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Патент USA US2108537

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Feb.‘ 15, 1938.
2,108,537
A. LEDERER
~DIRI‘HHII' ELECTRIC CURRENT RARE GAS LAMP
Original Filed July 25, 19331
-
‘
,
INVENTOR
_A at cm Lederer
KTToRNEY
Patented Feb. 15, 1938
2,108,537
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
‘.
2,108,537
manor EIECTRIC cmmnnr mum GAS
Anton Lederer, Vienna, Austria; Catherine
Danzer and General Conrad Banda, executors,
of said Anton Lederer, deceased, assignors to
Ernest Anton Lederer, Glen Ridge, N. J.
_ Application July 25'; 1931, ‘Serial i No. 553,112.
gesriewed July 9, 1937. In Austria February 20,
6 Claims. (01. ire-122)
This invention relates to direct ‘electric cur
rent rare gas lamps.
'
. In the speci?cation of my co endin
a
lie -
tion- Serial No.‘ 468.884 ?led Jul? 18, 1530,11}; de
5 scribed' an electric rare gas lamp with one or
ever, also be arranged in the) neck of the lamp or
at some other part of the lamp where it can inter
fere but little with the light emission.
The accompanying drawing illustrates by way
of example various methods of carrying out the
several hot. electrodes in the gas content of which v. invention in practice.
a light phenomenon‘ can be produced whereby a
Fig. 1 shows a lamp with a spiral-shaped anode,
luminous envelope, is formed enclosing the hot.
electrode or electrodes. The luminous envelope
10 consists of an intense light which may be termed
Fig.‘ 2 a lamp with a cage-shaped anode and
Fig. 3 a lamp with a ring-shaped anode arranged
a core light. or aureole immediately adjacent-the
electrode or electrodes, and of a feebler lighting
outer zone or shell. In order to obtain this light
In all the ?gures the lamps'have a globe or
pear-shaped glass bulb- l which is ?lled with one
effect the following two essential conditions must
system is arranged. The hot cathode is arranged
in the neck of the lamp.
,
,
10
or more rare gases and in which the electrode
15 be observed in the construction of the lamp: (1)‘ ' in the central part of the lamp bulb l and con
15
The electrodes determining the electric ?eld must
sists of a tube 2 of nickel for example which, on
be arranged in such a way that at the operation its outside, is covered with a thermionic active
voltage of the lamp, a distribution of the electric layer emitting electrons when heated. The heat
?eld ‘or current ‘density is produced which is su?i
ing of the tube 2 iseifected by means of a heat
cient for the excitation to luminescence of the ing ?lament 3 passing through the interior of
gas in all directions around the hot electrode or the tube, the lower end of the heating ?lament
electrodes. (2) The wall of the lamp bulb should , being connected in Figs. 1 and 2 to the terminal
be at such a distance from the hot electrode or 4, and in Fig. 3 to terminal 5, while its upper
.electrodes as not to be an obstacle to ‘the pro
end is shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as being in con
.duction and development of the light phenom
ductive connection through the anode with the v25
enon.
other terminal 5, and in Fig. 3 through the tube
The object of the present invention is to con
2 with the terminal ll so that a closed, metallic
struct various forms of \these lamps for opera
conductive circuit is formed. The tube 2 is closed
tion' on direct current, having one hot cathode at both ends with stoppers G, 'l of a refractory.
30 around which the above described light phenom
insulating material and each of the stoppers has 30
enon is to be produced.
