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Патент USA US2108640

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Feb. 15, 1938.
2,108,640
c. A. BIELING “‘
ELECTRON DISCHARGE APPARATUS v
Filed Nov. '7, 1936
.
INVENTOR
CA. B/EL/NG
MAM 6.
A T TORNEV
2,108,640
Patented Feb. 15, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE‘
2,108,640
ELECTRON DISCHARGE APPARATUS
Carl A. Bieling, West?eld, N. 1., assignor to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application November 7,1936, Serial No. 109,650
(Cl. 250—27.5)
11 Claims.
discharge device therein shown comprises a cy
lindrical metallic shell or casing l0 closed at
one end by an integral metallic disc I I and hav
ing at the other end an annular metallic ?ange
This invention relates to electron discharge
apparatus and more particularly to electron dis
charge devices capable of generating ultra-high
frequency impulses, for example impulses of fre
i)
l2, which may be suitably secured to the casing
or shell “I and extends at right angles to the
longitudinal axis thereof. The shell or casing
lllgis divided into two chambers l3 and H by
a ?exible metallic disc or diaphragm l5 seated
upon and secured to an annular seat It, the 10
diaphragm serving as the principal electron re
quencies of the order of 3,000 kilocycles per sec
ond.
~ One object of this invention is to e?iciently
generate ultra-high frequency oscillations.
Another object of this invention is to enable
10 adjustment of the interelectrode impedances in
electron discharge devices whereby the tuning of
circuits including such devices is facilitated.
A further object of this invention‘ is to enable
and to expedite modulation of the output cur
15 rents of ultra-high frequency electron discharge
devices.
‘
ceiving element of the device. '
Extending through the annular ?ange l2 and
into the chamber I4 is a metallic cylindrical
member l1 having a disc end portion l8 disposed
parallel to the diaphragm l5 and coated on its
-
surface toward the diaphragm with an e?icient
electron emitting material, such as alkaline earth
metal oxides. The cylindrical member l'l pref
erably is coaxial with the casing I0 and is mount- 20
In one illustrative embodiment of this inven
tion, a diode oscillator comprises a cylindrical
casing or shell, which may be of metal, divided
into two chambers by a ?exible metallic dia
ed upon and hermetically sealed to a ?exible
metallic disc or diaphragm 19 substantially co
phragm constituting a portion of the anode of
the device. The casing or shell is provided at
one end with an annular metallic ?ange through
extensive with and parallel to the annular ?ange
l2. The diaphragm l9 and the ?ange I2 are
which an elongated metallic cathode extends into
iv Ll one of the chambers, the cathode including a
sleeve having a ?at portion adjacent the dia
phragm coated with a thermionic material. The
metallic sleeve is mounted upon‘ a ?exible metal
sealed hermetically at their peripheries to an 25
annulus 20 of vitreous material and form a con
denser with each other coupling the anode or
diaphragm l5 and the disc portion 18 of the
cathode.
A heater ?lament 2i encased in insulating ma
terial 22 is disposed within the cylindrical mem
ber l1 and in immediate proximity to the emit
ting portion l8. The heater ?lament may be
supported by rigid leading-in conductors 23 em
bedded in and extending through an external 35
press 24 on an insulating sleeve 25, which is
hermetically sealed to the metallic cylinder 11
and is provided with an exhaust tubulature 26.
The cylinder I‘! may be connected electrically to
one of the leading-in conductors 23 by a tie wire
21. This tie wire 21 may be omitted and elec
trical connection to the cathode made by a suit
able conductor a?'ixed externally to the sleeve H.
In order to provide a sharp temperature grad
ient along the cylindrical member I‘! and there
by to assure concentration of heat at the emit
lic annulus disposed adjacent the annular ?ange
Ill) and forming a condenser therewith.
The me
tallic annulus may be ?exed to vary the spacing
between the juxtaposed surfaces of the cathode
and the anode and also the spacing between the
?ange and this annulus whereby the interelec
trode impedances and the'tuning of the anode
oathode circuit are adjusted.
Disposed within the other chamber of the
casing or shell is an actuating means for vibrat
ing the metallic diaphragm in accordance with a
desired signal whereby the spacing between the
juxtaposed surfaces of the anode and cathode is
varied and modulation of the output current of
the device in accordance with the signal results.
