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Патент USA US2108441

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Feb._ 15, 193s.
2, 108,441
Filed Sept. 29, 1956
2 She`ets-Sheet l
Hams Malw͜/r,
Feb. 15, 1938.
\ I
Filed Sept. 2.9, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
' H11/ns Mancha;
Patented Feb. 15, 1938
. l2,108,441
Hans Mancher, New York, N. Y.
Application September Z9, 1936, Serial No. 103,071
4 Claims. (Cl. 120-14)
This invention relates in general to pencils of on the line 2-2 of Figure 1, looking in the di
the mechanical type. Pencils, of'this type are rection of the arrows, and illustrating the inner
adapted for carrying leads which are insertible construction of the pencil;
therein or removabletherefrom and the life of
Figure 3 is a front elevational View, on an en
such a pencil is therefore not dependent on the larged scale, showing the assembled constructionl
life of the lead, but _merely dependent on the for one of the lead holders;
life of its mechanical parts. When inserted into
Figure 4 is a sectional view, on a still further
a pencil the leads are adapted to havethe ends enlarged scale, on the line 4--4 of Figure 3,
thereof protruded from the pencil into a position looking in thel direction` of the arrows;
Figure 5 is an exploded- view illustrating the 10
10 of use, and appropriate mechanism for elfecting
this function is provided in the pencil. l
details of the ¿inner parts of the assembly of
From one aspect my invention relates'not to ' Figure 3;
mechanical pencils as-_a Whole, but to specific
Figure 6 is a side elevationalview, taken at
mechanism for protruding the leads from holders right angles to the showing of Figure 3, of por
therefor provided inthe pencil.
tions of the assembly of Figure 3; and
_ In the particular embodiment of my invention
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 3, of a
disclosed in this application my invention has portion of a modified form of lead holder. '
been shown as applied to a pencil of the magazine
Before entering into a description of the de
type having a plurality of lead holders, any one tails of my invention, I will premise that it is of which may be selectively projected, but it is applicable to mechanical pencils in general, and 20
to be understood that my invention is not in
not only to the particular form thereof, disclosed
'tended to be' limited in its applicationA to the herein. For instance, the assembly of Figure 3,
specific embodiment thereof herein disclosed, in instead of being a part of a multi-lead pencil,
which the pencil is provided with a plurality of might be usedby itself as a pencil, either just
lead holders.
The general objects of my inventionmay be
stated to be the provision of a mechanical pencil
having therein a simple and effective mechanism
adapted for projecting lead out Aof a holder there
for, and secondly the provision of effective mech
anism for 'projecting the lead from the lead hold
er of such a pencil.
The iirst of these objects
involves simplicity of design whereby the manu
facturing costs may be reduced, and further
compactness, so that if a plurality of lead hold
ersfai‘e used in one pencil, they may be accom
modated in a casing of ordinary size. The sec
ond, as well as the first object, involves a con
and one in which the lead will be caused to ad
vance by the application of a small force, and
shown in the drawings might be omitted.
However, I have herein disclosed the applica
tion of my invention to amulti-lead pencil simi
lar in many respects to the one disclosed in the
U. S. Patent 1,889,550 to Hirth of November 29,
1932. Such pencils being well-known, it will be
unnecessary to' describe the broad features of
such a magazine pencil in great detail, and only
a brief reference thereof will be made, while the
construction of the lead holders will be described
in full detail.
