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Патент USA US2108837

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Patented eb. 22,
UNITED
‘ amen
TEXTILE MATERIAL CON'EMNIING URGANTIE
ESTERS OF CELLULOSIE AND METHOD 03F
PREPARING SAME
William Whitehead, Cumberland, Md" assignoi‘
to Celanese Corporation of America,‘ a corpora
tion of Delaware
No Drawing. application April 3, 1935,
Serial No. 114,472
12 Claims. (m. 8-20)
This invention relates to the preparation and through guides, needles, etc., in the future proc
manufacture of yarns, ?laments, fabrics and
other articles from organic esters of cellulose,
which organic esters have been subjected at least
5 in part to the action of a saponifying agent and
relates more particularly to the preparation of
the yarns and ?laments of organic esters of cel
lulose prior to the application thereto of a basic
material for the purpose of saponifying same or
10 sensitizing same for subsequent saponi?cation.
An object of the invention is the economic
and expeditious production of textile materials
containing yarns and ?laments of an organic
esters of cellulose, at least a part of said mate
15 rials having been treated with a saponifying
agent. A further object of this invention is the
partial and intermittent saponi?cation of yarns
during a winding operation and the preparation
of such yarns, so that they will evenly and quick
20 1y react to the saponifying material and/or per
mit the saponifying material to quickly penetrate
into the ?laments immediately upon contact
therewith and to an extent su?icient to‘ use up
substantially all the saponifying- material or at
25 least carry it into the ?laments prior to being
wound upon the take-up package so that blurring
or streaky saponi?cation is prevented. Other
objects of the invention will appear from the
followingdetailed description.
30‘
-
I have found that the speed with which a
‘ saponii'ying agent reacts with or is caused to
penetrate into a yarn containing organic esters
vof cellulose is proportionate to the amount of
moisture contained in the ?laments of the yarn
35.and;;also_that the depth and evenness of the
essing operations.
By employing this invention the sapo-ni?cation
of the yarns during the winding operation is
caused to go to completion very rapidly. In this
manner when periodically or intermittently
saponifying yarns there is developed a very sharp
line between the part saponi?ed and the untreat
ed part as the action of saponi?cation and the
penetration of the saponifying agent is so rapid 10
that the tendency of the saponifying medium to
travel along the yarn is prevented as the same
is used up prior to any substantial lengthwise
movement thereof.
By employing this invention there may be pre
vented any action of the saponifying agent upon
the uncontacted area of the yarn. In prior meth
ods of intermittently or periodically saponifying
yarns during a winding operation the action of
the saponifying agent was not carried su?iciently‘
toward completion prior to winding of the yarn
upon the take-up package, thus ‘producing an
action on the uncontacted part
of
the yarn '
where the contacted part of the -yarn crossed
same in the package. Although the action of the
saponifying agent after it had reached the take
up package was slight, in future treatments and
development of the yarn by treatment in a soap
bath ‘these places receiving slight actions were
ampli?ed to such an extent that in a dyed mate 30
rial a smudge or blur was produced. By employ
ing this invention very strong concentrations of
saponifying agents may be placed on the yarn
during the winding operation, yet the same is
sufficiently reacted or carried to the interior of
, saponifying action is proportionate to the amount
the ?laments so that there is substantially no
of moisture contained in the ?laments of the
yarn. By-employing this invention, which, in
; qgeneral, consists in conditioning the yarn prior to
401treatment=with a saponifyi-ng agent such that it "
the treated portion of the yarn to the untreated
portion of’ the yarn on the take-up package. This
transfer of unreacted saponifying agents from
gives rise to clear cut lines between the treated 40
and the untreated part of the yarn.
