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Патент USA US2108864

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w3@
._i. KUCHAR
@8,864
HYDRAULIC DOOR OPERATOR FOR WAGONS
Filed Aprilzä, 1954
55 Sheets-Sheet l
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.îfeïm 222, i935.
J. KUCHAR
ZQÈÜÉFSÜ’É
HYDRAULIC DOOR OPERATOR FOR WÃCTONS
Filèd April 23, 1934
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5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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2,108,864
Patented Feb. 22, 1938
PATET OFFlCE
'UNITED STATES
2,108,864
HYDRAULIC DÓOR OPERATOR FOR
WAGONS
Joseph Kuchar, Chicago, Ill., assigner to Athey
Truss Wheel Oo., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of
Illinois
Application April 23, 1934, Serial No. 721,877
12 Claims. (Cl. 298-35)
rl‘his invention relates to hydraulic door oper
ators for wagons and trailers, and particularly to
operators for doors- on a wagon adapted to» be
operated by pressure liquid supplied from a
preceding `vehicle» such as a tractor.
The invention is particularly adapted for use
with wagons or trailers having bottom dump
doors which open downwardly when released. In
such wagons the load effects the opening of the
doors when they are released and the door op
erator raises them to closing position after dump
ing.
One of the objects of the invention is to provide
an improved hydraulic door operator.
A further object of the invention is to provide
a hydraulic door operator which permits the
doors to open freely under the action of the
load when released.
A further object of the invention is to provide a
hydraulic door operator with means for return
20 ing the hydraulic motor toits initial door closing
0r operating position while the doors are closed
and before the load is dumped.
'
Other objects, advantages and capabilities of
the invention will appear from the following de
scription of preferred embodiments thereof, taken
in conjunction with the accompanying drawings,
in which
Figure l is an elevational View of a trailer em
30
bodying my invention, and a fragment of a
tractor to which it is hitched;
Fig. 2 is a sectional View, on a considerably
larger scale of the hydraulic cylinder employed
in this embodiment of the invention;
35
Fig. 3 is a rear elevational View of the trailer
showing the mechanism whereby the doors are
closed;
`
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on
the line ll-ß of Fig. 3 showing part Yof the door
40 control mechanism;
Fig. 5 is a similar view, the elements being in a
different operating position;
Fig. 6 is a detail sectional view taken on the
line 6-5 of Fig. 4;
Fig. ’l is an elevational View similar to Fig. l
45
showing a further embodiment of the invention,
and
Fig. 8 is a sectional View, similar to Fig. 2, of
the hydraulic cylinder employed in this embodi
50 ment.
Referring to Figs. 1 to 6 of the drawings, the
reference numeral lü designates a wagon body
supported on an arched axle Il, which in turn
is supported at each end upon track laying wheels
55 I2 of known construction. The bottom of the
hopper-like body I0 is normally closed by a pair
of doors I3. These doors I3 are hingedly
mounted at their outer' edges upon the wagon
and are adapted to meet on the center line of the
wagon when they are closed. Each door I3 car
ries on its underside near its free edge a pair
of pulleys I4, one pulley being located at the
front end of -the door, and the other at the rear
end of the door. A cable I5 passes under the
pulleys I4 and over a pulley I6 carried on the 1.0
front of the wagon body. The ends of the cable
l5are secured to and wound upon a drum Il rotat
ably mounted in bearing brackets I8, mounted on
a channel I9 which is rigidly secured to the rear
wall of the wagon body. It will readily be under- he,
stood from Fig. 3 that when the drum Il is wound
up the tightening of the cable I5 closes the doors
I3. The pulley I6 provides equalization between
the eñ‘ective lengths of the cable .and ensures
complete closing of both doors irrespective of .20
variation in eiîective lengths of cable due to
irregular building up of the wound cable on the
Vdrum Il and other causes.
