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Патент USA US2108752

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Feb. 15, 1938.
2,10$,752 ‘
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING [METAL DELIVERED IN A'MOLTEN CONDITION
Oéiginal Filed April 5, 1934 '
8 Sheets-Sheet l_
0
Feb. 15, 1938.
_
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2,108,752
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL DELIVERED IN A MOLTEN CONDITION
Original Filed April 5. 1934
8 Sheets-Sheet 2
Feb. 15, 1938.
M. LOW
2,108,752
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL DELIVERED IN A MOLTEN CONDITION
Original Filed April 5, 1934
8 Sheets-Sheet 3
125
Feb. 15, 1938.
M_ Low
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2,108,752
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL DELIVERED IN A MOLTEN CONDITION
Original Filed April 5, 11934
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METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL DELIVERED IN A MOLTEN CONDITION
Original Filed Apr_il 5, 1954
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METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR_SHAPING METAL DELIVERED IN A MOLTEN CONDITION
Original Filed April 5, 1934
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Feb. 15, 1938.
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2,108,752
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL DELIVERED IN A MOLTEN CONDITION
Original Filed April 5, 1954
8 Sheets-Sheet '7
Feb. 15, 1938.
M. LOW
‘
2,108,752
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL DELIVERED IN A MOLTEN CONDITION
Original Filed April 5, 1934
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Patented I Feb. 15, 1938
UNITED
2,103,752
Memoir on Am». arraaarns non, snarmc
'
METAL DELIVERED m a .xuonrarr eoN
DITIDN
Marshall Law, Washington, D. C.
Application April 5, i934, Serial No. ‘719,215
Renewed fanuary 1'7, 1938
35 Claims. ($11. 22-575)
trolling media through the different rolls and in
This invention relates to a method of and ap
paratus for shaping plastic material and it has the vicinity of the material being delivered
particular relation to a method of and apparatus
for continuously solidifying and shaping material
which is ?uid when subjected to heat, such as
is disclosed in my co-pending continuing applica
tion, Serial No. 636,080, ?led October 3, 1932 of
which’ this application is a continuation in part.
In order to make the invention more clearly
understood there are shown in the accompanying
' drawings, means for carrying the invention into
practical effect, without limiting the improve
ments in their useful application to the particular
construction, which for the purpose of explana
' tion has been made the subject of illustration.
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of an apparatus con-~
:tructed in accordance with the present inven
on.
.
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of the struc
ture illustrated in Fig. l.
i
_'
Fig. 3 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view
thereto.
Fig. 14 is a diagrammatic view of the thermo
responsive means for automatically varying the
speed of rotation of the rolls in accordance with
the temperature of the metal.
~
,
'
Referring to the drawings, an apparatus em
bodying the present invention is shown as com
prising a base 1! preferably of cast construction, 10
suitably anchored upon a concrete foundation 2,
and having a pair of parallel frame members 3
secured thereto along its edges at what may be
termed the front and rear of the apparat
,
which frame members are tied together adjacent
their ends by plates t reinforced by channel bars
5 secured to the under sides thereof.’ Mounted
in bearings t provided on the frame members 3,
is a pair of parallel longitudinally extending
shafts l upon each of which a pair of carriages 20
or pedestals t are mounted, one at each end, for
lateral swinging movement.
The carriages t of
- -~
each pair are maintained in spaced relation with
Fig. 4 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view, respect to one another and in abutting relation
to the frame members 3, by means of a back up 25
IO GI taken on line t--t of Fig. 1.
5 is an end view of the structure shown in roll 9 of solid construction and also by means
of a pair of upper and lower cooling and shaping
it and M respectively.
Fig. 6 is a vertical transverse sectional view rolls
The lower rolls ii are supported directly by
taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 1. '
Fig. 7 is a vertical transverse sectional view the back up rolls 9 and comprise tubular shafts
30
if the ends of which are journaled in ?oating
taken on line 'i-l of Fig. 1.
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 7 but illustrating bearings it (Fig. 3) which are mounted for ver
tical sliding movement in ways "it provided in
the cooling and shaping rolls separated to inter
rupt the supply of plastic material thereto and the carriages ii. The intermediate portions of
the shafts it are formed with spaced collars it
a Li to also discharge material delivered to the cham
upon which outer cylindrical shells it are fixed.
ber between the rolls.
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic view illustrating two preferably by shrinking. The collars it are
pairs of cooling and shaping rolls, the arrows formed with openings ill, the openings in adja
indicating the direction of rotation thereof when cent collars beingstaggered or o?set circumfer 40
taken on line 3-3 of Fig. l.
g.
.
.
'
it is desired to obtain a single sheet from the left
hand rolls, as viewed in this ?gure.
Fig. 10 is a similar view illustrating the direc- '
tion of rotation of the rolls when it is desired
to obtain asingle sheet from the right hand pair
of rolls, as viewed in this ?gure.
Fig. 11 is a similar view illustrating the direc
tion of rotation of the rolls when it is desired
to obtain two sheets simultaneously from opposite
sides of the apparatus.
Fig. 12 is a ‘similar view illustrating the direc
tion of the rolls when it is desired to deliver a
single sheet downwardly between the lower rolls
of the cooperating pairs of rolls, and
Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the
direction of ?ow of the several temperature con;
entially relative to one another so as to cause
a cooling medium to traverse a tortuous path in
passing through the rolls from end to end, as
will hereinafter be described. The tubular shafts
it are provided with partitions it (Fig. 3) inter
mediate their ends and also with openings i9 ad 415
jacent to the ends of the rolls for establishing
communication between the tubular shafts and
the interior of the lower rolls at each end thereof.
A temperature controlling medium which may
be cold water or steam according to the nature w
of the material shaped by the rolls, is directed
through one of the lower rolls H from end to
end in one direction and through the other of
the lower rolls H in an opposite direction, from
?exible inlet pipes it, the upper ends of which 55
2
2,108,752
are secured by means of clamping straps 2i to
, tubular ?anged nipples 22 which are bolted to
the outer surfaces of the ?oating bearings 93 in
axial alignment with the‘tubular shafts i2. The
lower ends of the inlet pipes 28 are secured by
10
tends toward an equalization in heat exchange
longitudinally of the rolls.
~
The upper rolls i8 may be raised and lowered
with respect to the lower rolls | | in order to pro
clamping straps 23 to ?anged nipples 24 mounted
vide a sheet forming pass of the desired size
between the rolls of either or both'of the pairs
on inlet valves 25 which control communication
of rolls, vby means of adjusting screws 54 having
between the inlet pipes 20 and supply mains or
heads 55 (Fig. 3) at their lower ends which are
conduits 26 located at the front and rear of the
rotatably con?ned within keepers 56 bolted to the
upper surfaces of‘ the slide bearings 34. The 10
apparatus.
