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Патент USA US2108590

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Feb. 15, 1938.
c. J. LEwrr
Filed NOV. 19, 1935
¿CA/911 JLfW/T
Patented Feb. `l5, 1938
Carl J. Lewit, Atlanta, Ga., assignor to Indus
trial Development and Research Laboratories,
Incorporated, Atlanta, Ga., a corporation of'
20 ,
~ Application November I9, 1935, Serial No. 50,492
9 Claims. (ci. 13mm)
This invention relates to that class of hair . The chemical reaction disclosed in this inven
waving in which a so called permanent Wave is tion is of such a. nature that the amount and
imparted to a preformed tress of hair by plac-_ degree of heat liberated is not dependent on the
ing the hair in close association with a pad in exact amount of liquid present but is the same
which a heat-liberating chemical reaction is tak
whether the pad has been only dampened or has
ing place.
been thoroughly wetted. In fact the degree of
This invention comprises a novel form of pad heat to be liberated from a given pad 'is deter
in which any suitable chemical or chemicals may mined when the chemicals are mixed at the fac
be enclosed. 'I'he invention also consists of a; tory and is not affected materially by mishannew method of hair waving by chemical action dling on the part of the operator. The advan
in which the chemical heat is liberated as a re
tage in a unitary form of pad which is manu
sult of a so called displacement reaction in which factured ready for use and does not have to be
moisture is used solely as a catalytic agent. In assembled by the beauty operator while in a
this type of chemical reaction heat is liberated wetted condition will 'be obvious from the pre
whenever the chemical reaction is started 'by ceding discussion.
bringing the active chemicals into close associa
>The use of a chemical reaction of the dis
tion with a catalytic agent which will in most placement type in which the beauty operator is
cases be a liquid such as water.
required only to place the chemicals in contact
_ `I am well aware that the use of a chemica
with a catalytic agent and is not required to ap
reaction to liberate heat for the purpose of wav
ply an exact amount' of liquid, will also be obvious
ing hair is not in its broadest sense new to the and needs no further discussion.
art and I am alsoaware that certain forms of
No claim is made in this invention for the
chemical pads for waving hair have been pro
broad idea of generating heat by the use of exposed and are now in use.
othermic chemicals and applying the pad con
When the chemical reaction now in use in this taining such heat to a tress of hair.. It is‘ob
type of hair waving is considered, diñ‘lcultles of vious that such a `form of claim could not be
a more formidable nature appear. The reac
supported in view` of the use of chemical bed
tion now used consists of applying water or other heating pads and similar devices in which Water
liquid to an exothermic chemical which com
30 bines directly with the liquid reagent and lib
is added to a heating chemical thus causing a
liberation of heat when the "water combines with
crates heat during the period of the reaction. the chemical. Claims are made, however, for the 30
In such a chemical reaction great difficulty is ex
means of ywaving hair comprising the placing of
perienced in controlling the amount of heat, the the preformed tress of hair in close association
reaction time, the degree of heat,.and other im
with a chemical source of heat resulting from a
35 portant factors. In the pads now in use starch, displacement reaction started by a catalytic
sugar, sand, salt, or other inert and/or active agent.
substances such as ammonium sulphate are com
I have found the following chemical reactions,
bined with the exothermic material in an ef
which are all of the displacement type, to be par
fort to control the reaction Within safe limits.` ticularly suitable for use in the cosmetic art since
It will be seen that since the liquid with which only chemicals which are non-poisonous and
the pad is wetted is one of the active substances non-caustic are used.
which goes into combination in order to get'ab
I. Magnesium metal
solutely uniform vresults an exact amount of liq
Copper acetate or any copper salt
uid must be used in every case. It isobvious
» Copper oxide.
46 that with the pads now in ‘use such a condition
is impossible. In addition to the defects enu
In this formula the best proportions are mag
merated above, all the chemicals heretofore in nesium (l0-40) parts, copper acetate (5o-500)
use have been to some degree poisonous and/or parts, copper oxide (50G-2000) parts. Other
. harmful to the hair due to their caustic nature.
In the present invention a novel form of uni
proportions than these can be used, however, l
and good results obtained. yWhen the chemi
cals just referred to are placed in contact with
a catalytic agent such as Water a. part of the mag
nesium metal reacts with copper acetate liberat
_operator to put her` hands in the wetting solu
ing copper and giving oñi heat, this heat is suf
l ?lcient to start a. secondary reaction in which the 55
tary pad is disclosed which does not have to be
assembled „by the operator and which can be
wetted when _ready for use without causing the
uncombined portions of the magnesium metal
react with the copper (preferably cuprous) oidde
to liberate a still larger amount of heat thus
forming a so called permanent wave to the hair
which is in contact with the pad containing the
chemicals. It will be noted that no harmful
substances are liberated in this reaction and that
the use of a secondary reaction prolongs and
controls the heating process and thus improves
the character of the wave.