By employing this invention a still further ad
1.‘ moisture‘. regain, there may
employed less ":~i'vantage is obtained in that the saponi?ed yarn
l saponifyingi‘material, which; reduction in saponi “produced is more evenly
_
saponi?ed. In plac- I
‘
fyingrnateria-l [also produces a reduction in the ing a saponifying medium upon a yarn by means
,tcontainsvsubstantially its maximum content of
' 45Namount ‘ofecry‘st'als Fof‘ salt formed on the yarn. ‘- of a furnishing device during a winding opera
By'thus reducingwthe amount of crystals at- the tion, it is very di?icult to contact all parts of the
~1§1aces~ isap’oni?edithe yarn becomes more ame
yarn with an even amount of saponifying mate
nable to textile operations. By employing this in
"féntion-yaims maybe ‘sufficiently saponi?ed dur
nglthe‘wi‘lndingjoperation so that they. become
nsitia‘edior further and heavy saponi?cation in
’_ ‘
] 'J'wiltho'utproducing on the yarn a suf
V?c nt ,amQuiltjofg-crystalline material, tointer
I:"5§'ie1‘e"'with“the "same? as the yarns are passed
rial. However, by employing this invention the
evenness of application is compensated for by the 50
a?lnity of the yarn for the saponifying agent
_which results in an even saponi?cation.
A1
though any unevenness in saponi?cation is slight
during‘ this operation if the material is later
treated in a soap solution and then dyed any 55
2
2,108,837’
unevenness is greatly magni?ed and becomes very
is kept fairly saturated with moisture, that is,
obvious. By employing this invention fabrics
may be further developed by treatment in soap
baths and the like and then dyed which do not
for instance, an atmosphere having a relative hu
niidity of above 40 per cent. Further, the yarn
may be made more susceptible to the action of
show an unevenness of saponi?cation.
In accordance with my invention then I par
the saponifying agent at the winding operation
tially and lightly saponiiy yarns and ?laments
containing organic esters of cellulose, which
yarns contain substantially a maximum amount
of moisture regain to sensitize the same, which
sensitizing may cover the entire yarn or ?lament
or may be applied thereto intermittently, peri
odically or at random, and then either before or
after forming the yarns and ?laments into fab
15 rics I treat the same in a bath having a pH value
from 8 to 11 or more for the purpose ofv develop
ing or further saponifying the yarn or only that
part of the yarn which has been sensitized. Also,
in. accordance with my invention, I treat yarns
20 and ?laments or textile materials such as warps
or fabric containing organic esters of cellulose
by placing same in a humid atmosphere having a
fairly high relative humidity so that the yarns,
etc. will regain a substantial amount of mois
25 ture and then treat these yarns with a basic ma
terial, for instance, with the aid of a printing
device, for the purpose of saponifying them or
sensitizing the same for saponi?cation.
This invention is applicable to the treatment
30 of yarns or ?laments or fabrics of any suitable
‘ester of cellulose that is capable of being par
tially and/or totally saponifled by treatment
with bases. For example, I may employ this
invention in the treatment of yarns and ?laments
35 and fabrics formed from the nitrates of cellulose
or the organic esters of cellulose or mixture of
same. Examples of organic esters of cellulose are
cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate and cel
lulose butyrate. The yarns or ?laments contain
40 ing these materials may be formed by either the
wet or dry method of spinning and may contain
besides the derivatives of cellulose, dyes, lakes,
?llers, plasticizers and lubricants.
Yarns and ‘?laments or textile materials
45 formed of the esters of cellulose may contain up
to 5.5% or more, on their weight, of moisture de
pending upon the humidity of the atmosphere in
which they are placed. These materials regain
a moisture content corresponding to the rise in
50 relative humidity of the atmosphere in which
they are placed. For instance, cellulose acetate
which has been stored for a period of time may
drop in moisture content such that the moisture
content is below 1 per cent. However, when
55 placed in an atmosphere containing a relative
humidity of 65% or above, the yarns and ?la
ments will regain a moisture content of up to 5.5
or more of their weight. The speed of action
and penetration of any saponifying agent ap:
60 plied to the yarns will be proportionate to the’
amount of moisture that the yarn has regained
prior to contact with the saponifying agent even
though the saponifying agent be applied to the
yarns from an aqueous solution. Thus, for pro
65 ducing sharp lines of saponi?cation and an even
saponifying action, it is preferable to have this
moisture regain or content of the yarn as near
the maximum as possible.