>
-
.
After passing through the lower rolls ii the
temperature controlling medium escapes from
these rolls through flexible outlet pipes 27 the
upper ends of which are secured. by means of
15 clamping straps 28 (Figs. 2 and 3') to ?anged‘
nipples 29 which are bolted to the ?oating bear
ings |3 at the other end of the rolls. The lower
upper portions of the adjusting screws 54 are
threaded into worm nuts 51 which are con?ned
between the upper ends of the carriages 8 vand
bars 58 secured to the carriages by plates 59. ' The
worm nuts'51 are rotated in order to raise or
lower the adjusting screws 54, slide bearings 34,
and rolls i8 journaled therein, by means of worms
ends of the outlet pipes 21 are secured by clamp- . 60 (Fig. 2) which are ?xed to stud shafts 6| jour
ing straps 30 to ?anged nipples 3| which com
20 municate with discharge mains 32 also located at
the front and rear of the apparatus.
The upper rolls IU of each of the ‘pairs of rolls
are of slightly less diameter than the lower rolls
H but are substantially the same in construction
25 as the lower rolls .in that they also comprise
tubular shafts 33 the ends of which are jour
naled in vertically adjustable slide bearings 34
mounted 'in ways 35 provided in the carriages 8
(Fig. 3) .
The intermediate portions of the shafts
33 are formed with spaced collars 36 upon which
outer cylindrical shells 31 are ?xed, preferably by
shrinking. The collars 36 are provided with
staggered openings 38, similar to ‘those described
in connection with the lower rolls
tubular shafts 33 are also provided with- partitions
39 intermediate their ends (Fig. 3) and also with
openings 48 for establishing communication be
tween the shafts 33 and the interior of the rolls
40
ID at the ends thereof.
A temperature controlling medium is also
directed through the upper rolls ID in opposite
directions with respect to one another and in
opposite directions with respect to that of the
?ow of the medium'through the associated lower
45 rolls I I, from ?exible inlet pipes 4| the upper ends
of which are secured by means of clamping straps
42 to tubular ?anged nipples 43 bolted to the
outside surfaces of the slide bearings 34. The
lower ends of the inlet pipes 4| are secured by
50
clamping straps 44 to ?anged nipples 45 mounted
on inlet valves 46 which control communication
between the inlet pipes 4| and supply mains 0r
conduits 41 located at the front and rear of the
apparatus.’
After passing through the upper rolls III the
temperature controlling medium escapes from
these rolls through ?exible outlet pipes 48 the
upper ends of which are secured by means of
clamping straps 49 to ?anged nipples 58 which
60 are bolted to the outer faces of the adjustable
slide bearings 34 at the other side of the appara
tus. The lower ends of the outlet pipes 48 are
secured by clamping straps 5| to ?anged nipples
52 which communicate with discharge mains 53
also located at the front and rear of the ap
paratus.
From an inspection of Fig. 13, it will be ap
parent that the construction and arrangement of
the several inlet and outlet pipes is such that
the temperature controlling medium ?ows
through the upper and lower rolls l0 and H of
each of the pairs of rolls in opposite directions,
and also that the direction of flow of the medium
is in opposite directions when the corresponding
rolls of the pairs of rolls are considered. This
naled in the plates 58. Sprocket wheels 62 are
?xed to the outer ends of the shafts 6| and are
rotated by sprocket chains 63 which pass around
sprocket wheels 64 ?xed to shafts 65. These
shafts are journaled in swivelled or self-aligning
bearings'BB secured to the sides of the carriages
8 and may be rotated from the front of the ap
paratus by hand wheels 61 in order to adiust'the
positions of the slide bearings 34 simultaneously.
The function of the self-aligning bearings 68 is ~
to prevent these bearings from binding on the
shaft 65 in the event that there is a slight. lagging 30'
or difference in movement between the carriages
of each pair of carriages 8 when the pairs are
swung apart, as will presently be described.
When the apparatus is in a position for fabri-I
cating one ortwo sheets the carriages 8 occupy
vertical positions with the lower rolls || sub
stantially contiguous so that the circumferential
surfaces of the rolls l0 and II of the pairs of
rolls cooperate to de?ne a substantially closed
chamber 68 (Figs. 7 and 9 to 13); When in this
position the upper rolls l8, being of slightly 40
less diameter than the lower rolls II, are spaced
from one another so as to form a restricted open
ing or neck “through which molten metal or
other plastic material is adapted to be introduced
into the chamber 68 from a feeding device, such
as a forehearth or ladle located above the rolls
and indicated diagrammatically at 18. Such a
feeding device may be provided with a single long
narrow slot or ori?ce ‘II (Fig.8) or a series of
openings through which the material ?ows down 50
wardly into the neck 68 in the form of a curtain
‘I2 (Figs. 7 and 13) , the ?ow being controlled by
one or more gates or plungers 13.
The material is prevented from escaping from
the chamber 68 lengthwise of the rolls by rotat
able con?ning members 14 which abut the ends
of the several rolls. These members are carried
by a tubular shaft ‘I5 which extends entirely
through the chamber 68 and is journaled at its
ends in downwardly extending hangers ‘I6 the 60
upper ends of which are mounted for swinging
movement on one or the other of the upper shafts
33.‘ The members 14 are rotated by means of
intermeshing gears 11 and 18, the former being
?xed to the end members 14 and the latter being
?xed to the shaft 33 which carries the hangers 18.
VA temperature controlled medium is also‘ di
rected through the shaft 15 which supports the
con?ning members 14, from an inlet pipe 18, one
.end of which is rigidly connected by means of a 70
?anged elbow 88 to one of the hangers 15 in -
communication with the tubular shaft 15. This
pipe extends upwardly and over the tops of the
carriages 8 and communicates at its outer end
with the upper end of a ?exible inlet pipe 8|
3
2,108,752
shaft B2 of the lower rolls ii and which are
which is secured thereto by means of a clamping
strap B2. The lower end of the inlet pipe 8! is
secured by a clamping strap 83 (Fig. 4) to a
?anged nipple 84 ?xed to a valve 85 which con
driven by supplemental worms i ll of~correspond
ing lead which are keyed to the shafts 91 for
adjustment longitudinally thereof. Also by the
proper, selection of these, gears and worms the
trols communication with one of the supply
mains 26.