The invention and the various features there
of will be understood more clearly and fully
from the following detailed description with ref
erence to the accompanying drawing, in which: ,
Fig. 1 is an elevational view in perspective of
an electron discharge ‘device constructed in ac
cordance with this invention, a portion of the
casing or shell being broken away to show the
internal elements more clearly; and
Fig. 2 is an elevational view in cross-section of
the electron discharge device shown in Fig. 1.
Referring now to the drawing, the electron
ting portion l8, the cylindrical member I‘! may
be provided with a series of annular grooves 28
It may be provided also
with apertures 29 to allow evacuation of the 50
chamber I4 through the tubulature 26.
Preferably the sleeve or cylinder I‘l extends
below the diaphragm 19 for a relatively large
distance so that it shields the heater 2| and
’ in its outer surface.
the leads 23 therefor from the high frequency
2
$108,840
?elds extant in the device and thereby mini
mizes high frequency losses‘ in the heater ele
ment and the leading-in conductor therefor.
The electron discharge device may be mounted
on a yoke-shaped member having a base 30 and
arms 3! which bear against insulating spacers
or blocks 32 upon the ?ange I2. A plurality of
thumb screws 33 are threaded through the base
30 and have head portions 34 rotatably ?tted in
10 socket members 35 secured to the ?exible disc
or diaphragm Is.
The anode l5 and cathode l8 may be suitably
connected as known in the art to generate oscil
lations of very high frequencies, for example of
15 the order of 3,000 kilocycles per second. The
oscillating frequency is dependent upon, among
other factors, the interelectrode impedances.
These may be adjusted readily in accordance
' with this invention, and hence the oscillating
20 frequency varied throughout "a relatively wide
range. Speci?cally, rotation of the thumb screws
33 will ?ex the diaphragm l9 so that the ca
pacitance of the condenser formed by the dia
phragm I 9 and the ?ange l2 will be varied. Such
25 manipulation of the thumb screws enables also
adjustment of the spacing between the electrodes
l5 and I8 and a corresponding adjustment in
the interelectrode impedances.
The high frequency ?eld between the anode
30 and the cathode of the device may be modulated
in accordance with a suitable signal by vibrating
the anode diaphragm l5 by an electrodynamic,
electrostatic or electromagnetic mechanism
whereby the spacing between this diaphragm and
35 the cathode member I8 is varied. For example,
the diaphragm l5 may be vibrated through an
electrodynamic drive including a substantially
rectangular armature 36 of magnetic material
ailixed to the diaphragm, which is disposed be
40 tween the poles of a horseshoejnagnet 31. The
magnet 31 is supported within the chamber l3
by a strut 38 extending from the end closure
member II, and has wound thereon a suitable
?eld or energizing coil 39. The coil 39 may be
45 associated with an external circuit through lead
ing-in conductors 40 sealed in insulating beads
ll which are hermetically sealed in tubulations
or sockets 42 on the disc ll. .
The chamber I3 may be evacuated through an
50 exhaust tubulature 43 extending from the disc
ll. Preferably the chambers l3 and II are ex
hausted to the same degree so that the static
pressures upon opposite sides of the diaphragm
are substantially in equilibrium.
55
Although a speci?c embodiment of this inven
tion has been shown and described, it will be
understood, of course, that this embodiment is
merely illustrative and that various modifications
may be made therein without departing from the
scope and spirit of this invention as de?ned in
the appended claims.
~
What is claimed is:
1. An electron discharge device comprising
means forming a chamber, including a metallic
65 diaphragm constituting the anode of the device,
a cathode in cooperative relation with said anode,
?exible means mounting said cathode in said
chamber, means for ?exing said mounting means
to vary the spacing between said cathode and
70 said anode, and means for vibrating said di
aphragm.
2. An electron discharge device comprising a
cup-shaped metallic member constituting an elec
trode of the device, a ?ange at the open end of
75 said cup-shaped metallic member and electrically
connected thereto, an electrode assembly includ
ing a portion within said cup-shaped metallic
member and a ?exible metallic member adjacent
said ?ange and forming a condenser therewith,
and means for ?exing said ?exible member to
vary the capacitance of said condenser.
