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Патент USA US2108746

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Feb. 15, 1938.
A. M. ERICHSEN
2,108,745
SAFETY DEVICE FOR MACHINE PARTS SUBJECT TO HIGHIPRESSURES
Filed Jan. 27, 1937
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Feb. 15, 1938.
A, M_ ERICHSEN
2,108,746
SAFETY DEVICE FOR MACHINE PARTS SUBJECT TO HIGH PRESSURES
Filed Jan. 27, 1937
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2,108,746
Patented ‘Feb. is, 1938
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE
r 2,108,748
SAFETY DEVICE FOR moms rAa'rs sua
mo'r T0 men rnassuaas
-
Abraham Martinius Erichsen,‘ Teltow, near Ber
lin, Germany
Application January 27. 1931, Serial No. 122,532
In Germany March 24, 1934
-9 Claims. (CI. 80-57)
The invention relates to safety devices for the
relief or adjustment or reduction of the pressure
on‘ machines and machine parts of every kind
working with high pressures, such as rolling mills,
presses and the like, in which the pressure medi-»
um of an hydraulic apparatus acts upon a safety
member which at a predetermined pressure limit
permits the escape of the pressure medium. -
Hitherto such apparatus has required a liquid
10 pressure medium and has necessitated packing
which, under the high pressures at which the
safety device is to act, has been such as to arrest
or delay the action of the safety device.
This disadvantage is overcome according to the
15 invention by utilizing a non-liquid pressure me
dium, that is, one which only ?ows under’ con
siderable pressure. Rubber, rubber dough, plas
ticine, gelatine or other like elastic or plastic non
liquid masses are suitable for this purpose.
20
The use of such a pressure medium, which is
self sealing, dispenses with the necessity for pack
ing devices, such as hitherto employed, which
under the pressures in question frequently fall.
A more certain functioning of the safety device
25 is assured at a determined pressure limit.
The
pressure is taken up by the mass, with the simul
taneous production of a secure and reliable pack
ing and transferred or distributed to the safety
element which, on attainment of the determined
30 pressure limit, comes into action and causes
Figures 1 and 2 are, respectively, a sectional
elevation and a plan view of one form of the
invention in which the automatic device in the
form of a shearing disc and the hand regulated
device are arranged separately.
Figure 3 is a side elevation, partly in section,
of another form in which the automatic device
and the hand regulated device are combined.
Figure 4 shows the application of the inven
tion to a rolling mill spindle.
Figures 5 and 6 are, respectively, a sectional
elevation and a plan view of a further form of
16
the invention.
Figure '7 is a sectional elevation of a form of
the invention in which two different non-liquid
masses are used, one serving as ejection mate
rial and the other as packing material.
In the form of the invention shown in Figure 20
l, i is the housing of the pressure chamber con
taining the pressure medium 2, which acts on the
safety device under the pressure of a piston 3,
on which, for example, the pressure of a rolling
mill spindle 4 (Figure 4) acts. The pressure 25
chamber in the example illustrated consists of
an upper part5 and a lower duct 6, which are
connected by one or more openings or ducts ‘I.
In, Figures 1 and 2, one end of the duct 6 is pro
vided with a shearing'disc 8 which is arranged
the pressure mass to flow from the pressure cham
between the chamber wall and a nipple 9, which
ber, in which the pressure is thereby wholly or
is screwed into the latter and on removal permits
partially relieved.
‘
‘
When the machine jams owing to anundue
35 increase in pressure, for instance, when a rolling
mill is blocked and the billet which is being
rolled jams, according to the invention, the pres
sure can be relieved, without further ado, by
hand, by means of a hand operated device which
4:0 allows some'of the mass to escape from the pres
sure chamber so that the pressure is reduced to
the desired degree. After the pressure has some
what relaxed in this manner, the usual starting
devices for the rolls may be operated again so
45 that the pressure is wholly relieved.
The safety and relieving means may also be
combined in one device, the former operating
automatically on a determined pressure being
reached, and the other being regulated by hand.
The mass used as pressure medium may serve
at the same time to measure the pressures occur
ring, some of the medium being forced out
through one or more openings in the pressure
55
of the invention‘ are illustrated by way of ex
ample:—
chamber, or acting upon a member introduced
from the outside, so that the amount of the ma
terial pressed out, or the extent of the ejection
movement of the introduced body, is indicated
by a gauge or the like.
In the accompanying drawings, several forms
of renewal of the disc.