struction providing for adequate strength of all
of the parts and their reliability in operation,
yet with sumcient speed.`
as shown, or with the addition >of an outer cas
ing so as to enhance its appearance, and it will
be obvious that when so used portions thereof
y’For the attainment of ‘these objects and such
45 .other objects as will appear or be pointed out
Referring now to theI drawings Vin detail, it
will be found that the main features of .a multi
lead magazine pencil are indicated in Figures 1
~and 2, and it will be observed that the pencil is
there'shown as comprising a- tubular casing l0
having a conical tip Il with an opening I3 there
hereinafter, I have illustrated one embodiment of
in,`said opening being located at the apex of said
conical tip. The casing is shown as having slots-
my'invention in the accompanying drawings, in
cated by way of example, »although obviously
` `lt‘igure 1 is an elevational viewv of a magazine
' pencil havingK my inventionr'applied thereto, one
there is no limitation as to the particular mem
ber. Slidable within the slots l2 are members I4
l2 in the sides thereof, of which four are indi
offthe lead holders of the pencil being shown- in ~ providedwith enlarged heads l5 positioned ex
‘tfernally of the casing, whereby said member I4
Figure 1a is a constructional detail of the4 ' vmay be manipulated, said heads also serving to
pencil of Figure 1:
keep the members I4 within the slots. Each
Figure 21s a sectional view taken substantially` ¿member i4 is mounted on a spring i6, shown as 55
itsi‘protruded or operative position;
l 2
flattened and provided with an angularly bent
portion 2| at one end while at its other end each
shown therein, the main elements of this assem
bly are an inner sleeve 26, and an outer sleeve
of the springs I6 is shown as attached to a lead , k24, the latter being connected at one end to the
carrier denoted as a whole by A. Four of these
lead carriers A are shown, one corresponding to
each of the aforementioned slots I2.
On referring to Figure 1 it will be observed that
one of the lead carriers A is shown as in its posi
tion of use, in which its lower end projects out
wardly through the opening I3 of the casing III,
aforementioned spring I6 carrying the member I4.
The inner sleeve is nested within the outer sleeve 5
so that the inner sleeve may turn within the
outer sleeve, and the inner sleeve is provided with
an annular groove 28 adapted to be engaged by
a complementary flange 28 formed on the interior
wall of the outer sleeve. This flange may be 10
whereas the other lead carriers A are in retracted
formed by crimping the outer sleeve in place on
position (as indicated by the position of the mem
bers I5 in Figures 1 and 2). Owing to the re
stricted size of opening. I3 only one lead holder
can pass therethrough at one time.
The eii'ect oi.' projecting one of the lead holders
the inner sleeve, after assembly thereof, by de
pressing the wall of the sleeve into a groove 30.
The inner sleeve is shown as provided with a
spiral slot 32 and the outer sleeve is shown as
provided with a spiral slot 34. It will be observed
that the spiral slots 32 and 34 are shown- as of
A'is to compress a coil spring I1 positioned with
> j- yli'zi-'a' bushing I9, slidably mounted within the cas
f ing'ill, this being effected by the engagement of
20 the aforementioned ang'ularly bent portion 2| of
opposite pitch. As illustrated, the slot 32-is of
right hand pitch and the slot 34 is of left hand
pitch, and the pitch of slot 34 is shown as steeper
the spring- |6 with the upper end of the bushing
I9, while on the other hand the spring is kept
than that of slot 32. When these sleeves are
nested together in their normal relation as shown
from moving downward by the tapered portion » in Figure 4 it will be observed that these slots
I| of the casing Ill, which is not of sufficient register at intervals so as to form openings lead
25 diameter to accommodate it. The coil spring
ing from the inside of the inner sleeve to the 25
I1 while under compression tends to push kthe outside of the outer sleeve, and if one sleeve is
projectingholder A upward, and to prevent up
ward movement of the holder some means, such
as the undercut shoulder indicated in dotted lines
30 in Figure 1 at 23, may be used. When the mem
ber I4 is brought opposite this shoulder and is
then moved sideways into the lateral recess of
the slot I2 at this point, it will engage the shoul
der 23 and will be kept there by the pressure
volving an axial motion and a rotational motion.
A pin 36 is shown as positioned within the inner 30
sleeve, and this pin is provided with an angularly
related portion 38 at one end thereof that is
shown in Figure 3 as extending through one of
the aforementioned openings so that it is simul
taneously engaged by the walls of the slots 32
35 of spring I1.