-
-
rolls may be rotated in the directions indicated
by the arrows in Fig. 11in order to deliver two
sheets a and b from opposite sides of the appa
ratus, and also to deliver a single sheet 0 down
~.
After passing through the tubular shaft 75
and the end members 14 carried thereby, the
cooling medium escapesv therefrom through a
vertically extending outlet pipe 86 the lower end
of which is ?xed to the hanger ‘it at the opposite
ends of the rolls from the inlet pipe ‘I9, by means
of a ?anged elbow 81. This outlet pipe extends
wardly between the lower rolls as indicated in 10,
Fig. 12. In effecting the above described adjust
ments the worm which is in engagement with‘ a
particular worm gear is ?rst loosened on the
shaft 97 and slid longitudinally out of engage
ment with its intermeshing worm wheel. This 15
worm wheel is then loosened and slid longitudi
nally along the shaft l2 and the worm gear of
upwardly and over the carriages 8 at the other
side of the apparatus and communicates at its'
outer end with the upper end of a ?exible outlet
pipe 88 which is secured thereto by means of a
clamping strap 89. The lower end of the outlet
pipe 98 is also secured by a clamping strap 99 to
opposite lead is then slid into operative position
and ?xed to the shaft it.
one of the discharge mains 32. .
i
-
The curtains or series of streams ll? of molten
metal or other material gravitating downwardly
into the neck 69 from the ori?ce ‘it in the fore
hearth or ladle ‘Iii, may be subjected to a pre
liminary cooling operation by means of jets of av
gaseous cooling medium such as air or steam
rolls either move in opposite directions or move 25
inwardly. This prevents material from escaping
from the chamber 68 between any of the rolls
except those de?ning the sheet forming pass or
projected‘ from pipes 92 (Fig. 13) in opposite di
30
passes.
The carriages 8 are swung apart, as shown in 30 .'
rections along opposite sides of the descending
metal. This cooling medium, if desired may be
an inert gas so as to minimize oxidation.
Fig. 8, so as to interrupt the supply of material
to the rolls and also to discharge material de
Also,
_ it may be refrigerated if desired so as to ac
celerate the - rate of cooling at this point. This
livered to the chamber 68, by means of horizon
tally ‘extending’ non-rotatable threaded rods it?
‘cooling medium is preferably projected in di
rections opposite to the directions of ?ow of the
cooling medium through the adjacent upper roll
the inner ends of which are slidably mounted in ' 35
bearing blocks H3 carried by the side‘frames 3,
and the outer ends of which in spaced bearing
so as to assist in obtaining a uniform dissipation
blocks iii! harried by the plates d. Links H5
of heat lengthwise of the neck 69 (Fig. 13).
The rolls in and ill of both pairs of rolls are
rotated in the directions indicated by the arrows
are pivotally\ connected at their upper ends, as
indicated at he (Fig. 5) to the carriages a and 40
at their lower ends, as at ill to blocks M8 which
are threaded ont'o\the rods M2 for adjustment
40 in Figures 7 and 9 in order to obtain a single
I sheet (a) from one side of the apparatus, (Figs.
longitudinally thereof.
7 and 9) by means of worm gears 93 and 9t
which are ?xed to the upper and lower tubular
The rodsv i i2 are shifted v
horizontally by means of worm nuts H9 which
are threaded onto the rods H2 between the
spaced bearing blocks lit. These nuts are ro
tated by means ‘of worms H0 which are ?xed to
shafts 33 and i2 respectively, and which are
driven by upper and lower worms 95 and 9% fixed
to shafts 97 journaled in bearings 98 carried by
the carriages 8 at one side of the apparatus. The
shafts 9'! are each provided with a beveled pinion
99 at its lower end for intermeshing engagement
with beveled gears Hill rotatably mounted upon
each of the supporting shafts ‘i. A worm wheel
ml is bolted to the side of each of the beveled
carried by the bearing blocks Md and
the shafts m are journaled. The 50
extend along each side of the appa
may be rotated from one side of the
by means of hand wheels are so as to
carriages 9 simultaneously.
It will be noted that the shafts 97‘ extend ra
55
dially with respect to the axis of the supporting
shaft ‘i so that the beveled pinions 99 maintain
driving engagement with the beveled gears I00 in
all positions of the carriage 3. This insures that
the base i. Also ?xed to the jack shaft m3 is
a worm wheel I05 which is driven by a worm M6
?xed to a transversely extending drive shaft EM
the rolls in and H may be rotated when the same 80
journaled in a bearing (99 (Fig/5) provided on
60 one of the side frame members 3 and in a bear
are separated, as indicated in Fig. 8, so as to free
ing block Hi9 carried by the base i. The drive
shaft ill‘! is driven by a variable speed electric
motor M (Fig. 14) through the medium of any
_
It will be noted that the upper worms 95 are
or assist in freeing metal adhering thereto.
The base I is provided with an opening 028 di
rectly beneath the rolls so that when the rolls
are swung apart the material in the chamber 69 65
may be discharged into a cullet pit or the like I25
ment with the worm gears 92 in all positions of
located beneath the apparatus.
The above described lateral swinging move
adjustment of the upper rolls iii.
ment of the rolls may also be employed to adjust
of sufficient length to maintain driving engage
'
45.
shafts (2i between spaced bearing blocks I22
which are
in which
shafts i2i
ratus and
apparatus
swing the
gears W0 and each isdriven by a worm Hi2 fixed
to a horizontally extending jack shaft W3 which
is journaled in bearing blocks ltd mounted on
suitable connections.
The. worm. of corre
sponding lead is then slid along the shaft 91 20
and in intermeshing relation with this gear wheel
and ?xed in position.
It will be noted from inspection of Figs. 9 to
12, that the adjacent surfaces of the contiguous
a ?anged nipple 9| which communicates with
- '
If it is desired to deliver a single sheet b from
the opposite side of the apparatus from that
shown-in Figs. 7 and 9, the rolls are rotated in the
directions indicated by the arrows in Fig. 10‘,
by means of supplemental worm gears iii! of
opposite lead which are slidably keyed to the
the lower rolls H relative to one another so as
to provide a sheet forming pass between these
rolls, when it is desired to obtain the single sheet
0 delivered downwardly between the rolls II, as
indicated in Fig. 12.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that an
4-.
