1-ORNE 5 . ' Feâ@n l5, 1938.` n ` lA. E. SMITH ET Al. ' . j? ,' / K ‘2,108,416 . GAR Filed April io', 1933 ` s sheets-sheet 3 v 6 ' ' f2 INVENTOR â . „mg/ZKM > ATTORNEY ~v 2,108,416 Paten-ted Feb. 15, 193s uNn'Eo "STATES - 2,108,416 can Abram E. Smith and William- H. Runkel, yfihi . cago, Ill.. assignors to Union Tank Car Com pany, Chicagoplll., a corporation or New Jer Sey _ _ , , ‘ Appuéauon April 1o, 1933, semina. 665,353 ' 13 screams.4 (ci. 105 _2471 This invention relates' to a novel and improved form of car,‘more particularly one for handling in the bottom sheet may be curved' as shown in `iinely divided products, such-as fuller’sV earth. Fuller’s earth, in'particular, presents certain dif shown in Figs. 6,7, 8, and 9. - 1n Figs. l, 2, and 3, ñculties in handling in large quantities. _ It has been customary in the past to handle it in small sacks because of the diñlculty ofv handling in bulk. Such difficulties are overcomeby our invention, as will be better understood. from the following description and the annexed drawings, in which we‘have shown a car _embodying a selected form oi’ the invention and in which: , Fig. 1 is a vertical view, partly in elevation and partly in section, showing one form of car with the invention applied thereto; ' - Fig. 2 is a horizontal view, partly in section I and partly in plan, of the structure appearing inV Fig. 1;v Figs. 1, 2, and 3, or may have straight sides as they are shown as curved in form, either round or elliptical, and the upper edges 'I of the walls Ol 6v in the end compartments are approximately tangent to the lower edge 8 of the slope sheets in those compartments. In _the center compart ment-and at the ends of the end compartments opposite the slope sheets, aprons 9 are provided, likewise approximately tangent to the upper edge 'I of the wall 6 and inclined upwardly at approxi mately the same slope as the wall- â. Since the bottom sheet and the side walls of the car body are all arcuate in form, being part of the cylin 15 drically shaped body ofthe car, it will be seen that only upwardly extending surfaces are'pro vided, both in the hopper and above it. ' For a purpose which will appear later, the low . Fig. 3 is a section on the line 8-3 of Fig. 1; Fig. ‘i is a cross-section on an enlarged _scale , er part i0 of the hopper'is preferably formed of N) <_showing one form‘oi knii'e which maybe em ployed: f » _ s Fig. 5 is a detail perspective view of a form of vibrator which _may be used in the practice 'of the invention; - ' (Figs. 6, 7, and 8 are fragmentary views show ing part oi' the bottom sheet oi a car and illus relatively thin sheet metal riveted to the down wardly extending walls. as at II, or otherwise secured' thereto and forming substantial contin- e nations of these walls. A suitable closure I2 is provided for the bottom of each hopper ex 25. tending over the outlet I3. The details of this closure may be varied considerably, and since - trating successive steps in the formation of a _ they are not essential to an understanding of this hopper therein; i Flg,_ 9 isy an elevation taken at right angles to ‘ Fig. 8. i » - The car shown herein is a tank car having a generally cylindrical shaped body I and provided with the usual frame andsupporting wheels, the details of which will not be discussed. According to our invention, this car is divided into a. plural ` ity of compartments, here shown as three in num ber, the compartments being formed »by trans versely extending partitions 2 extending verti cally from the bottom tothe top oi' the car. The end compartments have their end walls formed vof slope sheets 3. At the bottom of each compartment is disposed _ a hopper I having downwardly inclined walls ar-- 45 ranged approximately at the same angle to the horizontal as the slope sheets 3. Preferably, the> bottom of thecar is lformed of a single sheetl 5 having holes vtherein surrounded by downwardly extending walls l forming the upper parts of the respective hoppers.« "These downwardly extend ing walls are preferably integral with the bottom. and are of the same thickness as the bottom` invention, they will not be further discussed. . Extending through the wall oi' each hopper, and « v30 spaced around theA periphery thereof, are air jets . _ or nozzles I4, a plurality of such jets being shown herein and so arranged as to discharge air or other suitable fluid horizontally. One of the ad vantages of having the hopper of a curved form 35 as appearing in ahorizontal view thereof is that the air jets may> be conveniently arranged to give a better` swirling action to the material in the hopper.` The jets may be of any form desired, so as to give the desired cross-sectionto the stream _issuing therefrom. 