In order to facilitate the operation of bring
ing the member I4 into engagement with the
shoulder 23 and make it automatic, the lower end
of the slot I2 may be formed on an incline as
40 shown at 3| in Figure la. Byreferring to said
figure it will be observed that four positions of
the member I4 are indicated-therein, three of
them a, b and c being indicated in dotted lines
and illustrating successive positions of the mem
45 ber I4 as it is pushed downwardly alongi the
slot I2 and against the inclined wall 3|, While the
fourth position indicated at d represents the
final locked position with the part I4 in contact
with the shoulder 23. It will be observed that in
50' the b position, and with pressure applied as
indicated by the arrow, so as to cause the mem
ber I4 to move downwardly in the slot“ I2 the ef
fect of the inclinedwall 3| will be to guide the
member I4 laterally into the position c. There
55 after, on releasing the member I4, it will move
upwardly, due to the action of spring I1, so as
to engage the shoulder 23, where, due to the un
dercut of the shoulder and the action of said
spring, as already explained, it will be held.
It will be further observed that spring |1 tends
normally to keep all holders A in retracted posi
tion. When it is compressed by projecting one
of the holders, it no longer acts on the other
holders A, and to retain these in position use
may be made of the resiliency of the spring I6,
which is shown as so arranged that, due to the
engagement of the head I5 with the outer walls
of casing I0 and the engagement of the spring
extension I6 .with the inner walls of a tapered
70 member 25 set into casing I0 at its upper end,
the spring is under tension suflicient to retain
the holder A in place.
rotated while the other is held fixed, each of these
registering openings travel in a spiral path in
On. referring to Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6 the de
tails` of the lead carrier construction will be
.75 come apparent. It will be observed that, as
and 34. It will therefore be observed that on ro
tating one of the sleeves 24 and 26 in relation to
the other the extension 36 will travel along a
spiral path and in doing so it will cause the
pin 3_6 to` travel axially downward as shown inl 40
Figure 3, vand this axial motion is used to move
the lead.
It will further be observed that the inner sleeve
26 is shown as having a portion 21 thereof ex
tending beyond thel sleeve 24, and this portion,
which is -shown as knurled for purposes of ready
handling, is also shown as divided at its end by
a slot 40, and the two jaws that are thereby
formed at the end of the inner sleeve 26 may be
closed suiiiciently so as to frictionally engage
a lead 42 that is inserted into the inner sleeve.`
Such a construction is shown in Figure 5, in
which the lead is shown'as‘of such diameter that
it is spaced from the inner walls of the tube 26,
and the end portions of jaws 42 are turned in 55
wardly so as to engage the lead at such end por
It will now be obvious that if the knurled por
tion 21 is grasped and rotated while the sleeve
24 is held stationary (as for instance where it is 6.0
in place in the casing I0), the result will be that
the pin 36 is caused to travel axially within the
inner sleeve, its direction of travel depending on
the direction of rotation of the part 21. If it is
caused to travel downward as shown in Figures 3 65
and 5 it will ultimately strike the end 0f the lead
42 and will push the lead outward against the
frictional resistance of the jaws 40.
On re
tracting the pin 36 the lead may be pushed in.
By referring to Figures l and 2 it will be ob 70
served that whenever a lead holder is in its pro
jected position, its part 21 is available for manip
It will be observed that the spiral slot 36 of
the inner spiral tube 26 is shown as opening out 75
ward at the upper end ofthe tube. I. This weakens
the tube, but is necessitated by the processes of
manufacturing assembly, according to which the
first step is to insert the portion 33 of the pin 38
into the slot 34 of tube 24 before the groove 30 is
formed therein, so that the portions of pin 36 ad
jacent tofthe portion 33 are within tube 24, and
its otherend projects from said tube.
- l The tube 26 is next slipped over the projecting
10 end of pin 36 and is then turned, while being
pushed inward until the portion 32 thereof enters
the spiral slot 32. Ojn turning tube 2t it 'will now
spiral its way into place within the tube 2t, and
when in place it may be held- there by forming
the groove 3B. If the slot 32 were made so as to
Y terminate short of the upper end of -the tube this
therefore it is possible by the use of two spiral
slots to have the thumb piece of very small diame
ter, which yet will permit sufficient `force to be
applied even by the fingers of a child, to cause '
advance of the lead, and it is due t'o this fact that ‘
the diameter of the thumb piece can be held to
such small dimensions that I am enabled to ac
commodate four lead carriers within the confines
of a pencil having a case of ordinary diameter.