According to the invention, a pressure trans
mitting medium consisting of a non-liquid mass 35
2, such as rubber, synthetic or plasticized rubber,
plasticine and the like, as pressure transmitting
medium, is acted upon by the pressure piston 3
in the pressure chamber and also acts as a se
cure and reliable packing for the piston under 40
all pressures which occur.
By means of the mass
2 of'rubber or the like, the pressure is uniformly
taken up and transmitted to the safety element
8, so that the latter comes into action at the
predetermined highest pressure, thus avoiding 45
the use of the usual packings which are frequent
1y unreliable in action, render the arrangement
expensive and complicated, and often require
repair. In the form of the invention illustrated 50
in Figures 1 and 2, the whole pressure chamber is
?lled with rubber or the like, which acts on the
safety member 8 and is capable of ?owing when
the determined pressure limit at which the safety
member comes into operation is reached, or pos 55
sibly- somewhat earlier. The pressure acting on
the piston 3 is taken up uniformly by the mass 2
and spreads within the mass, so that on a rise
of pressure over a‘ certain limit the shearing disc
is pressed out by the mass 2. The mass 2 which 60
2
passes over into the ?uid condition can now es
cape from the pressure chamber so that the pres
ward displacement of the regulating plunger or
the like,,an increase .in pressure and displacement
sure in the latter, and thereby also in the machine of the pressure plunger 2, Figure 1, can be e?ected ‘
concerned, is relieved or reduced. If a large and of the machine part or the like resting on it,
proportion of the mass flows out, the chamber _ or of a machine part in?uenced by its setting.
must be ?lled anew which can be e?ected in a
In the form of the apparatus illustrated by
short time.
Figures 5 and’6, the pressure medium 2' which The device itself, apart from the shearing mem escapes from the pressure chamber I is auto
_10
ber 8, which must be renewed, is not damaged or
rendered unemployable' by the operation de
scribed.
.
Besides theshearing device described, there is
provided in Figures ,1 and 2, moreover, a device
capable of being regulated by hand, which, for
15 example, is provided at the other end of the duct
6 and is used when the pressure is to be freed or
relieved by hand. This device consists, for ex
ample, of a screwed valve M which is mounted
in a housing, II and is operated by means of "a
20 hand wheel or key applied to the squared end l2.
By opening the valve ill, the pressure on the mass
2 can be so far relieved that the main pressure
is relaxed.
'
A pressure gauge l3, Figure 2, is provided for
25 indicating the pressure of the pressure medium
and is actuated, for example, by some of the mass
2 being ejected through an opening of the pres
sure chamber and acting through an intermediate
30
member on the indicating device. Instead of this,
a member may also project into the pressure
chamber and be pushed by the pressure of the
mass 2 outwards in order to act on the gauge I3.
In the form according to Figure 3 of the draw
ings, the automatic device and the hand operated
35 device are combined.
matically 'returned thereto until the plunger I
regains its original position.
v
In this form or the appartus, the plunger I
10
slides on a screw 28, which limits its upward
stroke. A sliding member in the form of. a valve _ I
20 having .a stem or plunger 2| is mounted vin ,a
housing l9 which is provided with a gland 22. A 15
secondary chamber such as a- cylinder 24 is
screwed .onto the housing l8 and- secures the
gland 22. The secondary chamber 24 contains a
pressure medium such‘ as a plastic or resilient
mass 23 and with means for regulating the initial 20
pressure of this medium, for example, an adjust
able screwed plug 25. The‘stem or plunger 2|
enters the chamber 24.
A duct 21 connects the housing I! with a re
ceiver 28, which is also connected by means of a 25
return duct 29 to the pressure chamber I. The
duct 29 is provided with a valve box 30 contain
ing an automatic check valve such as a ballvalve
The receiver 28 is adapted to be variable in 30
volume automatically, that is to say, it is ex
pansible and contractible, for instance, it may be
formed of resilient or elastic material, as shown,
or it may be a rigid vessel ?tted with a plunger or
piston loaded by a weight or spring. The pressure '
In this form, a sleeve 35 is screwed at 36 into chamber |, the ducts 21 and 29 and the vessel
the wall of the chamber | and contains an auto
28 are ?lled initially with pressure medium. The
matic relief valve l5 which is loaded by a spring _ pressure
at which the medium 2 is to open the
M, the tension of which can be regulated by a
40 plug I6 having a portion 38 screwed into the in
valve 20 automatically is determined by screwing
in the plug 25 to regulate the pressure of the 40
medium 23 in the chamber 24.