1
a central bore for the passage of the heating fila
While the second of ‘the conditions above indi
ment 3 into and out of the tube. The hot cathode
cated may be easily obtained by making the lamp tube 2 is provided at its lower end with a clip or
bulb'of adequate size and shape, the ?rst condi
clamp 2 by which it is carried on the supporting
tionrequires special consideration in every case wire t. A piece of wire 9 fastened to the latter
to make sure that. the shape and arrangement of in oblique upward direction serves as a strutfor
the electrodes will ful?ll the necessary require‘ supporting the lower stopper 6 to prevent its
ments. The present _ invention covers special falling out. The tube 2 also supports the heating
classes of electrode systems which readily ful?ll, ?lament 2. The heating ?lament can be sep
40 the ?rst mentioned condition and ‘moreover have
arated from the nickel tube by an insulating body. 40
some advantages as regards simplicity of con
The heating ?lament may, particularly with
struction, efficiency .of light. reliable operation an anode arranged as shown in Fig. 3, be formed
and so forth, the object in view in this connec ' like a loop or hairpin so that it both enters and
tion being to create around the surface of the leaves the tube 2 at'the lower end thereof. In
' hot cathode, a condition'of the electric ?eld as . that case the upper end of the tube will serve 45
uniform as possible in order to increase the reli
ability and e?iciency of the light excitation.
'
'According to the present invention this is
achieved by electrode systems in which the emis
sive cathode surface or its inde?nitely or un
limited imagined extension or prolongation is
'
enclosed by the anode structure.
.
If the anode structure is of such a shape as to
have an axis or a plane of: symmetry, it is advantageous to arrange the hot cathode or its geo
metrical axis as far as possible in such axis or
latter only.
In Figs. 1 and 2 the anode encloses the hot 50
cathode 2. In Fig. 1 it is a spiral or screw-shaped
wire Ill and arranged in such a way that the hot
cathode or the axis of the cylindrical tube 2 sub
stantially coincides with the axis of the screw.
. In Fig. 2 the anode forms a cage consisting of 55
~ In order that the anode may not obstruct the
‘a number of parallel wires or rods II which also
lie parallel to the axis of the hot cathode and at
their ends are connected with each other; by
emission of light, it may be composed of rod, wire,
or small plate-shaped conductors. ‘it may, how
annular conductors H. The hot cathode lies in
the centre of the anode cage. Any suitable num 60
plane of symmetry.
6
merely for holding the ?lament, while a con
ductive connection between the heating ?lament
and the tube 2 is provided at the lower end of the
‘
I
2
2,108,587
a wire constituting the sole anode in said bulb
and consisting solely of an annulus symmetrically
arranged in the same plane as and equidistant ‘disposed with respect to the cathode and at a
uniform distance from the latter, said bulb hay‘
from the hot cathode.
ing a base, lead-in conductors connecting the
In Fig. 3 the anode is, differing from the ex
amples described so far, arranged in the neck of same to the electrodes and to the heater, said
her of parallel rods ll may be provided, and in
some cases two anode rods are sufficient which are
' the bulb and has the shape of ‘an annular con
ductor ll enclosing the mount IS. The arrange
ment is such that the‘geometrical axis of the
10 hot cathode coincides with the geometrical axis
anode having a small total surface area with re
spect'to the cathode area, and being located in
that portion of the said bulb near the lead-in
conductors and beyond the end of the cathode, 10
and means for applying a potential difference -
of the anode ring it so that if the hot cathode
tube were prolonged downward inde?nitely it
between the two electrodes.
would be enclosed‘ by the anode structure M.
This particular construction is very simple and
3. A gaseous discharge device comprising an
enclosing envelope having an ionizable medium
15 there are no structural parts in the interior of
the lamp bulb, which might interfere with the ex
tension of the light;
_
In Figs. 1 and 2 the anode is on the one hand
in conductive connection with the leading-in wire
20 5, and on the other hand, by means of the con’
ductive cross bar or bridge IS with the heating
?lament 3, so that anode and heating ?lament 3
are electrically connected in series. The bridge
l6 also serves for keeping the ?lament 3 tight.
25 The anode is supported by the structural part II.
In Fig. 3 the cross bar I8 which connects the
upper ?lament end conductively with the tube
2 keeps the ?lament 3 taut.
'
In the foregoing only a few particularly simple
30 examples of carrying out the invention are de
scribed and it is evident that there exist numerous
other constructions falling within the scope of
the invention. In particular the shape and size
of the lamp bulb may be varied in many different
35 ways provided the conditions hereinbefore de?ned
are observed.
