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Патент USA US2108433

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Feb. 15, 1938.
Filed Jan. 26, 1937
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Feb. '15? 1938.
Filed Jan. 26, 1937
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Fe, 15, 1938.
Filed Jan. 26,
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Feh 15, 1938‘
Filed Jan‘. 26, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheei 4
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Patented Feb- 15, 1938
' 2,108,433
Vere B. Edwards,. C‘oraopolis, Pa., assignor to
Dravo. Corporation, a corporation of Pennsyl
Application January 26, 1937, Serial No. 122,389
3 Claims. (Cl. 265-1)
This invention relates to ?eet-testing dyna
mometers and consists in a frame adapted to shift
the movable dynamometer part or parts, so dis
posed and so mounted as to reduce to minimum
5 and negligible value the fraction of the towing
stress that is lost because of obliquity in direction,
and to bring the towing-stress to bear in sub
stantially full intensity directly upon the dyna
As is implicit in the ‘name, a ?eet
10 testing dynamometer is a dynamometer mounted
between the driving and the driven units of a
?eet of boats, and its o?ice is to afford measure
of the towing stress that is exerted.
In the accompanying drawings Fig. I is a frag
15 mentary view in plan of a barge (a driven unit)
equipped with a dynamometer; a frame that en
gages the movable parts of this dynamometer
constitutes in structure and in mounting an em
bodiment of the invention. Fig. II is a view in
20 side elevation of the same assembly; and in this
?gure, to the left and in dotted lines, is indicated
a second, driving unit (it may be understood to be
a towboat for river navigation) united in ?eet
formation with the barge.
Figs. III and IV are
25 views to larger scale, showing in transverse and
in longitudinal sections one of the bearing boxes
in which the frame for shifting the movable
dynamometer parts is mounted. The plane of
section of Fig. III is in Fig. IV indicated by the
30 dotted line III—-III; and in Fig. III the (broken)
plane of section of Fig. IV is indicated at IV--IV.
Fig. V is a diagrammatic illustration of the essen
tial parts of the assembled dynamometer, and
of the organization of its stationary and movable
Referring ?rst to Fig. V, the dynamometer in
this instance includes two oil-?lled cylinders, I
and 2, and two rams, 3 and 4. The cylinders are
aligned on a common fore-and-aft axis on the
mid-line of the barge, and are oppositely directed.
One of the pairs of relatively movable members,
in this instance the cylinders, is rigidly mounted
in the barge 5 adjacent the stern; while the other
pair of > members, the rams, is responsive to
stresses exerted by the towboat 6. Pressure
gauges ‘I and 8 are severally connected with'the
two cylinders; and in such an organization the
gauges register the towing stress, whether in
forward or rearward direction—diminished, how
ever, by such loss as may be incident to the as
Means for charging the dynamometer cylinders
with oil include an oil-supply tank 9, a pump ID,
a valve-controlled pipe leading from tank to
pump, valve-controlled pipes leading from pump
to cylinders, valve-controlled pipes leading from
cylinders to tank, valve-controlled pipes leading
from cylinders to pressure gauges, and valve
controlled vents for the pipes last named. As
suming the cylinders to be empty, they are ?lled 5
in the following manner-Valves 2|, II, I4, I5,
I6, I1, and I9 are opened, while valves I2, I3, and
I8 are closed. The pump then is operated and
oil is forced from the tank into cylinder I and its
gauge pipe. The two rams 3 and 4, that are'lO
mounted in the manner presently to be described
for integral reciprocation are driven aft (that is
to say, to the left, Fig. V). I When the cylinder I
is thus ?lled the operation of the pump is arreste'd
and the valve I9 is closed. Valves II, I4, and Il
then are closed, valves I2 and I3 opened, and
valves I8 and 20 are opened. Further operation
of the pump then ?lls cylinder 2, while the oil
that has ?lled cylinder I is driven into the oil
supply tank again. And again pump operation is 20
continued until cylinder 2 and its gauge pipe are
?lled. Thereupon valve 20 is closed, valves I2, I3,
and I8 closed; valves II and I4 opened again; and
valves I1 and I9 opened again. The renewed op
eration of the pump re?lls cylinder I and empties .