70
_
For the purpose of producing substantially the
maximum moisture regain in the yarn or fabric
prior to contacting same with a saponifying
agent, the yarn may be stored immediately prior
to contacting with the saponifying agent in a
75 chamber or container, the atmosphere of which
by placing the feed bobbin on the winding ma
chine in a humidor having a fairly high humidity,
for instance, about 85 per cent relative humidity.
A still further method of building up the mois
ture regain of the yarn is to surround the twist 10
ing machine, or at least that part of it traversed
by the yarn, by an atmosphere that has a rela
tively high humidity, for instance, about 65 per
cent relative humidity. The maintaining of the
atmosphere, through which the yarn passes dur
ing the winding operation, at a high percentage
of relative humidity is of advantage even when
the yarn has been previously conditioned or when
it is fed from a humidor. The atmosphere may
be kept at a high humidity by the escaping of
steam near the feed of the yarn or by suitabl
humidi?ers employing atomized Water, place _'
near the machine.
Any other suitable method ‘ r '
device may be employed for supplying the yarn -
with su?icient moisture that the moisture regain
or moisture absorbed by the yarn is approximate‘
ly that of the maximum moisture content that
the yarn will pick up.
This invention is particularly applicable to the
treatment of yarns or fabrics with a saponiiying 3 0
agent during a winding operation, for instance,
by contacting the yarns with a furnishing device
supplying thereto a solution of a basic material
capable of producing at least su?icient saponi?—
cation to etch the surface or the yarn. Thus,
after the yarns have been conditioned, by raising
their moisture content, and made susceptible to
the saponifying action they may be caused to pass
over a wick or. roller that clips into a solution
containing a base material. The yarns may be
caused to contact the wick or roller continuously
or periodically to produce yarns which are lightly
saponi?ed or sensitized throughout their length
or only at certain periods of their length. For
fabrics this can be done on any suitable device,
for instance, on a printing machine. When treat
ing fabrics the fabric may be conditioned by stor
age in a moist atmosphere and/or unrolled from
> a suitable humidor.
The saponifying agent applied to the yarns or
fabrics during the winding operation need only
be su?icient to etch the yarns as the heavy or
substantial part of the saponi?cation can be
later developed by treating the yarns or fabrics in
a soap solution or other bath having a relatively
mild saponifying action, or one that would not
normally saponify the material at all. The de
veloping bath produces a saponi?caticn of the
material at the parts sensitized during the wind
ing operation and has substantially no e?ect upon 80
that part of the yarn or fabric not contacted with
the saponifying material during the winding op
eration. The action of applying a saponiiying
agent to the material during a winding operation
such that there is a. partial saponi?cation of the
yarn or fabric to an extent that the loss in weight
of the yarn at those pointscontacted is from 2
to 7 per cent of their weight may be termed a
sensitizing action.
The sensitizing material may be any suitable 70
basic material or a solution of a base material
having a pH value of from 10 to 14. Any suit
able basic solution may be employed for this
purposesuch as. an aqueous solution or an al
coholic solution of an alkali hydroxide, for in
amass?
stance, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroig
ide, an aqueous solution” of Vainmon m hydrox
ti
agents may be employed. By varying the‘
ide, a salt of a strong has"
alkali and a weak acid
tizedapart‘sl omthe’yama omfabrics‘jimam'heg caused
concentration, the time and temperature of the
developing? orcse‘cond:sapbriifyingzbathgttheysensiq
to'ilosei‘asiimuchirasm tper centcoiemoreao?ithei-li
acids, organic . compoun
action, etc. Examples of m _
Cl
app eat 'on the; tmsensitizediiportion of;
and an organic acid which ‘“
rwhi E
:sensitizedrya
'50
10 be employed as the sensitizin
mary, secondary and tertia
stance, ethanol amine, methanol
anol ‘amine, di-ethanol amine}
amine and tri-ethanol amine. ”Als'
o
‘
'" " ni-?e'di ot‘fse'n'sitizedi places wlthisubstantially
no isap‘oni?cationi taking; place J'OIFltheJ unsaponi _,
nary ammonium bases may be'i‘iém loye
stance, tetramethyl ammonium
ethyl ammonium hydroxide, etc.