2,108,752
apparatus is provided in which the rolls of two
pairs of rolls cooperate to de?ne a substantially
closed chamber for receiving molten metal de
livered from above. This arrangement of the
rolls has several advantages in that it minimizes
oxidation of the metal in the chamber during the
period that it is being cooled preparatory to pass
ing between the rolls to be fabricated thereby
into sheet form. Also, heat is extracted from
bar I39 is that of the metal but the drop in tem
perature longitudinally of the bar is such as to
prevent the thermocouple T from being damaged
by being subjected to excessive heat. However,
rounding the entire body of metal in the cham
ber 68 so as to provide layers of plastic metal of
hearth
substantially equal areas and of approximately
the same temperature adjacent to the upper and
15 lower rolls in the vicinity of the sheet forming
pass.- The movement of the rolls carries these
layers of metal through the pass where they are
united to form a sheet having uniformly cooled
upper and lower surfaces or skins.
Obviously, if the cooling and shaping rolls I0
and I I are rotated too rapidly with respect to the
rate at which the metal in the chamber 68 dis
sipates its heat, the metal will not become sum
ciently solidified to retain its sheet form after
25 passing through the pass between the rolls. On
the other hand, if the rolls are rotated too slowly
the metal may reach such a degree of solidity
as to' subject the rolls to excessive strain if not
actually “freezing” while in contact therewith.
30 Also, the temperature of the metal as well as that
of the cooling medium'?owing through the rolls
may'?uctuate to such an extent and so frequent
ly as to render any constant roll speed imprac
tical.
35
to end. ' The temperature of the inner end of the
sufficient heat is transmitted to the thermocouplev
T by conduction to insure that the same will oper
ate properly in accordance with fluctuations in 10
the temperature of the metal within the fore-.
10 the metal substantially uniformly in a zone sur
20
suitable heat insulating covering I48 so as to
insure a uniform drop in temperature from end
40 temperature of the metal and any ?uctuations
'
.
‘
.
the light admitted through the aperture I42 20
upon the light sensitive element of the cells 8.
When the temperature of the metal within the
forehearth ‘I0 reaches a predetermined degree,
the galvanometer G will swing the shutter I“ to
a position in which~its aperture I42 registers with
the ?rst chamber c1- of the series so that light
from the lamp I43 will be focused upon the se
lenium cells s1, thus rendering the light sensitive
element thereof su?lciently conductive to effect
the energizing of relay w1 by current traversing 30
a circuit from positive bus wire I26, through a
manually adjustable resistance I44, wire I45, light
sensitive element of the selenium cells s1, wire
I46, winding of relay wl, and wire I41 to the
'
According to the present invention these dif?
culties and uncertainties are avoided by thepro
vision of thermo-responsive means for automati
cally varying the speed of the motor M andthat
of the rolls I0 and II in accordance with the
therein.
‘I0.
The galvanometer G operates a disk or shutter
“I provided with an aperture I42 through which
light rays emanating from a source of light, 15
such as an electric lamp I43, may be progres
sively admitted into a series of chambers 0. Lo
cated within each of the chambers c is a selenium
cell or resistor s and also a lens I for focusing
'
with reference to Fig. 14 of the drawings, the
armature winding of the motor M is shown as
being energized by direct current which traverses
a circuit from a suitable source, such as‘positive
.bus wire I26, through wire I21, armature winding
of motor M, and wire I28, to negative bus wire I36.
The ?eld winding of motor M is also energized by
‘current which traverses a circuit from positive
bus wire I26, wires I21 and I21’, ?eld winding 1
of motor M, wire I28’, manually operable switch
I29, wire I30, manually adjustable rheostat I 3|,
wire I32, back contacts I33, and connecting wires
I34 of a series of relays, indicated by the letter
10 with exponents according to their location, and
wire I35 to negative bus wire I36. Under these
conditions the motor M will drive the cooling and
shaping rolls I 0 and II at a speed determined
by the manual adjustment of the rheostat I3I
60 and the rolls will fabricate a sheet, as previously
described, it the metal dissipates its heat at the
proper rate at such roll speed.
The speed of the motor M is automatically con
trolled by a thermocouple T which is positioned
adjacent to the molten metal within the fore
hearth or ladle ‘III or within the chamber 8 be
tween the rolls I0 and II or both, so that the
temperature thereof will generate an electric cur
rent in the well known manner in a circuit in
negative bus wire I26. The energizing of the
relay 101 causes it to open its back contact I33
and to close a front contact I48 thereof. This
opens the circuit previously traced for the motor
M but. establishes an auxiliary circuit therefor
through the ?rst section 1'1 of a resistance element 40
R, front contact I48 of relay w1 and wire I48 to
the negative bus wire‘ I36. The introduction of
this additional resistance 1'1 into the motor cir
cuit causes the speed of the motor and that of
the rolls to decrease a. predetermined amount so
as to allow a greater time for the metal to dissi
pate its heat and reach the desired degree of
plasticity before passing between the rolls.
If the speed of the rolls is still too high to per
mit the metal to become su?iciently plastic to
retain its sheet form after passing between the
rolls, the galvanometer G will swing the shutter
I4I until the aperture I42 therein registers with
the next adjacent chamber 02 of the series so
that light from the lamp I43 will render the next
succeeding selenium cell s2 electrically conduc
tive and cause the energizing of the relay w".
The energizing of the relay wz introduces the
next section 1* of the resistance R in the motor
circuit so as to cause the motor M to rotate at 60
a still further reduced speed. It will be under
stood that when the back contact I33 of one of
the preceding relays w is opened, as above de
scribed, the back contact I33 of the preceding
relay 2:) is closed so that the current will be com
pelled to traverse all of the sections 1' of the re
sistance R which are introduced into the circuit
by the closing of the front contact of the relay
last energized. The above described operations
70 cluding wires I31 and I38 connecting the termi
are repeated successively until the desired amount 70.
nals of the thermocouple T with those of a gal- , of resistance is included in the circuit of the
vanometer G. The hot end of the thermocouple motor M.
T'is suitably connected‘ to the outer end of a
metal bar I39 the inner end of which is exposed
75 to the hotlmetal and which is provided with a
It will be understood that the chambers c are
impervious to light except when the aperture I42
in the shutter is moved into registry therewith. - 75
5
2,108,752
also, it will be understood that suitable ampli
-ying means may be provided in the circuits of
the several selenium cells it so desired.
For the purpose or illustration, the current is
schematically shown as passing directly through
the contacts I90 and 201 of the relays 10, but it
will be appreciated by those skilled in the art
that the contacts of these relays may be employed
to energize auxiliary circuits including circuit
10 makers and breakers of a type particularly
adapted to carry the current employed, especially
where normally high current values are to be
dealt with.
.