cylinder 2. These alternate operations are re
peated several times; and at length the pump is
stopped with the two rams in the two cylinders
in mid-position in their range of reciprocation;
and then valves II, I2, I3, I4, I5, I6, I9, 26, and
2| all are closed; and valves I1 and I8 alone re
main open. The dynamometer then is in opera
ative condition. When all the valves are opened
the cylinders and the pipe connections drain by
gravity to the oil-supply tank 9. _
A frame'22, having advantageously the essen
tially isosceles triangular shape shown in Fig. I,
is mounted‘in three bearing boxes 23, 24, and 25
that are arranged two of them symmetrically on
opposite sides of and at the stern of the barge,
and the third on the mid-line of the barge, re
mote from the stern, and preferably forward of
the dynamometer. The frame includes a member
26 that in this instance forms the base of the tri
angle to which the frame is shaped, and that in '
the assembly extends transversely and projects
aft, beyond the stern'of the barge. The barge
in this instance is square ended, and the basal
member of the frame extends throughoutv sub- 50
stantially the breadth of the barge. The frame
includes also three fore-and-aft extending mem
bers, 21, 28, and 29, that extend through the bear
ing boxes 23, 24, and 25, and upon these members,
so borne, the frame is wholly sustained. The 55
3 frame abuts snugly upon the distal ends of rams ' in all such cases the structure of the invention
3 and» 4, as is indicated in Figs. I, II, and V.
The members 21,728, and 29 are, essentially,
is effective to concentrate the resistance to the
towing stress in fullest measure upon the dyna
beams so constructed as to sustain the strains of
_ operation.
Turning to Figs. III‘and IV, the bear- ’
It will be manifest from the drawings that the
ring boxes will be seen to consist of strong hous
invention 'has been developed in the ?eld of river
ings 30 adapted to be rigidly mounted on the
deck of the barge and provided with removable
covers 3|. The boxes are rectangular and‘their
inner walls are faced with hearing strips 32;
navigation, where barges are commonly lashed to
the bows of towboats and are pushed vby the ad
vancing towboat.v It is applicable wherever the '
floating body to be towed is lashed to the towboat. 10
Through the open ends fore and aft of the bear
ingboxes the beam 2‘! extends; The beam is cor
' respondingly rectangular, and it is faced“with
Manifestly, also, the same effect may be had if the
. bearing strips 33. Withinv the bearing box and be
barge is lashed; as a matter of convenience, how
towboat carries the dynamometer and the frame 7
while to the transverse member of :the frame the ' '
J15 tween the four pairs of bearing strips 32 and ‘33, I ever, the. arrangement is preferably that shown
oppositely disposed, as shown in‘ Fig. III, four, sets
_ of anti-friction rollers are'ass‘embled.
inthe drawings.
Sincein "' I claim as my invention:
service the stressesjin transversedirection are
‘ heavier‘than those in vertical direction, the lat
1». A dynamometer structure adapted to be em
ployed between artowing unit and a towed unit,
eral sets of rollers are advantageously made'heav . such structure'including in association with a 20
ier than the sets above and below; 'Eachlateral' dynamometer adapted ‘to be mounted onbn'e' of
setas here shown consists of three relatively‘long said units, said dynamometer including a member
' rollers 34 carried'in a frame 35, while each of the
movable in fore-andéaft direction, a pair, of bear- '
sets arranged above. and‘ below Iconsistsof ‘two ings adapted to b-e'mounted on the same unit with
relatively short rollers ‘3‘6_ carried in a frame 3'1;v
the dynamometer and spaced apart transversely ‘
Turning again; to Figs. I and II ‘it will be. seen. of the fore-'and-aft line through said movable
'that‘the barge equipped ‘with a dynamometer- and ' member, a'frame including'two spaced‘ apart fore
‘an operating frame 22 may by its transverseand ' and-aft 'Vextending‘ members which members are.