'I'hey may be placed on the same horizontal plane or on different planes, as shown in Fig. 3, but preferably they all point in the same rotative direction. For example, if the material is to be given a swirling motion in a 45 clockwise direction, all jets discharge in that di'-A rection. - ' Also' mounted on the bottom part I Ii of each hopper is a pair of wedge-shaped holders lI5 with In which i'lts a correspondingly shaped pad on a bracket I8 supporting-a vibrator I1 of conven tional or other suitable form. Vibrators of this general type are well known in the art, and no detailed description thereof will be given. Ob sheet, this sheetbeing preferably formed with a cylindrical surface corresponding to the cylindri cal form of the body oi' the car. The openings --vlously also, the brackets may, if preferred, be 55 2 2,108,416 . fastened in place by suitable bolts. Similar hold _ somewhat by the vibrator, will respond‘to the ac ers I5 may be placed on the under side of the tion of the air and will probably become more or slope sheets 3, as indicated in 11g. 1. , Extending across the top of each hoppery is a shaft I8 preferably disposed in bushings I9 on op posite sides of the car and having one or both ends 20" thereof shaped to receive a wrench han dle and disposed outside of the car. )within the car, the shaft carries an agitator, here shown as 10 comprising a sleeve 2| fastened Von the shaft and having a plurality of knife blades 22 and 23 ex tending upwardly into the bodyof the car or downwardly into the hopper. These blades may be connected by cross bars 24 which act as braces 15 to hold the blades together and also for another purpose which will be explained directly. ' Air may be applied to the jets |4 from suitable piping 25'which may be connected to any con venient source of compressed air and which may 20 also furnish air for operation of the vibrator i1, - less aerated. Vibrators may also be used on the slope Asheets 3, these sheets in the form shown bounding the space at the end of the car, and a wall of this space being provided with a manhole 28 to give access to this space. We have described above the various steps which are taken and in the order which at pres ent seems to give the best results, although it is to be understood that this order may be varied as desired and as found most expedient. If found necessary, an air line may be put through one of the openings 21 in the upper part of a compart ment, and any residue o_f material may be blown 15 out through the hopper by this means. Referring now to Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9, we have shown therein a part of a hopper of different form than that appearing in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, andhave illustrated one way in which such a 20 this air being supplied to a suitable inlet 26 on hopper may be formed. the vibrator. Preferably. eac'hcompartment is In Fig. 6, we have shown a portion of the bot tom sheet 5 disposed between two adjacent par provided with one or more openings in the top of the car indicated at 21 kand provided with suit 25 able removable closures. 'I‘he operation of the invention will now be briefly described. Fuller’s earth, in particular, is a material which, when handled in bulk, packs ` titions before the hopper is formed therein. While the partitions have been shown in Figs. 6, -25 '7, -and 8, it will of course be understood that the hopper may be formed either before or after the partitions are put in place, and even before the very closely and has great cohesion. For ex ` Sheet is put in the car, if found desirable. 30 ample, it has been found that an ordinary use of The sheet is first cut to form slits therein, here 30 an air jet in a ñxed path will result merely in shown as a slit 29 extending transversely of the cutting a channel through the material without substantially disturbing it, as the material has an angle of repose of approximately 90°. In other 35 words, the face of the material jwill remain ver tical, and unusual devices must be employed for breaking it up and removing it. The car illustrated and described herein has Ybeen found to successfully solve the problem. It 40 will be seen that the material Awill contact only with upwardly extending metallic surfaces, _to which it will- adhere to a minimum extent. Therefore, when the material in the middle of a compartment or at any point remote from the 45 walls thereof begins to move downwardly, the power of cohesion within the mass will normally be greater than the power of adhesion to the me tallic surfaces. We also contemplate surfacesA formed of other material than metal, to which the power of adhesion of the material is rela-' tively small. ' Now assuming that a car of fuller’s earth is to be unloaded, the closure I2 over the discharge outlet of one hopper and its corresponding com 55 partment is` removed and suitable conveying ap paratu's may be attached thereto in a manner well known in the art. Next, a vibrator is fasten ed in place on one wall of the hopper and put in operation. 'I'his appears to loosen the material length of the sheet and meeting at its opposite ends slits 30 extending generally transverse of the sheet'but preferably curved, as indicated, so that their central portions are nearer each other than 35 their ends. This construction results in the for mation of two leaves 3| on opposite sides of the slit 23 and also of leaves 32 within the arcs o‘f the curved slits 30. . The next step is to bend the leaves 3| and 32 40 downwardly, as indicated in«Fig. 7, this bending down forming, in this instance, straight top edges 33 and 34 for the hopper. The leaves 3| are bent again at 36, preferably along a. curved surface so as to form a rounded corner, so that the 45 corners 35 thereof form part of the Walls of the hopper extending transversely of the leaves 3|. 