Another chemical formula which can be used is
II. Magnesium metal (l0-40) parts
Copper acetate (5G-500) parts
Magnesium oxide (300-1000) parts
This formula is not a two step reaction. The
magnesium oxide is used simply to supply bulk
and reduce the maximum temperature obtained.
With the exception just noted this reaction is the
20 same as I.
III. Magnesium metal (l0-40) parts.
Copper acetate (5D-500) parts
Aluminum (l0-40) parts
Magnesium oxide (20G-1200) parts
'I'his is a two step reaction in which first mag
nesium reacts with copper acetate and then the
aluminum reacts with copper'acetate, both parts
~30 of the reaction liberating heat. The magnesium
oxide performs the sole function l as in For
mula II.
Referring now to the drawing in which like
characters of reference indicate like parts
35 throughout the several views.
Fig. 1 represents an inside plan view of the
preferred embodiment of the pad in its un
wrapped condition. In this view the envelope
is shown broken away, the inner absorbent pad
40 folded back, and the chemicals which are placed
on this absorbent pad are shown broken away.
Fig. 2 represents a modified form of the inven
tion in which the outer absorbent pad is folded
back. In this case the pad is shown detached
45 from its outer wrapper which is of the same
form as that disclosed in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the preferred form
of the pad with the outer wrapper omitted. This
section is taken along the line 3_3, Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 represents a further modified form of
the pad in which an unperforated envelope is
used. In this case the'outer envelope is broken
away, the absorbent pad is folded back, and a
portion of the chemicals is removed.
Fig. 5 represents a longitudinal central section
through the wrapped pad in place on a preformed
tress of hair.
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the method by
which the pad is wetted without wetting the
60 hands of the operator.
'I‘he outer wrapper of the hair waving pad is
denoted by I and is preferably made of non
absorbent material, as for instance paper. At
tached to the outer wrapper I by means of a clip
65 or similar object 2 is an envelope 3 of impervious
non-soluble material which is supplied with a
plurality of holes l on its face 5.
manner as in the form of the pad illustrated in
Fig. 1. In this pad no envelope is used but a
sheet of non-soluble impervious material 9 such
as paper or tinfoil is sewed, glued, or otherwise
fastened to a sheet of absorbent material I0. 10
The location of the seam, glue, or the like means
for fastening the absorbent material to the back
of the pad is referred to by the numeral I I. The
chemical means used in this form of the pad are
the same as those used in the preferred form of 15
the pad andare referred to by the numeral 1.
The form of-the pad, shown in Fig. 4 is the
same as that shown in Fig. 1 except the wrapper
I has been omitted and neither face 5 -of the
pad is initially perforated. The numerals used 20
If desired the following formula may be used.
when enclosed in the pad. The outer face of the
envelope ,3 is referred to by the numeral 8.
In the modified form of the pad shown in Fig.
2 the wrapper 1 is not shown although in this
form of the pad it is normally used in the same 5
Inside the envelope 3 and placed next to the
perforated side of the envelope is_ a pad 6 of
absorbent material such as cotton. Next td the
pad 6 is placed the chemical or chemicals 'I_which
when placed in c ntact with a catalytic agent
will generate suili ent heat to impart a s'o-called
permanent wave to a preformed tress of hair
in this figure are therefore the same as those
used in Fig. 1.
In practise, the tress of hair I2 is wound as
usual on a mandrel I3 in case a spiral form of
wave is desired. In case a croquignole wave is 25
desired a different form of mandrel (not shown)
is used. When this form of wave is desired it is
usually desirable to remove the outer wrapper I
from the pad before applying the pad to the hair.
With either form of wave the hair may be wetted 30
' with a suitable waving solution such as for in
stance an ammonium solution, either before or
after it is wound on the mandrel. The pad is
then wrapped around the preformed tress and is
preferably secured in position at the scalp yend
of the tress by a suitable scalp protecting guard
of well known or approved form such as the
self-locking guard I 4 shown in the accompany
ing drawing. The outer end of the pad may be
secured around the mandrel I3 as for instance 40
by twisting the outer wrapper of the pad around
the same. It will be noted that the pad may
be filled with the conventional heating chemi
cals now used in the art. It is preferable, how
ever, to use the displacement form of reaction of 45
the type disclosed and claimed in this applica
tion. Irrespective of which form of chemicals
is used, heat is liberated as soon as the pad is
wetted with the proper reagent.
If heating
chemicals are used, an exact amount of liquid
must be used to wet the pad in order to get uni
form results. If the displacement form of re
action is used no such care need be exercised.
'I'he best method of wetting the pad is illus
trated in Fig. 6 in which ñgure the wrapper I is 55
shown folded back so that the pad may be low
ered in the liquid reagent without getting any
liquid on the wrapper I or the operator’s hand
I5. After the pad is wetted in this manner, the
liquid reagent will at once soak through the per
forations 4 in the envelope 3, if the preferred
form oi.' pad is used, and wet the absorbent pad
6, this pad will in turn wet the chemicals 1 and
start the heatuliberating reaction. If the form
of pad shown in Fig. 2 is used the absorbent
will be nwet very thoroughly immediately upon
insertion in the liquid reagent I6 since in this
form of pad the absorbent material is exposed
directly to the liquid. If the form of the pad
shown in Fig. 4 is used the back face 5 of the 70
envelope must be punctured, preferably before
the pad is dipped in the' liquid reagent.