When the valve 20 opens, due to an undue pres
receive a key 4| provided with a squared bore 40 I
sure on the plunger 3, the medium 2 escaping
and with a hand wheel IT. The key 4| abuts from
the chamber l enters the duct 21 and the
45 against a cap 42 formed on the part 38 and
adapted to slide over the adjacent part of the pressure is transmitted to that in the vessel 28, 45
which'expands as indicated by the dotted lines
sleeve 35. It has a scale on its edge l8 to indi
28’. When' the undue pressure on the machine
cate the amount of displacement. '
part is relieved, the valve 20 closes, the chamber
By the above means, the predetermined pres
28 contracts and a corresponding amount of
50 sure at which the valve | 5 is to operate to allow
pressure medium 2 to escape can be regulated by pressure medium is returned by the duct 28 past 50
setting the tension of the spring l4 by means of the valve 3| to the pressure chamber |. The
plunger 3 is returned to its normal position de
the hand wheel l1, and,‘ if desired, immediate re
termined by the screw 26.
lease of the pressure medium may be effected by
Hand release of the valve 20 can be e?ected at
55 rotating the hand wheel I‘! to relieve the tension
of the spring l4. The form of apparatus shown any time required by screwing back the plug 25. 55
The elastic pocket 28 may be replaced by a
in Figure 3 may be provided with a pressure
similarly acting device, for example, by a plunger
gauge similar to that shown in Figure 2.
The mass 2 in the pressure chamber in the which is under spring pressure, the pressure of
60 forms of apparatus above described may be‘ which is so strong that the mass 2 ?ows back
placed under a certain adjustable initial tension automatically into the pressure chamber until 60
by a pressure pin or plunger or the like capable of the plunger 3 takes up its original position.
A plastic mass is in general to be preferred to
being screwed from the outside into the pressure
an elastic mass, for the pressure medium 2, since
chamber.
ternally screw-thread part 31 of the sleeve 35.
The outer end of the part 38 is squared at 39 to
65
The shearing element 8, Figure 1, and the
valves In, Figure 1, and I5, Figure 3, may also be
replaced by equivalent means, for example, by a
displaceable piston, slide or the like.
Instead of permitting the pressure medium to
70 escape, which requires that it be renewed, the
means, such as a regulating plunger, slide or the
like, may be adapted in such a manner that by
the receding of the plunger, the volume or the
chamber is increased, whereby the pressure is
75 reduced or relieved. On the other hand, by in
it is more di?icult to cause an elastic mass to ?ow.
Both, however, can be used in combination, for 65
example, .as is illustrated in Figure 7, wherein 2
indicates the plastic mass which is to ?ow, whilst
a highly elastic mass 32, for example, highly vul
canized India rubber, is used for packing for the
pressure piston 3. ' The mass 32 in this case only 70
has to be compressed and can always return again
into its original form. The highly elastic mass
32 may bein the form of a packing ring of any
suitable shape. Preferably, a conical packing ring
3
2,108,746
33 of metal or‘ the like may be inserted at the
packing joint.
'
mined‘ maximum pressure is reached, comprising
a pressure chamber, a pressure medium in said
' For increasing the tightness,
the pressure
chamber, said medium being a non-?uid homo
geneous whole capable of ?owing at a pressure
plunger 3 in all forms of construction may be pro
vided at the edge of its face opposed to the pres _' not above said maximum pressure, a plunger for
sure medium 2 with inner conically extending compressing said medium under the pressure ap
or inwardly bent round projections, or may be plied to the aforesaid parts of the machine to be
hollowed out on the underside.
controlled, a safety relief valve on said pressure
I claim:
chamber, a secondary pressure chamber con
1. A safety device to be interposed between taining a non-?uid pressure medium capable of 10
parts of a-rolling mill, press or other like ma
?owing at a pressure at least as low as said max
chine liable to be subjected to heavy pressure imum pressure, said valve having a stem protrud
and adapted to relieve the pressure when a de
ing in said secondary chamber and being sub
termined maximum pressure is reached, compris
15 ing a pressure chamber having an escape ori?ce,
a pressure medium‘ in said chamber, a plunger
in said chamber for compressing said medium
under the pressure applied to the aforesaid parts
of the machine to be controlled, a safetyelement
normally closing said escape ori?ce, said safety
element being subjected to the action of the pres
sure medium and adapted to open said ori?ce
when the determined maximum pressure is
reached, the said pressure medium being a non
fluid homogeneous whole which is capable of ?ow
ing at a pressure at least as low as said maximum
pressure.