I
'
The hereinabove described control system is
15 given by way of example only, it not being in»
tended to limit the instant improvements to any
lated. An apparatus such as that just described
is the subject of applicant's copending applica- '
tion, Serial No. 734,350 ?led July 9, 1934, which
.constitutes a continuation in part of this appli
cation.
l
Other modi?cations and changes in propor
tion and arrangement of the several necessary
elements constituting the invention may be made
by those skilled in the art without departing from
the nature and scope of the invention as de?ned 10
in the appended claims.
I claim:
-
l. The method of rolling a sheet or bar from
iron or steelv delivered in a molten condition
which comprises the steps of introducing the
molten metal into a substantially closed cham
ber defined by ‘two pairs of rolls arranged in.
side-by-side relation; rendering the metal in
contact with the surfaces vof the rolls relatively
rollers traversing tracks of channel shape so as ‘ plastic throughout zones of substantially coex 20
to
permit
them
to
be
moved
bodily-toward
and
20
away from one another in a rectilinear direction. tensive areas above and below the line of nearest .
approach between the rolls of said pairs of rolls}
In such event elongated worms, such as the worms ~ by
circulating a heat dissipating medium through
at, are substituted for the worms iti so as to said rolls; and uniting the plastic metal of the
particular circuit or circuits}s
If desired, the carriages 8 may be mounted on
maintain driving connection with the rolls during
and after their separation.
'
In addition, vertically reciprocatory con?ning
members may be substituted for the rotatable
members ‘id. Con?ning members of this type
project upwardly further than the rotary type
30 illustrated and consequently permit the‘metai to
completely fill the neck 69, as shown in Figs. 9
to 1 .
'Also, if desired the carriages may be moved
towards and away from one another by means
.35
of hydraulic jacks operating simultaneously.
Such modi?cations require little or no addi
tionalichange in the structure hereinbeiore de~
scribed.
_
._
When metals having a relatively high melting
point, such as iron or steel, are rolled it may be
found desirable to provide additional pairs ‘of
rolls on one or both sides of the apparatus so
as to provide a series or‘ chambers communicat
ing with one another through relatively narrow
45 openings between the rolls or the several pairs.
These openings may be made adjustable and may
function as sheet forming passes.
in this particular arrangement the metal has
considerable time‘ within which to dissipate its
50 heat and become plastic. ii the metal becomes
‘plastic before passing through the entire series,
of chambers it will be shaped into sheet form by
one of the intermediate pairs oi rolls, the rolls
subsequently encountered functioning as addi»
55
tional reducing, smoothing, supporting and'cool»
ing means. On the other‘hand, ii’ the‘ metal does
not become plastic until it reaches the last or
outermost pair of rolls, them rolls perform the
shaping function, the preceding rolls merely runo
60 tioning as feeding and cooling means.‘
The several pairs of rolls may be mounted in
contiguous relation so as to exclude as much as
zones adjacent to at least one ‘of said pairs of
rolls by passing the same laterally between such
rolls, thus compressing the same to form a sheet
or bar cooled on opposite sides substantially equal
depths.
"
of‘ rolling a plurality of sheets’ 30
2. The method
or bars simultaneously from iron or steel deliv
ered in a molten condition, which comprises the
steps oi introducing the molten metal into a
substantially closed chamber de?ned by two pairs
of rolls arranged in side-by-side relation; ren db
dering the metal in contact with the surfaces of
the rolls relatively plastic throughout zones of
substantially coextensive areas above and below
the line of nearest approach between the rolls oi.’ '
said pairs of rolls, by circulating a heat dissipat
ing medium through said rolls; and ‘uniting the
plastic metal oi’ the zones on opposite sides of
said 'chamberby passing the same laterally in
opposite directions between the rolls of the ad
jacent pairs oi’ rolls, thus compressing the same 45
and simultaneously forming two sheets or bars
each cooled on opposite sides substantially equal
depths.
'
.
3. Apparatus of the character described com‘
prising an assembly oi‘ more than two'rolls ar
50
ranged to defines. substantially closed chamber
i’or receiving av supply of molten .metal, a re
stricted throat through which molten metal is
adapted to be introduced into said chamber, and
a sheet forming pass communicating with said
chamber; means for cooling said rolls to extract
heat from the metal in said chamber, said rolls
presenting cooling surfaces of substantially equal
areas. to the heated metal in said chamber, thus
rendering the metal in contact therewith rela
60
tively plastic in aones at equal areas on opposite
sides of said pass; and means iorrrotating said
rolls to move the plastic metal of said zones out
wardly through said pass to be united by the pres
sure of said rolls, thus forming a sheet cooled
possible the entrance at air from the outer at-=
mosphere into the chambers, thus preventing or
65 minimizing the oxidation of the metal as it passes
on opposite sides substantially equal ‘depths.
from chamber to chamber. The rate oil dissipa~
d. Apparatus oi the character described com~
tion of. heat from the metal passing through ‘the ‘ “prising an assembly of four rolls arranged to de
chambers may be controlled in accordance withv due a substantially closed chamber for receiving
a temperature gradient determined by the temp a supply oi’ molten metal, a restricted throat
perature of the metal or the characteristics or
the particular metal being rolled, by pirating a through which molten metal is adapted to be in
into said chamber,- and a sheet forming
cooling medium in controllable amounts through troduced
pass communicating with said chamber; means
the several pairs of rolls. also, the entire series ior cooling said rolls to extract heat from the
of rolls may be inclosed within a suitable housing
. throughwhich an inert cooling gas may be circa“ metal in said chamber, said rolls presenting cool?
to
U
2,108,752
ing surfaces of substantially equal areas to the
heated metal in said chamber, thus rendering
the metal in contact therewith relatively plastic
below said passes; and means for rotating said
rolls to move the metal in said throat down
wardly into said chamber and the metal in said
in zones of equal areas o?'opposite sides of said
pass; and means for rotating said rolls to move
chamber laterally outwardly in opposite direc
tions through said passes to unite the plastic C41
the plastic metal of said zones outwardly through
said pass to be united by the pressure of said
.rolls, thus forming a sheet cooled on opposite
10
metal of said zones under pressure, thus simul
taneously forming two sheets or bars cooled on
sides substantially equal depths.
opposite sides substantially equal depths.
8. Apparatus of the character described‘com
5. Apparatus of the character described com
prising an assembly of four rolls arranged to
de?ne a substantially closed chamber for re
ceiving a supply of molten metal,- _a restricted
side-by-side relation and cooperating with one
another to de?ne a substantially closed chamber
therebetween for receiving a supply of molten
throat through which molten metal is adapted
15 to be introduced into said chamber, and \two
opposed sheet forming passes communicating
with said chamber; means for cooling said rolls
to extract heat ‘from the metal in said chamber,
said rolls presenting cooling surfaces of substan
tially equal areas to the heated metal in said
chamber, thus rendering the metal in contact
therewith relatively plastic in zones of equal
areas on opposite sides of said passes; and means
for rotating, said rolls to move the plastic metal
said zones outwardly through said passes to
be united by the pressure of said rolls, thus simul
25' of
taneously forming two sheets cooled on opposite
sides substantially equal depths.