'I'he process thus far described results in a re tention of the thickness of the sheet, as no sub stantial stretching or drawing thereof has taken piace. The next step is to add to the structure `thus partly formed, by placing inserts 31 in place, these inserts being plates of such shape that they will ilt into the spaces between the bent-down leaves 3| and 32, and of the same thickness as 55 those leaves. A detailed description of this shape is not deemed necessary. These inserts may now be welded along the edges which contact with' the bent-down leaves 3| and 32, as indicated at 38, immediately adJacent the discharge outlet and for example.- After welding, any excess metal on to some extent throughout the hopper. Then the the interior of the hopper may be smoothed off so 60 agitator is operated by means of a wrench applied vas to prevent formation kof rough surfaces and to the end 20 of the shaft I3 or by other suitable so as to provide a smooth hopper surface. means. The blades 22 of the agitator preferably After the inserts have been fastened in place, 65 have knife edges 22', as shown in Fig. 4, and may the hopper may be completed by the addition of 65 be wedge-shaped, as indicated, or of any other bottoms I0 of thin sheet metal, as described >suitable form, to help in agitating the material, above, or, under some circumstances, the hopper both in the hopper land in the body of the car. formed by the process described above may be The cross bars 24 also aid in breaking down the considered complete. Air jets are likewise in-' 70 material, and, in fact, these bars, with the blades, stalled, as in the form shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, 70 form a sort of grill, as plainly shown in Fig. 3. but for the sake of simplicity these jets, together Next, airis supplied> to the line leading4 to the with the additional plates, have been omitted jets |4, which will> cause the material to form a from Figs. 6,7, 8, and9. vortex because of the swirling action set up by The method described above can be used with 60 Q15 the air. The material, having been ilrst loosened various shapes of hoppers, as, for example, the 7| l 2,109,416 y ` _ "3 _ shape shown in> Figs. 1, 2, and 3. While, for the sake'of convenience, one continuous bottonr sheet is shown in Figs. l, 2, and 3, nevertheless it is each other than their- ends andl the longitudinal and transverse portions defined by said cuts bent downwardly to' form _hopper walls of the same ' obvious to those skilled in the art that the same thickness as that of the sheet. and inserts dis method can be practiced with smaller sheets, for j posed between the bent-down portions of the example with sheets of such a size as to form in sheet and secured thereto to- _form part of the dividual hoppers which may then be riveted -in place on a bottom sheet already on the. car. 7. A tank car having a cylindrically-shaped While we have shown-the invention as em body with the axis of the cylinder extending hor hopper. .10 bodied in a specific form, it is to be understood that various changes in details may' be made without departing from the scope of theîinven tion, and we therefore do not intend to limit our selves except by the appended claims. I _ 1. A car havinga bottom comprising a sheet of relatively thick metal, said sheet 'having an ` opening therein surrounded by downwardly ex- . _ l _ , izontally, thereby providing a bottom sheet of arcuate form. said bottom sheet having an open ing therein with a continuous curved edge,_a hopper having a downwardly extending wall like wise continuously curved horizontally and hav-- ' ‘ lng a top edgeoi' the same curvature as the edge 15 of said opening. said top edge of the hopper wall ' « and .said united. ' edge of the opening being integrally . ’ - tending walls integral with said sheet. a hopper 8. Atank car having a_.cylindrlcally shaped 20 having side walls formed in part bysaid down body with the axis of the cylinder extending hor 20 wardly extending walls of the opening and in izontauy, thereby providing a bottom'> sheet of part by downward continuations thereof formed 'arcuate form, said bottom sheet having an open of relatively thin sheet metalsecured to the re1 atlvely thick metal of the bottom sheet, and a “closure _for said hopper removable to permit withdrawal of the contents of the car and hop ing therein with a continuous curved edge, a hopper having a downwardly extending wall like’ wise` continuously curved horizontally and'having v25 a top edge of the same' curvature >es the edge of said opening, said top edge of the hopper wall 2. A car having abottom'comprising a sheet and said edge of the opening being integrally of relatively thick metal. said sheet having an united, and.` an inclined apron *extending- up opening therein surrounded by downwardly ex wardly fromsaid hopper and disposed trans-- 30 tending walls integral with said sheet, a hopper versely of the car and forming a partial contin uation of said hopper wall. . » having side walls formed in part by said down -wardly extending walls of the opening and in 9.a tank car having a cylindrically-shaped part by downward continuations thereoflformed ¿body with the axis of the cylinder 'extending hor izontally, therebyI providing a bottom sheet of 35 of relatively thin sheet metal secured to the rel atively-thick metal of the bottom sheet, a closure arcuate form, said bottom sheet having therein» for said hopper vremovable to permit withdrawal an opening with an edge which is continuously per. ¥ _ . . of the contents of the car and hopper. and means; curved horizontally, a hopper having an outlet for