It will further be seen that by making the inner
spiral slot of a lesserv pitch than the outer one
that the walls of the inner tube may be made thin
ner and thereby a small diameter of the thumb
piecesecured without sacrificing the strength of
the whole. The steeper pitch of the outer spiral
on the other hand provides adequate speed of
manner of assembly would be impossible, and travel without subjecting the tubes to undue
more complicated methods would have to be* strain. Another advantage that is gained by de
\ creasing the pitch of the inner slotis that it re
The law controlling the axial movement »of the duces the tendency of the pressure on the lead,
l, projector pin 38 `(or that of the lead) may be ex
as when writing, to push the lead into the holder.
pressed as follows;
On turning tube 2t against the resistance of
the pin in slot 32 the tube will tend to spread in
tan el
a,4 manner that increases its diameter and its
M"tan A-|-tan ism”A
length, and it is further to be noted that the
' steeper the pitch., of the spiral, the greater will
M :axial movement ofthe projector pin 33
be the stresses tending to distort the spiral, and
A =the angle made bythe wallsvof one spiral;y the effect of such stresses is especially great on „
slot with the axis of the spiral
the end of the` tube 26 due to the open spiral slot
a _fthe angle made by tnefwaus of the other ì 32 therein.
f 30
spiral slot with the axis of the spiral
vIn- order to minimize these effects it is advis
Pa=the pitch (that is, the axial distance between able> to decrease the pitch of the spiral slot, and
two consecutive turns of the spiral) of the it is further advisable to place the tube 26 within
spiral of angle A.
the tube 24, which. is inherently strongerv be?
The relation existing between F, the force to
cause the spiral >slot 34 terminates short of its 35
end. `I have found that, if walls are made of
be applied at the circumference of the knurled
_thumbpiece 2li (assuming its diameter to be the ’ adequate thickness that such outer tube will have
sufficient strength to resist all tendency to spread,
. same as that of the imaginary cylinder within
either because of the action of pin 36 against the
may be assumed to be transmitted fr om the walls
of the spiral slots to the projecting pin 36), and
R, the resistance to movement of the projecting
pin 36, is
'_tan A-I-tan B_
From these formulae it may be deduced that by
walls of its slot 34, or because of. the spreading
tendency of the inner tube 26 which would tend
to expand outward against the tube 24.
Since the outer tube is stronger, the pitch of
its slot 34 may be increased without unduly weak
ening it, and thereby a 'Sufñcient speed of travel
of th'e projecting pin may be obtained, while the
inner tube may have a spiral of very low pitch,
making the pitch of both ' spiral slots small, l without unduly decreasing the speed of travel of
whereby A and B become large, the turning force
so on the thumb piece 21 may be made as small as
desired. Further that the force may be decreased
by increasing either A or_ B alone.
However it further appears that M, the rate
of travel of the pin 36 is dependent on the relative
55 magnitudes of A and B.
This is clear if the
formula is written‘in the form
Among the other~features lof my pencil- may
be mentioned the magazine i8 for carrying spare 50
leads, which is carried within atubular casing
20 adapted to telescope over the casing I0, and
an eraser 22 may serve as a closure for the maga
zine I8. It will be observed that the tapered wall 55
portion 25 is shown in Figure 2 as forming an
~ extension ofthe magazine I3.
tan B X PA
In Figure 7, I have shown another form of my
1"-tan A
K the lead.