’
6. Apparatus of the character described com
30 prising two pairs of superposed rolls arranged in
, side-by-side relation and cooperating with one
another to de?ne -a substantially closed chamber
therebetween for receiving a supply of molten
metal, the lower rolls of said pairs of rolls being
35 disposed in contiguous relation to support the
metal in said chamber and to prevent the escape
01' metal therebetween, the upper rolls of said
pairs of rolls being disposed in slightly spaced
relation to provide a restricted opening or throat
40 through‘ which molten metal is adapted to be in
prising two pairs of superposed rolls arranged in 10
metal, the rolls of said pairs of rolls being dis
posed in contiguous relation to prevent the
escape of metal therebetween the upper rolls of
said pairs of rolls being disposed in slightly spaced
relation to provide a restricted opening or throat
through which molten metal is adapted to hemtroduced into said chamber, and the lower rolls 20
of said pairs of rolls being spaced to provide a
sheet forming pass; means for cooling said rolls,
the rolls of said pairs of rolls presenting cooling
surfaces of substantially equal areas to the heated
metal in said chamber, thus rendering the metal 25
in contact therewith relatively plastic in zones
of equal areas on opposite sides of said pass; and
means for rotating'said rolls to move the metal
in said throat downwardly into said chamber and t
the metal in said chamber downwardly through 30
said pass to unite the plastic metal of said zones
under pressure, thus forming a sheet or bar
‘cooled on opposite sides substantially equal
depths.
"
.
.
9. Apparatus such as described in claim 3, in
cluding also means responsive to the temperature
'of the metal before it passes the shaping rolls
for controlling the-speed of rotation of the rolls.
10. Apparatus such as described in claim 4, in
cluding also means responsive to the tempera 40
ture of the metal before it passes the shaping
troduced into said chamber, and the rolls of
certain of said pairs of rolls being spaced to , rolls for controlling the speed of rotation of the
provide a sheet forming pass; means for cool
ing said rolls, the rolls of said pairs of- rolls pre
45 senting cooling surfaces of substantially equal
areas to the heated metal in said chamber, thus
rendering the metal in contact therewith rela
tively plastic.in zones of equal areas above and
below said pass; and means‘ for rotating said
50 rolls to move the metal in ‘said throat down
wardly into said chamber and the metal in said
chamber laterally outwardly through said pass
to unite the plastic metal of said zones under
pressure, thus forming a sheet or bar cooled on
sides substantially equal depths.
,55 opposite
'7. Apparatus of the character‘ described com
prising two pairs of superposed rolls arranged in
side-by-side relation and cooperating with one
' ' another to de?ne a substantially closed chamber
60 therebetween for receiving a supply of molten
metal, the lower rolls of saidpairs of rolls‘be
ing disposed in contiguous relation to support
_ the metal in said chamber and to prevent the
escape ofv metal therebetween,~the upper rolls
65 of said pairs of rolls beingi disposed in slightly
spaced relation to provide a restricted opening
70
or throat through which molten metal is adapted
to be introduced into said‘ chamber, and the rolls
of both of said pairs of rollsbeing spaced to pro
vide two opposed sheet forming passes; means for
cooling said rolls, the rolls of said pairs of rolls
presenting cooling surfaces of substantially equal
rolls. -
c
11. Apparatus such as describedin claim 5, in
cluding also means responsive to the tempera
ture of the metal before it passes the shaping
rolls for controlling the speed of rotation of the
rolls.
'
-
'
12. Apparatus such as described in claim 6, in
cluding also means responsive to the tempera 50
ture of the metal before it passes the shaping
rolls for controlling the speed of rotation of the
rolls.
13. Apparatus such as described in claim 7, in
cluding also means responsive to the tempera
ture of the metal before it passes the shaping
rolls for controlling the speed of rotation of the
rolls.
-,
a
'
14. Apparatus such as described in claim '8, in
cluding also means responsive to the tempera 60
ture of the, metal before it passes the shaping
rolls for controlling the speed of rotation of the
rolls.
15. Apparatus of the character‘ described com
prising an assembly of more than two rolls ar
ranged to define a substantially closed chamber
for receiving a supply of molten metal, a re
stricted throat through which molten metal is
adapted to be introduced into said chamber, and
a sheet-forming pass communicating with 'said' 70
chamber; means for cooling said rolls‘to extract
heat from the metal in said chamber, said rolls
areas to the heated metal in said chamber, thus , presenting cooling surfaces of substantially equal
rendering the metal in contact therewith rela
areas to the heated metal in said chamber, thus
75 tively plastic in zones of equal areas above and rendering the metal in contact therewith rela 75
7
2, 108,7 62
tively plastic in zones oi’ equal areas on opposite
sides of said pass; and means responsive to the
temperature of the metal before it passes out of
said closed chamber for automatically controlling
the speed of rotation of the sheet-forming rolls.
16. Apparatus of the character described, com
7
to provide a restricted throat through which plas
tic material is adapted to be introduced into said
chamber; rotatable members disposed adjacent
to the ends of said rolls for preventing the escape
of material from said chamber longitudinally of
said rolls; means for rotating said members rela
tively to said rolls to minimize any tendency for
material to adhere thereto; means for rotating
prising an assembly of more thantwo superposed
horizontally disposed cooling rolls in side by side
relation, arranged and cooperating to de?ne a " said rolls to move material from said chamber
substantially closed receptacle for receiving a between the rolls of at least one of said pairs of 10
10
supply of molten metal; variable speed driving rolls to be shaped thereby; and means for effect
ing bodily movement between said pairs of rolls
mechanism for rotating the rolls to move the
metal from the said chamber outwardly between and between at least one of said pairs of rolls
certain of them to be shaped thereby into a con- ,7 and said con?ning members to discharge mate
rial from said chamber, said rolls and con?ning 15
15 tinuous sheet, and means responsive to the tem
members being rotatable during and after the
perature of the metal before it passes the shap
ing rolls for automatically controlling the speed bodily movement thereof to free material adher
'
oi operation of the means which rotate the rolls. ing- thereto.