It will be obvious, whatever form of pad is
used, that either the liquid reagent or the chem
-ical or chemicals in the pad may be treated to
2,108,590 a
produce- the results heretofore set forth. After
the pad has been dipped in the liquid reagent a
regular heat isl then set up within the pad in
‘ order to impart -a so,called permanent wave to
the preformed tress without requiring the appli
cation of heat from an outside source. It will be
` ‘ seen that when the spiral form of wave is madeÍ
y (in which case th'ewrapper lis not removed from
tress of hair, enclosed in said pad between said
back face and said layer and in contact with the
latter whereby a waving pad of unitary construc
tion is formed which requires lonly the applica
tion of a liquid to be ready for use.
5. A hair waving pad comprising an outer
Wrapper, an envelope having one face perforated
attachedthereto, an absorbent material enclosed
the pad) the -outside wrapper of the pad serves » in'said envelope and adjacentl to the perforated
to confine the _heat to a large extent withinY the face thereof, and exothermicv‘material enclosed 10
pad„the steam generated by the combinationv of in said envelope between the absorbent material
I ~ the treating solution with the chemical being
and the unperforated face of the envelope, where
permitted to escape through the crimped outer by a waving pad of unitary construction is
end of the outer wrapper.
formed which requires onlythe application of
What I claim is:
a liquid to be ready for use.
'1. Av waving pad for enclosing a preformed , 6. A hair vwaving pad comprising an envelope 15.
tress of halr„said .pad comprising an outer wrap
of impervious non-soluble material having one
per, an envelope formed with‘perforations` in one ‘ >face perforated,-an absorbent material enclosed
side attacl'ied,toisaid‘outer,v wrapper, an absorbent
‘ in said envelope and adjacent to the perforated
theperforatéd side thereof,'_»-and` chemical means
which when moistened will liberate suñicient heat
_in’said envelope between the absorbent material
' to impart a so called permanent wave to the tress
. by a Waving p_ad of unitary construction is formed
_pad enclosedin'jsaid envelope ‘andadja'cent to >face thereof, and exothermic material enclosed
l '
andthe unperforated face of the envelope where
ofhair, said' chemical meansb'eing conñned in`~ which requires only the applicatìonof a liquid to
the envelope aforementioned between the absorb
be ready for use.
ent pad and the unperforated side vof ` said enve
' 2. A waving pad for enclosing av preformed
tress of hair, said pad comprising an envelope
formed with perforations in one side, an absorb
ent pad enclosed in saidy envelope and adjacent
tol the perforated side there/of, and chemical
means which when moistened will liberate lsufri
cient heat to impart a so calledpermanent wave
to the tress of hair, ysaid .chemical means> being
V'7. A hair waving pad comprising a layer of im
pervious, non-soluble material, a layer of porous,
absorbent‘material, chemical means disposed be- »
tween said> porous and non-porous materials, and
means for holding said layers together and con 30'
ñning the Achemical means therebetween, thus
forming a unitary pad which requires only the
application of a, liquid to be ready for use.
8. A hair waving pad comprising invcombina
tion an outer wrapper, an envelope, clip means
conilned in the envelope aforementioned between for attaching the envelope -to the outer wrapper, 35
the absorbent pad and the unperforated side of absorbent means inserted in the envelope, and
said envelope thus forming a complete hair wav' ï chemical means which in the presence of a liquid
ing pad requiring only the~ application of mois >will freactand liberate heat, enclosed in the en
ture to be ready _for use.
3. A waving pad for enclosing a preformed>
tress of hair, said pad comprising an envelope of
impervious, non-soluble material, an absorbent
material enclosed in said envelope, chemical
l means, which when moistened will liberate sutil'
cient heat to impart a so `called permanent wave
to the tress of hair, enclosed in said?envelope,
VWherebya waving pad of unitary construction is
`.formed which need only
y be punctured and mois
'tened to be ready -for use.
v 4. A waving pad for enclosing a preformed
tress of hair, said pad comprising a back face of
impervious, nonsoluble material and a layer of
` porous, absorbent material, and chemical means
which when'moistened will liberate suñicient heat
»to vimpart‘a so called permanent-wave tothe
' velope.
9. In a hair waving pad of the character de
scribed, in combination:` an absorbent- sheet; an
impervious» back; chemicalv means for producing
heat disposed between said sheet and back;
means for securing said sheet andback together
and thereby forming a leak-proof> envelope for 45
said chemical means; a wrapper of substantially
greater lextent than that of. said envelope; and
means securing -an edge of 'said envelope to' saidwrapper at a pointwithin the margins'thereof`
whereby said envelope pendant from a loop of
said wrapper may be immersed in a bath of wet
ting duid without wetting the hand 'of the opera
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