These materials may be appliew
7
from aqueous solutions which solutionsinay’ibe
of any suitable concentration such ‘as the‘lpH
value of the solution has a value of above 1-»1 ‘
In‘
the treatment of yarns which are 1"t'cr'be' used‘ n
certain types of machines wherein they etneces:
sity must pass through small guide‘v e‘y’e'si and
25 needles, it is some times advisable to “select a sen
30
40
lei-yarn 'oiid'abric produceditherefromi k h
‘unit-her ‘saporii?cationsa?ecting {01113751313118
‘
?ca‘ti'on- ‘or, ‘second ‘saponi?catiommay; be‘ desired
to‘ obtain‘greater‘idepthiin i sha'dezrthan where; only
atlightxperlodic\‘saponi?catlonlihasebeenuapplied
originally; or “even1 ito'?Jobtainvsuchiangdegree ‘of
‘sap'oni?ca'tion that ‘the 'saponi?e'diplacesisubstam
mally dye cellulose acetate :,and like yarns but
which have no mantra-motion and the regen
sitizing agent which, when applied to’the' yarn
and after reaction with the acid radicle thereof‘,
eratedl‘v cellulose vyarns. éi'ri'hisifurther sapcnifi'ca
tion for‘ developmentimaylbeiveffected byatreating
forms a salt, the crystals of which do'notinter
fere as the‘yarn passes through said guides.v ‘The
moderate pH? valueisuchiaalfor ‘example;~9 or ~10,
length of treatment that the materials receive in
such solutions is preferably limited such 'thatjthe
‘
tially or completely resist‘:dyestu?sowhichanore
the Yyarns‘l "oi-statues in? hydrolyzingh baths :of ‘
which normally have? substantially :no “ hydrolyz
ing',‘ or: very little and slow‘ I hydrolyzing. 'actio‘nron
the yarns ‘containing organic :esters ‘of 1 cellulose.
materials are not saponi?ed to any great extent‘.
For instance, it is found preferable in most‘ca‘ses ' ‘ 'l'hese-“bathsimay consist‘io?ufor example; soap
to limit the ?rst saponi?cation or sensitization and water',i‘sodium» acetate"and:v ‘water; and; vari
in time, temperature and concentration such that ' ous buffered baths containing ‘sodium, potassium
the yarns at those places treated lose only'about or other! similarly". reacting salts» in‘ the presence
2 to '7 per cent of their weight. Obviously; ‘the of ‘buffering "substances or ‘without the‘ aid of such
concentration, temperature and duration vof buffering? substances. .‘The: result of :the immen
treatment of the yarns will vary according to the sion in such baths oils to, increase the saponi?ca
sensitizing agent employed to produce this li'rrié tion in the saponi?ed ‘onsen‘sitized places with 40
ited degree of saponi?cation. As this sensitizing substantiallymo Tsa‘poni?cation: in‘, thecunsaponi
of the yarns or fabric is preferably done during ‘fled or unsensitlzedl places-‘and: rtheuresult :ofnthe ,
a winding operation the period of time of action reaction ‘is ‘ ‘more_ \‘'rapid ' ‘when’ the »1 temperature“ of
and penetration is relatively short and the tern‘ ‘the bathtis‘ elevated," for“ example,-* to 180‘? C.‘ (up
perature is about room temperature, the concen to‘ thé‘boil; I? The: increase inifsapo‘ni?cation_,isiape
tration should be such that the solution applied precia-ble in"jsuchifbathsi'evenv ithin such times
has a pH value of above 10.