21. Apparatus of the character described com
1'7. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis 20'
20 prising .two pairs of superposed horizontally dis—
posed rolls arranged in side by'side relation and
posed cooling rolls arranged in side by side rela
tion and cooperating to de?ne ‘a substantially cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed cham-'
therebetween, certain corresponding rolls of
closed chamber therebetween, the uppermost rolls ber
said pairs of rolls being spaced from one another
, of said pairs being disposed in spaced relationship
each other to provide a restricted opening
25, to
through which molten metal is adapted to be
introduced into the chamber, variable speed driv
ing means for the said rolls arranged to rotate
them so as to move the metal from the chamber
30 outwardly between certain of the rolls in the
said pairs to be shaped thereby into a continuous
sheet, means for adjusting certain of the rolls
whereby the pass through which the metal moves
when being shaped into a sheet may be changed
35 to form sheets of di?’erent thicknesses as desired,
and means responsive to the temperature of the
metal before it is shaped and passed out ofthe
said chamber for controlling the variable speed
mechanism.
40
2
'
18. Apparatus of the character described‘com
prising two pairs of ‘superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed cham
ber therebetween, the upper rolls of said pairs
45
of rolls being spaced from one another to provide
a restricted throat through which plastic mate
rial is adapted to be introduced into said cham
ber from above; con?ning members mounted for
longitudinal engagement with the ends of said
rolls for preventing the escape of material from
50 said chamber longitudinally of said) rolls; and
\means for moving said con?ning members rela
tively to said rolls to minimize any tendency for
material to adhere thereto.
55
19. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating to de?ne a-substantially closed cham
ber therebetween, the upper rolls of said pairs of
60 rolls being spaced from one another to provide a
restricted throat through which plastic material
to provide a restricted throat through which 25
molten metal is adapted to be introduced into
said chamber, said rolls presenting cooling sur
faces of substantially equal areas to the metal
in said chamber; means for rotating said rolls to ' .
Lmove metal from said chamber between the rolls 30
of at least one of said pairs of rolls to be shaped
thereby; and manually controlled means oper
able from one side of said apparatus for bodily
moving at least one of said pairs'of rolls out of
operative relation to the other to discharge metal 35
‘ from said chamber.
»
' 22. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs'of superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed cham
ber therebetween, certain corresponding rolls of
said pairs of rolls being spaced from one another
to provide a restricted throat through which
molten metal is adapted to be introduced into said
chamber, said rolls presenting cooling surfaces of 45
substantially equal areas to the metal in said
chamber; bearings for said rolls at the ends
thereof; means for rotating said rolls to move
metal from. said chamber between the rolls of at
least one of said pairs of rolls to be shaped there 50
by into a sheet; and manually controlled means
operable from one side of said apparatus for
simultaneously moving the bearings of one of the
rolls of one of said pairs of rolls to adjust such
roll relative to the other roll of the same pair, to 55
vary the thickness of the sheet fabricated thereby.’
23. Apparatus of_ the'character described com
prising two pairs of superposedhorizontally dis- '
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed cham
80
ber therebetween, certain corresponding rolls of
. is adapted to be introduced into said chamber . said pairs of rolls being spaced from one another
to provide a restricted throat through which .
virom above; con?ning members mounted for ion
gitudinal engagement with the ends of said rolls
65 for preventing the escape of material from said
chamber longitudinally of said rolls; and means
for rotating said con?ning members relatively to
molten metal is adapted to be introduced into
said chamber, said rolls presenting cooling sur (iii
faces of substantially equal areas to the metal in
said chamber; means for rotating said rolls to
said rolls to minimize any tendency for material
move metal from said'chamber between the rolls
to adhere thereto,
thereby; and means for bodily moving at least
one of said pairs of rolls out of operative relation
to the other to discharge metal from said cham
-
20. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs'of superposed horizontally dis
» posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
coorating to de?ne a substantially closed cham
ber therebetween, certain corresponding rolls of
rs oi’ rolls being spaced from one another
% said
of at least one of said pairs of rolls to be shaped
ber.
'
’
24. ‘Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis 75
8
2,108,752.
posed rolls arranged in side-by-side relation and
of both of said pairs of rolls simultaneously to be
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed cham
ber therebetween; the upper rolls of said pairs
shaped thereby into a pair of sheets.
28. Apparatus of the character described com
' of rolls being spaced from one another to provide
a restricted throat through which molten metal
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
is adapted to be introduced into said chamber cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed cham
from above, said rolls presenting cooling surfaces ber therebetween, the upper rolls of said pairs
of substantially equal areas to the metal in said of rollsv being spaced from one another to provide
a restricted throat through which molten metal
chamber; means for rotating said rolls to move
is adapted to be introduced into said chamber 10
10 metal outwardly from said chamber between the
rolls of at least one of said pairs of rolls to be ' from above, said rolls presenting cooling surfaces
shaped thereby; and means for selectively moving of substantially equal areas to the metal in said
said pairs of rolls bodily away from one another chamber; means for rotating the upper rolls of
while still rotating to discharge metal from said said pairs of ‘rolls with the inner portions of the
15' chamber and to free said rolls from metal in con- q
15
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and ~
optionally from said chamber outwardly between
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed ‘cham
ber therebetween, the upper rolls of said pairs of
the rolls of one of said pairs-of rolls to be shaped 20
therebyvinto a single sheet, between the rolls of
both of said pairs of rolls simultaneously to be
.
25. Apparatus of the character described com
_20
circumferential surfaces thereof moving down
wardly to carry metal into said chamber; and
means for rotating the lower rolls‘ of said pairs
of rolls in selected directions to move metal
tact therewith.
‘ rolls being spaced'from one another to provide
a restricted throat through which molten metal is ‘
adapted to be introduced into said chamber from
‘above, said rolls presenting cooling surfaces of
substantially equal areas to the metal in said
chamber; means for separating said pairs of
rolls to .discharge metal from said chamber;
means for rotating said rolls when together to
shaped thereby into a pair of sheets,‘ and down‘
wardly between the lower rolls of said pairs of
rolls to be shaped thereby into a single sheet.
25
29. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating, to de?ne a substantially closed
chamber therebetween, the upper rolls of said 30
move metal from said chamber outwardly be
tween the rolls of one of said pairs of rolls to. be pairs of rolls being spaced from one-another to
shaped thereby, and also when separated to free provide a restricted throat through which mate
said rolls from metal in contact therewith; and “ rial ?uid when heated is adapted to be intro
means for separating the rolls of at least one of duced mto said chamber from above, said rollsv
:35 said pairs of rolls while‘the same are rotating.