The operating conditions and
quantities (gas pressure, operation voltage, com
position of the gas-?lling and so forth) must in
every case be 50 selected according to the nature
40 of the gas-?lling that an'7'excitation of the gas
to_1uminescenoe i's‘possible; if this condition is
observed the selection of the operating condi-,
tions is in no way limited.
The gas-?lling of the
lamp, may be a pure rare gas mixture, or it may
45 contain additions of other gases or vapours,
mercury vapour for example. The electric ?eld
intensity should preferably be so great that the
gas having the greatest atomic weight which is at
the greatest distance from the hot cathode, is
50 still excited to luminescence. I claim:-—
1. A direct current electric cathode-glow
lamp, comprising a translucid bulb, a ?lling in
said bulb consisting mainly of at least one rare
gas, a metal cathode in said bulb having a coating
of the alkaline earth type, a resistance type
heater for said cathode, means for energizing said
heater, a wire anode in said bulb consisting of an
annulus symmetrically disposed with respect to
60 the cathode and at a uniform distance from the
latter, 'said bulb having a base, lead-in conductors
connecting the same to the electrodes and to the
heater, said anode ‘having a small total surface
area with respect to the cathode area, and being
,
therein consisting mainly of at least one rare gas, 15
and a plurality of spaced apart electrodes within
said envelope one of which is a cathode of the
indirectly heated type including means for con
tinuously supplying heat to said cathode during
the operation of the device and the other of 20
which is bent substantially into a helix sur
rounding and symmetrically disposed with respect
to the cathode and at a substantially uniform dis
tance from the latter, said means being con
nected in series with said electrode and connected 25
in shunt to said cathode.
4. A direct current gaseous discharge device
comprising an enclosing envelope having an
ionizable medium therein, a plurality of spaced
apart electrodes within said envelope one of which 30
is a cathode of the indirectly heated type includ
ing means for continuously supplying heat to said
cathode during the operation of the device and
the other of which is an anode which is bent sub
stantially into a helix surrounding and sym
35
metrically disposed with respect to the cathode
and at a substantially uniform distance from the
latter, said means being connected in series with
,said anode and connected in shunt to said cathode.
5. A direct current electrode cathode glow 40
lamp, comprising a translucent bulb, a ?lling in
said bulb consisting mainly of at least one rare
gas, a metal cathode in said bulb having a coating
of the alkaline earth type, a resistance type heater
for said cathode, means for continuously energiz 45
ing said heater, a single anode in said bulb con
sistlng solely of a wire symmetrically disposed
with respect to the cathode and at a uniform dis
tance from the latter, and means for ‘applying a
potential difference between the two electrodes,
said heater being connected in series with said
anode and connected in shunt to said cathode
and said anode having a total surface area small
with respect to the cathode area.
6. A gaseous discharge device comprising an
enclosing envelope having an ionizable medium
therein consisting mainly of at least one rare
gas, an anode and a cathode spaced apart from
each other within said envelope, said cathode
being of the indirectly heated type including
means for continuously supplying heat to said
cathode during the operation of the device and
the anode being bent substantially into a helix
surrounding and symmetrically disposed with re
located inthat portion of the said bulb-‘near the spect to the cathode and at- a substantially uni 65
lead-in conductors and beyond the end of the form distance frdm the latter, one end of said
anode being connected directly and in series to
cathode and means for applying a‘po'tential dif
one end of said heat supplying means and the
ference' between the two electrodes. ,
2. A directcurrent electric cathode-glow lamp, other end of said anode being connected directly
70 comprising a translucid vbulb, a ?lling in said -to a lead-in wire, and means for connecting the 70
bulb consisting mainly of at least one rare gas, other end of said heat supplying means in shunt
a metal cathode in said bulb having a coating of to said cathode.
ANTON LEDERER.
the alkaline earth type, a resistance type heater
for said cathode, means for energizing said heater,
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