'
After the yarns have been sensitized as above
described, that is, to such an extent that they
have lost between 3 and '7 per cent of their weight,
the same may be formed into, cloth or fabric by
any suitable method. Cloth or fabric so formed
may then be treated in a developing bath or given
a second treatment to saponify the places of the
yarns sensitized to any desired extent. The sec
ond or’ developing bath preferably consists of a
basic solution having a pH value of between 8 to
"as '101to-30rhinutes;
.i
~ ‘If it islnot' idesire'di'to increase the saponi?car
tion of yarns:orrfabrics?sensltized ‘in? accordance
‘~“w'ith thisIinveritionfand it is'de'sirable t‘oxtreat
the vgoodsvili'n" soaprla'nd similarly i'reacting' baths,
50
then‘ the goods may
pretreated byiwa'shing the
reaction‘ product l’o‘f. sensitizing- ‘material; with," the
yarn away from the fabric ?rst ‘with waterfawhich
removes»ithéillacetate :or'i‘other salt of the‘rbase
formed bathe-‘yarn f‘cmfabric during :the sensitiz
55
mg fope'r'atidn. T‘Also;-Ithe: subsequent 'saponifica- '
tion or thevly'a'rnfwhen treatedi in’fs‘oap baths,~etc.
10.5 and the duration and temperature of treat
ment so regulated that the unsensitized portions maybe prevented'by washin’g'indilutaacids prior
to entering the‘ scouring. bathi'icontaining- .the 60
60 of the yarn, if any, are una?ected by the second
treatment. The preferable method of carrying soapifi Byl‘thus treating the yarn‘le‘ither byiw'ash
out this second step of saponi?cation is to treat wing or- by‘ a treatment inadi-luteacidthe"whole I
the fabric in a bath containing from 5 to 10 of the 'ya’r‘rfis'ibrought to such‘ a statefithat \any
grams per litre or more of soap in an aqueous
saponi?cation treatment applledfthereto ‘will not
media at “a temperature from 70° C. to boiling.
The duration of treatment in the soap bath will
depend upon the sensitization, the soap and the
temperature of the bath and may vary between
10 minutes and one hour, depending upon the
a?ect the‘ previously’ sensitized ‘or 1 saponi?ed 'por
degree of saponi?cation desired. Although soap
‘solutions are normally preferred for developing
and further saponifying the sensitized yarns, any
basic solution having‘ a pH value between 8 and
10.5 may be employed and for this purpose dilute
75 solutions of the reagents named above as sensi~
65
tions more thanl'tl‘iefunsensitized or‘unsaponi?ed
portions?“
'
'
"
As an aid‘to illustrating ‘this invention slam '
as limitationathe?following examples are given:
Female 1
I"?
f
f ‘
70
An acetone ‘solublebellulOse‘ acetate yarn ‘is
placed in a humido'r having‘ an? atmospherelof
relative humidity above ‘65‘per v‘cent forv such a
period of timefthatthe vmoisture regain oi ‘the
75
a
amass’?
yarn amounts to about 4 per cent
of the yarn. The yarn is placed
bobbin spindle of a re-Winding
wound at 100 meters per minute
on the Weight
on the supply
machine and
and caused to
contact with a furnishing roller or other device
applying a 20 per cent solution of sodium hy
droxide to the yarn in such an amount that
the yarn is saponi?ed to a weight loss of 5 per
cent when the yarn is washed in cold water to
remove the sodium acetate formed and its weight
loss determined. A quantity of this yarn not
washed in cold water is treated in 10 grams. per
litre soap solution at 99?’ C. for 30 minutes. It is
found that the saponi?cation has progressed to
15 a weight loss of 10 per cent and the affinity for
cotton colors correspondingly increased. It is
found that the saponi?cation of the yarn is uni
form throughout its length and woven into a fab
ric and dyed shows substantially no unevenness
due to irregularities in the depth or amount of
saponi?cation of the yarn.
Example I!
Example I is repeated except that theyarn
during the winding operation is caused to period
ically contact with a furnishing device furnish
ing a sensitizing material containing a ZO'per
cent solution of sodium hydroxide, instead of
continuously sensitizing the yarn. The yarn
dyed with a cotton dyestufi is found to have a
sharp line between the part of the yarn having
an affinity for the cotton dyestu? and the un
saponi?ed part of the yarn. rI'he yarn at the
parts thereof that have been saponi?ed are
found to talce dyes having ai?nity for cotton
evenly, without streaks or variations in shade.
Example III
I
A fabric is formed from yarns containing an
; acetone soluble cellulose acetate, which fabric is
rolled into
package.