projectingmember 26. be secured to a towboat, so »mounted in said bearings and'are movable there
30 that the frame becomes integral with the tow
in in fore~and—aft direction, the said frame being
boat, and. through itithe towboat tows the barge, adaptedto engage'the said movable member of
whether forward; backward,'o-r laterally. In tow
the dynamometerfsaid frame also including'a
ing, the direction» of stress‘ is in approximately ' member; extending transversely of' such fore-and
fore-and-aft ;direction‘. In consequence, how
aft line and adapted tobe engagediby the'other
ever, of inequalities of loading and in the im‘ake ' of the two units ?rst ‘named.
up of the ?eet; and in consequenceof 'the influ
2. A dynamometer structure adapted for use
‘ences of water currents and of‘winds, and the between a. towboat. and a tow, such. structure'im
necessity of steering now to starboard and again eluding,’ in association with. a dynamometer
to port, the resistance that the towboat has to adapted to ‘be mounted on ‘the tow, said dy
vovercomeisnot aligned with the keel of the tow namometer including amember movable in fore
boat. In such case the thrust is bornein part “ and-aftj direction relatively’ to said tow, three
by the frictional engagement of driving andidriv
bearings adapted to be mounted‘ on 'saidtow in
en parts, andthestress to which the dynamom
triangular formation, one on the line vof fore-and
_- eteris actually responsive is the towingstress aft m'ovem-ent‘of. said dynamometer member and
reduced by a large and'widely varying 'minuend. ‘two on opposite sidesof such line,- and a. frame
By‘the use" of the frame of my invention-:this ,mounted in said bearings and movable in such
* "minuenud is: madesmall and’ relatively negligible mounting in jfore-and-aft direction and engaging
‘ , and its range of variability rendered insigni?
said dynamometer member, the frameincluding a '
, cant, andjthe dynamometer is rendered effective . transversely extending member adapted to be
to give adequate indication of towing force under
engaged byla towboat.
_' 13.. ‘A;dynamometersstructure adapted for'use
' J;- . In Fig. II the vertical line a indicates the plane betweena towboat and a tow, including, in associ
in which the frame and towbo'at meet so long as ation with a dynamometer adaptedto be mounted
f‘ the fleet continues at rest; and, when towing is in . on said itow on-the mid fore-and-aft line there
progress, the displacement of this plane relatively of,.said dynamometer including two rams adapt 55
> to the barge‘ is negligible. The lines I) and 0 il
ed to, besdriven the" oneforwardly the other
varying service conditions;
lustrate the interval through which the frame v22 . rearwardlyin such fore-andiaft line,’ three bear
reciprocates‘while; the cylinders ! and 2 are being
ings adapted to be mounted on said tow in trian
alternately ?lled‘ and~emptied~ in'rpreparati‘on .for lgularrformati'on,onejforwardly of the others and
' 1" . r‘
60L testing;
on themidfore-and-aft line,'and the others’on
The barge 5, showniin the drawingsmaylbe : opposite sides of. such fore-and-aft line andad
; V understood to typify the tow, that is to' sayfin the
‘ parlance of navigation, thedrivenunit of a ?eet.
A‘ single barge'will ordinarily bealigned fore and
‘ aft with the towboat and the towing stresseswill
jnot fdepartwidely from the keel-line ofthe tow
jacent the stern'ofthe tow,>and ‘a frame mounted
in said bearings and movable in fore-and-aft' di- ,
rection in?suchmountingland adapted to engage
?in'its fore¢and1aft movement‘one and’ the other’
of the‘ two said/rams, said frame in the assembly
boat; but tothe barge‘ 5 other barges maybe‘ projecting beyond the stern of- ‘the tow and in
lashed; the. barge5 may ‘be but-- one- of many ' cludingatransverse<member'de?ning the limit of
barges'united to ‘constitute the driven'unit; and itsisternward extension and adapted to be engaged,
the line of resistance tor'the towing stress maybe by a towboat. ' I: ~
@far to one side of the mid-line of barge‘ 5 and far
to one side of the keel-line of the'towboat.
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