3. An electron discharge device comprising a
cylindrical metallic shell constituting an elec
trode, an annular metallic ?ange mounted on
said shell, another electrode within said shell hav
ing a tubular portion coaxial therewith, a metal
lic disc electrically connected to said second elec
trode and disposed adjacent to and coaxial with
said ?ange, said ?ange and said disc forming a
condenser, and means for varying the capacitance
of said condenser. _
4. An electron discharge device comprising a
metallic enclosing vessel having a cylindrical por
tion and a substantially plane portion on said
cylindrical portion, a ?ange on said cylindrical
portion remote from said plane portion, a ?exible
disc member insulatingly joined to said ?ange
and forming a condenser therewith, and an elec
trode mounted on said disc member and elec
trically connected thereto including a cylindrical 25
portion coaxial with said ?rst cylindrical portion
and a substantially plane portion parallel to said
?rst plane portion.
5. An electron discharge device comprising a
metallic shell constituting the anode of the device
and having a rigid metallic flange adjacent one
end thereof, a ?exible metallic disc adjacent said
?ange and parallel thereto, insulating means
spacing said ?ange and said disc and sealed to
the peripheries thereof, an electrode mounted on
said disc and having a portion within said shell,
yoke means engaging said ?ange and having a
portion adjacent said disc, and adjustable means
mounted on said yoke means and engaging said
disc.
.
40
6. An electron discharge device comprising a
cylindrical shell, means closing the ends of said
shell, a metallic diaphragm dividing said shell
into two closed chambers, said diaphragm con
stituting an electron receiving member, an elec 45
tron emitting member in one of said chambers
and in cooperative relation with said diaphragm,
and electro-mechanical energy converting means
in the other of said chambers for vibrating said
diaphragm.
'7. An electron discharge device in accordance
with the next preceding claim wherein said cham
bers are evacuated to substantially the same de
50
gree.
8. An electron discharge device comprising a 55
cylindrical shell closed at its ends, a metallic di
aphragm mounted within said shell and dividing
it into two chambers, said diaphragm constituting
an electron receiving member, an electron emit
ting electrode in one of said chambers having a
disc portion parallel and in juxtaposition to said
diaphragm, an armature within the other of said
chambers and connected to said diaphragm, and
an electromagnet within said other chamber and
in cooperative relation with said armature.
65
9. An electron discharge device comprising a
cylindrical shell, a pair of diaphragms mounted
on said shell in spaced substantially parallel re
lation, one of said diaphragms constituting an
electrode, another electrode mounted on the other 70
of said dlaphragms and having a portion in juxta
position to said'one diaphragm, means for vi
brating said one diaphragm, and means for ?ex
ing said other diaphragm to vary the space re
lation of said electrodes.
76
3
2,108,640
10. An
electron discharge device comprising a
' cylindrical metallic member having an annular
metallic ?ange, a metallic diaphragm electrode
mounted‘ on said cylindrical metallic member‘in
spaced relation to said ?ange and substantially
parallel thereto, a metallic diaphragm adjacent
said ?ange and forming a condenser therewith,
‘an electrode mounted on said diaphragm and
having a portion in juxtaposition,‘ to said dia
10 phragm electrode, means for'?exing said dia
phragm to vary the capacitance of said condens
er, and means for vibrating said diaphragm elec
trode.
‘
11. An electron discharge device comprising a
15 cylindrical metallic enclosing vessel having an
annular metallic ?ange at one end, a metallic
diaphragm within said vessel and dividing it into
two chambers, an annular ?exible metallic mem
ber adjacent and substantially parallel to said
?ange and forming a condenser therewith, in
sulating means sealed to said ?ange and to said
?exible member at the peripheries thereof, an
electrode mounted on said ?exible member and
having an electron emitting portion within one
of said chambers and in juxtaposition to said 10
diaphragm, means for adjusting the spacing be
tween said ?ange and said ?exible member,v and
means within the other of said chambers for vi
brating said diaphragm.
~
.
CARL A. Elm-‘ENG.
15
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