The fabric is placed in
a chamber having an atmosphere of relative hu
midity above 65 per cent for a period of time
such that the moisture regain of the yarn
s45 amounts to about 4 per cent on the weight of
the yarn. The fabric is passed through a print
ing device that applies to the fabric in a pattern
a paste containing a saponifying agent. The
labr is then treated in a heated bath contain
ing ii) grams per litre of soap for 20 minutes.
The pattern is found to be developed and takes
dyes having ai?nity for cotton.
‘While in the foregoing specification I have
mH'rr‘ speci?c instances and examples, it is ‘not,
uAuCLi
non-saponi?able and one which permits a rela
tively fast regain of moisture content of ' the yarn
when the same is placed in a humid atmosphere.
An example of a preferred lubricant is a disper
sion of sulphonated naphthene in mineral oil
that may or may not contain an acid color as
a tinting compound.
Having described my invention what I desire
to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Process for saponifying ?laments, yarns, 10
fabrics and other materials having a basis of
ester of cellulose, which comprises subjecting the
materials to the action of a humid atmosphere to
increase their moisture content, and subsequently
saponiiying the materials while they still possess
a high moisture content.
'
2. Process for saponifying ?laments, yarns,
fabrics and other materials having a basis of
organic ester of cellulose, which comprises sub
jecting the materials to the action of a humid 20
atmosphere to increase their moisture content,
and subsequently saponifying the materials while
they still possess a high moisture content.
3. Process for saponifying ?laments, yarns,
fabrics and other materials having a basis of cel 25
lulose acetate, which comprises subjecting the
materials to the action of a humid atmosphere to
increase their moisture content, and subsequently
saponifying the materials while they still possess
a high moisture content.
fabrics and other materials having a basis of cel
lulose acetate, which comprises subjecting the
materials to the action of a humid atmosphere to
increase their moisture content substantially to
its maximum value at the temperature of treat
ment,‘ and subsequently saponifying the materials
while
still possess this moisture content.
5. A process of manufacturing arti?cial mate
rials, which comprises subjecting yarns, ?laments,
fabrics and other materials having a basis of
organic ester of cellulose to the action of a humid
atmosphere whereby their moisture content is
raised substantially, sensitizing to saponi?cation
at least part of the materials by treatment with a
solution having a basic reaction, and then sub
jecting them to the action of an alkaline saponi~
lying agent.
6. A process of manufacturing arti?cial mate—
rials, which comprises subjecting yarns having a 50
basis of organic ester of cellulose to the action
of a humid atmosphere whereby their moisture
content is raised substantially, subjecting the
yarns at intervals alongv their length to a prelimi
" “y intention that the scope of the invention
nary saponi?cation during a winding operation,
‘id be limited thereby as many modi?cations
this process may be employed Without depart
and subsequently subjecting the yarns to further
saponitiication with a substance of low alkalinity
ing from the spirit of my invention.
Numerous effects may be obtained on the‘
torn or labrics produced therefrom by applying ~
." various portions of the yarn a varying amount
oi‘ sensitizing material which results when devel
oping the yarn in a soap bath in a yarn having
iortions, each portio“ having a correspondingly
ficrent degree of . poni‘ication and afllnitv for
the various dyestuns.
Further, there may be
while they still contain reaction products derived.
from the preliminary saponi?cation.
'7. Process for locally saponifying ?laments, Bill
yarns, fabrics and other materials having a basis
~oi organic ester of cellulose, which comprises sub
jecting
atmosphere
the materials
to increase
to their
the action
moisture
of acontent,
removing from selected areas of the material a 65
small proportion of its acidyl content by pretreat
produced novel effects on the yarn or fabric in
ment with an alkaline saponifying agent, where
two Winding operations, the material having a
diiierent moisture content in each winding op~
by the material wherever pretreated is rendered
more sensitive to sapcnification, and subsequently
completing the desired saponi?cation of the pre
treated arcas by treating the material, while it
still contains reaction products derived from the
pretreatment,
less
alkaline than
withthat
an alkaline
employed
substance
in the pretreat
which
ment and which has substantially no saponii‘ying
* era'tion, thus varying the amount and type of
sensitizing places on the iaterial.