.
.
'
-
2. A safety device as specified in claim 1, where
in said pressure medium is partly composed of
a non-?uid homogeneous whole capable of ?owing
ject‘ed to the pressure of the medium therein, and
hand operated means for regulating the pressure
of the medium in said secondary chamber, an
escape duct for the medium discharged by the
relief valve from the main pressure chamber, an
expansible receiver on said duct, a return duct
from said receiver to the main pressure chamber
and a check valve in said return duct.
6. A safety device to be interposed between
parts of a rolling mill, press or other machine
liable to be subjected to heavy pressure and adapt
ed to relieve the pressure when a determined max
imum pressure is reached, comprising a pressure '
chamber, a pressure medium in said chamber,
said medium being a non-?uid homogeneous
whole capable of ?owing under pressure, a plung
er for compressing said medium under the pres
30
at a pressure at least as low as said maximum
sure applied to the aforesaid parts of the machine
pressure'and partly of a highly elastic material
to be controlled, a loaded relief valve on said pres
sure chamber for permitting the escape of pres
sure medium, hand operated means for varying
the load on said relief valve counteracting the 35
pressure of the medium acting on said valve, an
located adjacent t9 the circumferential edge of
the face of the plunger and the side of the pres
sure chamber.
~
g
-3. A safety device to be interposed between
parts of ‘a rolling mill, press or other machine
liable to be subjected to heavy pressure and
adapted to relieve the pressure when a deter
40 minedv maximum pressure is reached, comprising
-. a pressure chamber, a pressure medium in said
chamber, said medium being a non-?uid homo
geneous whole capable of ‘?owing at a pressure
at least as low as said maximum pressure, a
plunger for compressing said medium under the
pressure applied to the aforesaid parts of the
machine to be controlled, said pressure chamber
having an automatic safety element for control
ling‘the escape of pressure medium and also a
hand operated relief valve.
"
4. A safety device to be interposed between
»_ parts of a rolling mill, press or other machine
liable to- be subjected to heavy pressure and
adapted to relieve the pressure when a deter
65 mined maximum pressure is reached, comprising
a pressure chamber, a pressure medium in said
chamber, said medium being a non-?uid homo
geneous whole, capable of ?owing at a pressure
expansible receiver for the medium discharged
by said relief valve, a return duct from said re
ceiver to the pressure chamber and a check valve
in said return duct.
.
40
7. A safety device as speci?ed in claim I, hav
ing in the pressure chamber a pressure medium
partly composed of a non-?uid homogeneous
whole capable of flowing at a pressure at least
as low as said maximum pressure and partly of
a highly elastic material located adjacent to the
circumferential edge of the face of the plunger
and the side of the pressure chamber, and a me
tallic packing between said plunger and said
elastic material.
8. A safety device as speci?ed in claim 1 where
in said pressure medium is composed of a plastic
mass.
9. A safety device to be interposed between
parts of a rolling mill, press or other machine
liable to be subjected to heavy pressure and adapt
ed‘ to relieve the pressure when a determined
maximum pressure is reached, comprising a pres
at least as low as said maximum pressure, a
sure chamber, a pressure medium in said cham
plunger for compressing said medium under the
ber, said medium being a non-?uid homogeneous
whole capable of ?owing at a pressure at least
pressure applied to the aforesaid parts of the
machine to be controlled, a safety relief valve as low as said maximum pressure, a plunger for
on said chamber subjected to the pressure of‘ said compressing said medium under the pressure ap
medium, resilient means for holding said valve plied to the aforesaid parts ofthe machine to be
closed against said pressure until said maximum controlled, 9. safety relief valve provided with a
pressureis reached, and hand operated means spring for holding it closed against the pressure
for regulating said resilient means to determine in the pressure chamber, and hand operated
the maximum pressure at which the valve is to means for varying the tension of the spring to
open.
determine the maximum pressure at which the
.5. A safety device to be interposedbetween relief valve shall open to permit escape of pres 70
‘parts of a rolling mill, press or other machine sure medium from the pressure chamber.
liable to be subjected to heavy pressure and
adapted to relieve the pressure when a deter
ABRAHAM MARTINIUS ERICHBEN.
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