_
The shaft >2li of the drum Il extends outward
ly beyond one side of the wagon where it rigidly 25
carries a small drum 2l. The shaft 2li is sup
ported in a suitable bearing 22 carried by the
wagon adjacent the drum 2l. The other end of
the drum shaft projects to a lesser extent be
ypnd the adjacent bearing bracket I8 and has 30
keyed thereon a ratchet Wheel 23. An operating
handle 24 is provided for actuating the ratchet
wheel 23 by hand. This handle has bifurcated
ends 25 provided with elongated slots 2B. These
bifurcated ends are located on either side of the 35
ratchet wheel 23 and the shaft of the drum Il
extends through the slots 26. The inner end of
the bifurcated arms is connected by a tooth 2l
which is adapted to engage the teeth of the
ratchet wheel 23, and suitably manipulated by
0
hand. ' Normally the handle 24 hangs downward
ly and the tooth 2l is out of contact with the
teeth of the ratchet wheel 23. To turn the drum
Il by means of the ratchet wheel 23, the handle
24 is raised to a horizontal position, the handle
is moved toward the ratchet wheel so as to
cause the tooth 21 to engage they ratchet teeth.
A downward force exerted on the handle 24 will
cause rotation of the drum I1 in appropriate di
rection to close the doors I3.
50
A suitable pawl 28 is provided for maintaining
the doors closed until it is desired to open them.
This pawl and associated mechanism will herein
after be more fully described. The handle 24
provides a manual means for closing the doors 55
2
2,108,864
I3, this manual means enabling the doors to be
closed in the absence of a tractor or in the event
of the power door operator breaking down.
The pawl Z8 is pivotally mounted in a frame 29.
The frame 29 is pivotally mounted at 30v on the
channel | 9. The frame 29 is provided with a
downwardly extending handle 3| whereby it may
be swung upwardly, in counter-clockwise direction by the pivot 30, as viewed in Figs. 4 and 5.
10 The result of such swinging is to elevate the piv
otal support of the pawl 28 with the result that
the weight of the doors and the load acting
through the cable I5 on the drum I1, causes this
drum and the ratchet wheel 23 to rotate carrying
the ends of the pawl 28 with it into the position
shown in Fig. 5. After the pawl 28 is moved to
the position shown in this yfigure, the drum I1
is free to rotate to allow the doors to open to their
full extent. The open doors are indicated in
20 dotted lines on Fig. 3. The pawl 28 is balanced
so that it is easily returned to its operating posi
tion >by handle 3| or rope 4I and must be returned
prior to winding up drum I1 by handle 24 or by
power means which will hereinafter be described.
25
The frame 29 is normally held in the position
shown in Fig. 4 by means of a spring 32 which
abuts against a pin 33 and against a washer 34
which abuts against nuts 35 threaded on the end
of a rod 36. The rod 36 isnpivoted at 31 to the
30 channel I9 and the frame 29 is provided with an
opening 38 which accommodates the spring 32,
the rod 36 and, in the position of the parts illus
trated in Fig. 5, the washer 34 and nuts 35. The
rod 36 passes through an opening in the pin133
35 and this pin projects laterally on each side into
slots 39 formed in the frame 29 on each side of
the opening 38.
It will be understood from the foregoing de
scription that the pawl 28 may be elevated to
40 release the load by suitable actuation of the
handle 3|. It is preferable to provide means
whereby the frame 29 can also be elevated from
a remote point, for example from the seat of the
tractor 46 shown in the right-,hand side of Fig. 1.
45 Such means may comprise a rope 4| which ex
tends from the tractor to the trailer, where it
is attached to a lever 42. The lever 42 is rigidly
carried on a shaft 43, which also carries rigidly
a short arm 44 located at one sidev of the wagon,
50 forY example, the far side of the wagon, as viewed
in Fig. 1. The arm 44 is connected by a rod or
rope 45 which may suitably be guided in open
ings in the struts 46 on that side of the wagon.
At the end of the wagon on'which is mounted the
55 drum I1, the rod or rope 45 is secured to an arm
41 rigidly mounted on a rod 48. The rod 48 is
provided with a bearing'in a bracket 49 mounted
on the wagon, and the end remote from this
bracket is supported on a bracket 50 carried by
50 the channel I9.
Adjacent the bracket 50 the rod 48 has rigidly
mounted thereon an arm 5| which is connected
by a link 52 to the frame 29. It will readily be
understood that when the rope 4I is pulled for
65 wardly, the frame 29 is elevated, carrying with it
the pawl 28, so that the drum I1 is released with
the result that the load is dumped.