The yarns prior to be
treated in an atmos
phere having a relat
lubricated.
y high humidity may be
It is pro: .. red when employing a lu-
bricant for such yarns to employ one which is
30
4. ‘Process ,for saponifying ?laments, yarns,
EJ018337
action on the areas of the material which have
not been pretreated.
'
8. Process for locally saponifying ?laments,
yarns, fabrics and other materials having a basis
of cellulose acetate, which comprises subjecting
the materials to the action of a humid atmos
phere to increase their moisture content, remov
ing from selected areas‘of the material a small
proportion of its acidyl content by pretreatment
10 with an alkaline saponifying agent, whereby the
material wherever pretreated is rendered more
sensitive to saponi?cation, and subsequently com- '
pleting the desired saponi?cation of the pre—
treated areas .by treating the material, while it
15 still contains reaction products derived from the
pretreatment, with. an alkaline substance which
is less‘ alkaline than that employed in the pre
treatment and which has substantially no sapon
I ifying action on the areas of the material which
20 have not been pretreated.
pretreated is rendered more sensitive to saponi-'
?cation, and subsequently completing the desired
saponi?cation of the pretreated areas by treating
the material, while it still contains reaction prod
ucts derived from the pretreatment, with a solu 5
tion having a pH value of from 8 to 11 and which
is less alkaline than that employedin the pre
treatment and which has substantially no saponi
fying action on the areas of the material which
have not been pretreated.
10
11. Process for locally saponifying arti?cial
materials having a basis of. cellulose acetate,
which comprises subjecting the materials to the
action of a humid atmosphere to increase their
moisture content, removing from selected areas
of the material during a winding operation a
small proportion of acidyl content by pretreat
ment with an alkaline saponifying agent, where
by the material wherever pretreated is rendered
more sensitive to saponi?cation, and subsequently 20
9. Process for locally saponifying ?laments, _ completing the desired saponi?cation of the pre
yarns, fabrics and other materials having a basis
of organic ester of cellulose, which comprises sub
jecting the materials to the action of a humid at
25 mosphere to increase their moisture content, re
moving from selected areas of the material a
small proportion of its acidyl'content by pre
treatment with a saponifying solution having a
pH value of from 10 to 14, whereby the material
30 wherever pretreated is rendered more sensitive to
as
pretreatment, with an alkaline substance which
is less alkaline than that employed in the pre 25
treatment and which has substantially no saponi
fying action on the areas of the material which
have not been pretreated.
12. Process for locally saponifying arti?cial '
materials having a basis of cellulose acetate, 30
saponi?cation, and subsequently completing the
desired saponi?cation of the pretreated‘areas by
treating the material, while it still contains re
action products derived from the pretreatment,
which comprises subjecting the materials to the
action of a humid atmosphere whereby their
moisture content is raised substantially to its
with a solution having a pH value of from 8 to 11
and which is less alkaline than that employed in
the pretreatment and. which has substantially no
saponifying action on the areas of the material
removing from selected areas of the ‘material a 36
which have not been pretreated.
40
treated areas by treating the material, while it
. still contains reaction products derived from the
-
maximum value at the temperature of treatment,
small proportion of, its acidyl content by pretreat
ment with an alkaline saponifying agent, whereby
the material wherever pretreated is, rendered
more sensitive to saponi?cation, and subsequently
10. Process for locally saponifying filaments, ' completing the desired saponi?cation of the pre 40
treated areas by treating the material, while it
of cellulose acetate, which comprises subjecting‘ still contains reaction products derived from the
yarns, fabrics and other materials having a basis
the materials to the action of a humid atmos
phere to increase their moisture content, remov
ing from selected areas of the material a small
proportion of its acidyl content by pretreatment
with a saponifying solution having a pH value of
from 10 to 14, whereby the material wherever
pretreatment, with an alkaline substance which
is less alkaline than that employed in the pre
treatment and which has substantially no saponi
fying action on the areas of the material which
have not been pretreated.
"
"
"
.
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