26. Apparatus for use in fabrication of sheets
or bars directly from molten metal comprising
two pairs of rotatable rolls of approximately equal
diameters set opposite each other whereby is
presenting cooling surfaces of substantially equal 35
areas to the material in said chamber; means
for rotating said rolls to move material from
said chamber outwardly between the ‘rolls offa
selected pair of rolls to be shaped thereby into
a sheet; and means for directing a cooling me .40
dium through one of the rolls of said selected
pair of rolls in one direction and through the
opposite rolls of the pairs being spaced apart to other roll of said selected pair of rolls in an op
posite direction to extract heat from the mate
form between them a pass for the entrance of
45 molten metal to the enclosed space/ between the ' rial passing between the rolls of said selected
formed between them an enclosed space for the
collection of a body of .molten metal bounded’ by
.the four moving surfaces of the rolls, the upper
rolls, and other of the rolls being spaced apart to
pair of rolls uniformly transversely of said sheet.
form an exit pass for the formed sheet or bar,
' means for cooling the rolls, and means for driving
the rolls so as to move the metal after entering
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
50 the said .enclosed space,_about within such space,
and ?nally out through the exit pass, the rolls
operating to extract heat directly from the body
of metalin-the enclosed space on practically all
surfaces of said body and without considerable
55
exposure to atmospheric air. -
'
.
_
27. Apparatus of thecharacter described com-'
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed cham
60 ber therebetween, the upper rolls of said pairs of
rolls being spaced from-one another to provide a
restricted throat through which molten metal is
adapted to be introduced into said chamber from
above, said rolls presenting cooling surfaces of
substantially equal areas to the metal in said
chamber; means for rotating the upper rolls of
said pairsof rolls with the inner portions of the
circumferential surfaces thereof moving down
70 wardly to carry metal into said chamber; and
means for rotating the lower rolls 0f__'.|,id pairs
'of rolls in selected directions to move metal op
tionally from said chamber outwardly between
the rolls of one of said pairs of rolls to be shaped
76 thereby into a single sheet,‘ and between-the rolls
30. Apparatus of the character described com
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating to define a substantially closed 50
chamber therebetweemthe upper rolls of said
pairs of rolls being spaced from one another to
provide a'restricted throat through which ma
terial fluid when heated is adapted to be intro
duced into said chamber from above, said rolls 65
presenting cooling surfaces of substantially equal
areas to the material in said chamber; means for
rotating said rolls to move material from said
chamber outwardly between the rolls of at least
one of said pairs of rolls to be shaped thereby 60
into a sheet; and means for directing a cooling
medium through the upper roll of one of said
pairs'of rolls in one direction, and through the
upper roll of the other of~said pairs of rolls in
_an opposite direction, to extract heat from the 65
material in said throat uniformly longitudinally
of said rolls.
31. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally ‘dis
posed- rolls arranged in side by side relation and 70
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed,
chamber therebetween, the upper rolls of said
pairs of rolls being spaced from one another to
provide a restricted throat communicating with
said chamber; means located above said rolls for 76
2,108,762
delivering molten metalto said throat in a rela
tively thin curtain extending longitudinally of
1.1
said rolls; means for directing a cooling medium
through said rolls to extract heat from the metal
in said chamber and render the same relatively
plastic, said rolls presenting cooling surfaces of
material in said chamber and render the same
relatively plastic, said rolls presenting cooling
surfaces of substantially equal areas to the metal
in said chamber; means for rotating said rolls to
move metal from said chamber outwardly be en
tween the rolls of at least one of said pairs of‘
rolls to be shaped thereby; and means for di
recting parallel streams of a gaseous cooling me- ‘
substantially equal areas to the metal in said
chamber; means for rotating said rolls to move
metal from said chamber outwardly between the dium in opposite directions along opposite sides
rolls of at least one of said pairs of rolls to be of said curtain of metal to extract heat there 10
'i'rom uniformly longitudinally of said rolls prior
shaped ther'eby; and means for directing a gase
ous cooling medium adjacent to said curtain of , to the contact of said metal with said rolls.
> 34:. Apparatus of the character described com
metal to extract heat therefrom prior to the con
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis- ,
tact of said metal with said rolls.
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
32. Apparatus of the character described com
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and chamber therebetween, certain corresponding
cooperating to define a substantially closed rolls of said pairs of rolls being spaced from one
chamber therebetween, the upper rolls- of said another to provide a restricted throat through
‘which molten metal is adapted to be introduced 20
20 pairs of rolls being spaced from one another to
provide a restricted throat communicating with into said chamber, said rolls presenting cooling
surfaces of substantially equal areas to the metal‘
said chamber; means located above the rolls for
vin
said chamber; ?oating bearings for said lower
delivering molten metal to the said throat in a
relatively thin liquid curtain extended longitudi
nally of the rolls; means for directing a cooling
25
medium through the rolls to extract heat from
the metal in the chamber and render the same
rolls; back-up rolls journaled in ?xed bearings
for supporting said lower rolls; and means for
rotating the rolls of at least one of said pairs of '
‘relatively plastic,‘ the said rolls presenting cool
rolls to move metal from said chamberbetween
the rolls of such pair to be shaped thereby into
ing surfaces of approximately equal areas to the
a sheet.
30 metal in the said chamber; means for rotating
the rolls to move the metal from the said cham
ber outwardly between the rolls of at least one
35. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis
posed hollow rolls arranged in side by side rela
tion and cooperating to de?ne a substantially
certain corre
means for directing a gaseous medium adjacent "closed chamber therebetween,
of said pairs of rolls to be shaped thereby and
to the said liquid curtain of metal prior to con
tact of the metal with said rolls.
33. Apparatus of the character described com
prising two pairs of superposed horizontally dis~
posed rolls arranged in side by side relation and
cooperating to de?ne a substantially closed
dd
chamber therebetween, the upper rolls of said
pairs of rolls being spaced from one another to
provide a restricted throat communicating with
said chamber; means located above said rolls
for delivering molten metal to said throat in
a relatively thin curtain extending longitudinally
of said rolls; means for directing a cooling me
dium throughlsaid rolls to extract heat from the
sponding rolls of said pairs of rolls being spaced
from one another to provide a restricted throat
‘through which material fluid when heated is
adapted to be introduced into said chamber, said
rolls presenting cooling surfaces of substantially
equal areas to the material in said chamber; 40
tubular shafts for supporting said hollow rolls;
movable bearings for said shafts; conduits fixed
to said bearings and movable therewith for sup
plying a cooling medium to said hollow rolls; and
means for rotating said rolls to move material
from said chamber between the rolls of at least
one of said pairs of rolls to be shaped thereby.
MARSHALL MW.
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