detachably securing a vibrator to said'hopper' ‘ at its bottom and having a downwardly extend in position to operate on the thin-walled portion ing wall which is »likewise continuously curved thereof. horizontally and whose top edge has the same 3. A car having a bottom _comprising a sheet» curvature as the edge of said opening. said top of relatively thick metal, said sheet having an edge of the hopper wall and said edge of the opening beingintegrally. united, an agitator com-Vopening therein surrounded by 'downwardly ex tending walls integral with said sheet, and a prising a shaft extending horizontally across said hopperhaving side walls formed at least in hopper substantially diametrically thereof and part -by said downwardly extending walls of the journaled in the longitudinal sides of the car opening, saidwalls forming al substantially con adjacent the top of the hopper, blades on said tinuous horizontally curved interior surface free shaft extending downwardly a substantial dis of corners. tance into said vhopper and upwardly a substan .4. A car having a `bottom comprisinga sheet tial distance into said body, said shaft having an .y of relatively thick metal, said sheet having an -,end disposed outside the car and of non-cylin opening therein surrounded by downwardly ex drical shape 'to receive ra detachable handle to tending walls integral with said sheet, a hopper rock the shaft._ » _ havingside walls formed at least in part by said ' ^ l0. A tank car having a cylindrically-shaped `ist vdownwardly extending walls of the opening, said body with the axis of the cylinder extending hor izontally, thereby providing a bottom sheet of walls forming a substantially continuous hori zontally curved interior surface free of corners, arcuate form, said bottom sheet having therein and a' downwardly extending 'continuation an opening with an edge which'is continuously formed of'relatively thin vsheet, metal and like curved horizontally, a hopper having an outlet at wise forming a substantially continuous curved interior surface free of corners. - 5. A car having an 'arcuate shaped bottom ` sheet cut along `a central lineextending length 40 ' 45 55 its bottom and having a downwardly extending wall which is likewise continuously curved hori zontally and whose top edge has the same cur vatureas the edge of said’opening, said top edge wise thereof'and along lines yat the end of said - of the hopper wall and said edge of the opening 65 central cut andtransversely thereof. said trans being integrally united, an inclined apron ex 'verse cuts having their central portions nearer . tending upwardly from said ,hopper and disposed each other than their ends and the longitudinal -transversely `of the car and forming a partial and transverse portions defined by said cuts bent ’ continuation 'of the hopper wall. an agitator downwardlygto form hopper walls. comprising a shaft extending horizontally across 70 6. A car having an arcuate shaped bottom said'` hopper substantially diametrically thereof sheet cut along a central line extendinglength and journaled in the longitudinal sides of theI wise thereof and along lines. at the end of said car adjacent the top of the hopper, blades on said - central cut and transversely thereof, said trans shaft extending downwardly a substantial dis 475 verse cuts having their central portions nearer tance into said-hopper and upwardly asubstan ' 2,105,416 4 tial distance into said body, said shaft having an .end disposed outside the car and of non-cylindri cal shape to receive a detachable handle to rock the shaft. - outside the car,- and means outside the car for Operating Said Shaft. 12. A car having an arcuate shaped bottom ‘ sheet with an opening therein, the material of body with the axis of the cylinder extending horizontally, thereby providing a bottom sheet said sheet being bent downwardly v~@substantially 5 throughout the periphery of the opening to form the upper portions of hopper walls, and plates of arcuate form, said bottom sheet having there in an opening with an edge which is continuous welded tosaid -upper portions and extending 11. A tank car having a cylindrically-shaped 10 ly curved horizontally, a hopper having an out let at its bottom and having a downwardly ex tending wall which is likewise continuously curved horizontally and whose top edge has the downwardly therefrom to complete the hopper walls. 10 13. A car having an arcuate shaped bottom sheet with an opening therein formed by a lon gitudinally extending central cut and transverse-A l the opening being integrally united,` an agitator ly extending cuts at the lopposite ends thereof, said transversely extending cuts being convex to 15 wards each other, thus providing four leaves, comprising a shaft extending horizontally across which 'leaves are bent downwardly to form the said hopper substantially diametrically thereof upper portions of hopper walls, and plates weld ed to said upper portions and extending down wardly therefrom to completev the hopper walls. 20 same curvature as the edge of said opening, said 15 top edge of the hopper wall and said edge of and journaled in the longitudinal sides of the car 20 adjacent the top of the hopper, blades on said shaft extending downwardly a substantial dis ‘ tance into said hopper and upwardly a substan tial distance into said body, said shaft extending ABRAM E. S15/HTH. AVVIIJIZ‘ÍIIAMÍ H. RUNKEL.