from which it follows that with a given pitch
PA for one spiral, which of course fixes A, it is
necessary‘ior B to increase in order. to increase
the rate of movement of projector pin 36. In
" other words the pitch of the other spiral must be
invention resembling that of Figure 3 to some ex
tent and for that reason similar parts have been 60
similarly numbered except that primes have been
added to the numbers. It will however be ob
served that the outer tube 34’ is shown as having
a straight slot 34' therein, instead of the spiral
slot 34 of Figure 3. In accordance with the
principles heretofore discussed it will be obvious
Practical considerations, however, require that that thespeed of movement of the angularly bent
the speed of travel of the lead be not too- low, portion 38’ of the projecting pin 36’ in relation
and by my invention Iaim to attain adequate
70 speed of travel, small size of parts coupled with ' to the speed of movement of the thumb piece is
increased over what it would be if the slot 34'
adequate strength and small power needed ‘for were a spiral slot pitched oppositely to the spiral
their operation. It will be seen that by decreas
slot 32’ of the tube 26’. The construction how
ing the inclination of the spiral slots it- is pos
ever will still have many of the advantages enu
sible to decrease the force needed at the thumb merated in connection with the other form of
75 piece 21 to secure movement of the lead, and my
invention because the inner spiral maybe
2. In a mechanical pencil, a tubular lead hold
made of very slight pitch so as to compensate for
the absence of pitch in the outer spiral. As be
fore the walls of the inner spiral are spread and
prevented from spreading by the walls of the
outer tube, and therefore the inner spiral may
be made of comparatively thin material, whereby
the diameter of the entire assembly may be kept
very small and only slightly greater than that
er, the bore of which has a diameter of the same
order as that of the lead to be ‘received therein
and having a spiral slot in the wall thereof, a
lead propelling means slidable within said lead 5
holder` adapted to engage the end of a lead posi
tioned in said holder so as to force said lead out
ward when said means is correspondingly moved,
said means having a portion thereof positioned
of the lead.
It will be understood that While I have de
within the said spiral slot, and said lead holder 10
having the outer end thereof split, so as to pro
scribed one embodiment of my invention the
vide clamping jaws adapted to hold the lead in
same may be embodied in many other forms as
will be obvious to those skilled in the art and
frictional engagement therewith, an outer sleeve
positioned so as to surround said lead holder,
that the disclosure herein is not to be interpreted
as limiting but by way of illustration only and and having a spiral slot therein pitched oppositely 15
that I do not limit myself in any other way than to the spiral slot of the lead holder, and a portion
as called for by the language of the appended ' of said lead propelling means being positioned
within the spiral slot of the sleeve, whereby when
Having thus described my invention and illus
said lead holder is rotated relatively to'said sleeve
trated its use, what >I claim as new and desire
the lead propelling means will be caused to travel
to secure by Letters Patent, is:
within said lead holder in a direction determined
1. In a mechanical pencil, a tubular lead holder
the bore of which has a diameter of the same
order as that of the lead to be received therein
by the direction of rotation.
and having a spiral’slot of relatively slight pitch
rounds the other, and said sleeves being relatively
in the wall thereof, a lead propelling means slid
able Within said lead holder adapted to engage
the end of a lead positioned in said holder so as
to force said lead outward when said means is
correspondingly moved, said means having a por
tion thereof positioned Within the said spiral slot,
and said lead holder having the outer end there
of split, so as to provide clamping jaws adapted
to hold the lead in frictional engagement there
with, and said lead holder also having an annu
lar groove provided on the outside thereof, an
outer sleeve positioned so as to surround said
lead holder and having a portion thereof engag
ing said annular groove so as to hold said lead
holder and sleeve against relatively axial move
ment without preventing their relative turning,
and said sleeve also having a spiral slot therein
pitched oppositely to and of greater pitch than
the spiral slot of the lead holder, and a portion
of said lead propelling means being positioned
within the spiral soit of the sleeve, whereby when
said lead holder is rotated relatively to said sleeve
the lead propelling means will be caused to travel
within said lead holder in a direction determinedl
by the direction of rotation.
3. For use in a mechanical pencil, a lead holder
comprising two coaxial sleeves, one of which sur
rotatable but fixed axially, the inner of saidl
sleeves having a bore the diameter of which is
substantially the same as that of a lead positioned
therein, and each of said sleeves having a spiral
slot in the walls thereof, said spiral slots being 30
of opposite and unequal pitch, and a lead pro
pelling member within the inner sleeve adapted
to engage an end of said lead and having a por
tion thereof positioned within the slots of both
of said sleeves.
4. A lead holder for a mechanical pencil com
prising an inner tube for receiving a lead, said
tube being of a diameter to 'closely surround the
lead, an outer tube rotatably mounted on said
inner tube and closely surrounding the same, 40
means for preventing relative axial movement of
said tubes, each of said tubes having a spiral slot
in the walls thereof, and the spiral slot of one of
said tubes being of opposite pitch to that of the
other, a member slidable within the said inner
tube and having a portion thereof projecting into
the respective slots of said two tubes.
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