The drum 2l previously referred to has secured
thereto a cable, chain or other suitable flexible
member53 which is adapted to be wound on the
drum 2| when the drum I1 is rotated owing to
the downward movement of the doors under the
action of the load. The flexible member 53 is
secured to the rear end of a piston rod 54.
The
75 piston rod 54 carries a piston 55 which is located
within a hydraulic cylinder 56 mounted on the
adjacent side of the wagon body II] and extend
ing in the longitudinal direction thereof. The
rearmost end of the cylinder 56 is connected by
a fiexible tube 51, pipes 58 on the wagon, and ilex
ible hose 59 between the wagon and tractor 46, to
a hydraulic pump 60 mounted on the tractor 46
and adapted to be actuated by the engine thereof.
The pump 69 need not be described in detail
since it may be any of a number of pumps known
in the art. It is preferably substantially the
same as the pump described and claimed in my
co-pending application Serial No. 609,603 ñled
May 6, 1932 and issued Oct. 22, 1935 as Patent
No. 2,018,269. This pump is controlled by a hand
lever 6| which has five controlling positions, indi
cated a, b, c, d, and e on Fig. 1.
In the position
indicated in'full lines in Fig. l, that is position
a, the pump 69 is unclutched from the engine and
is not operating and free passage is provided for f
the return of ñuid from the cylinder 56 to the
hydraulic fluid reservoir 62.
In the position b of the hand lever 6|, the pump
69 is clutched to the engine and the pump is still
by-passed. -When the hand lever 6| is moved 1
to position c, pressure ñuid is delivered to the hose
59, from whence it passes into the rear end of-cyl
inder 56. The pawl 28 is returned to its operating
position by handle 3| or by rope 4I. By supply
ing pressure fluid to the rear end of the cylinder 30
56 the >piston 55 is forced forwardly with the result
that, if the doors are open, the flexible member
53 is drawn forwardly rotating the drum 2|, and
thereby the drum I 1. The final result is that'the
doors I3 are closed and will remain closed until 35
pawl 28 is again released for dumping the load
or the contents of the body. TheV pump 6,0 is
preferably provided with an automatic by-pass
so that when the piston 55 is moved to its ex
treme position, the pump will automatically by 40
pass fluid thereby avoiding building up of eX
tremely high pressure. When the hand lever 6| is
returned to position'b or a, the doors are/left sup
ported by the pawl 28 and the cylinder 56 is put
into free communication with the reservoir 62. 45
As best shown in Fig. 2, the piston 55 carries a
rearwardly extending open housing 64 which re
ceives the forward end of a coil spring 65. The
coil spring 65 engages a boss 56 on the front end
of the cylinder. When pressure fluid is supplied 50
to the rearward end of the cylinder 55, the piston
55 is moved to the right, as viewed in Fig. 2, and
the spring 65 is compressed. The compressed
spring 65 is located within the housingr64. It
will be readily understood that when the hand
lever 6| is returned to position?) or a the spring
65 will expand, forcing the piston 55 rearwardly
and displacing the fluid therefrom, which fluid
is returned by the pipe connections previously
mentioned, to the reservoir 62. The result Yof 60
this return movement of the piston 55 by the
spring 65 is that the flexible member 53 has
slackened to the maximum extent and is left free
for winding up upon the drum 2|. Thus it will
lbe understood that owing to the action of the
spring 65, the doors I3 are free to open immedi
ately the pawl 28 is released and are not impeded
or slowed up by any dashpot effect which would
be incurred if the rearward movement of the
piston 55 were executed while the doors I3 were 70
falling open. In other words, if the piston 55
had not previously been moved rearwardly, the
opening of the doors I3 would move the piston 55
rearwardly and would displace the fluid in the
cylinder 56 through the pipe connections to the 75
3
2,108,864
reservoir 62 while the doors were opening. The
resistance of the fluid to rapid movement would
create a dashpot or delaying effect which would
impair the utility of the Wagon With sticky loads,
ing said doors closed when the liquid operated
means is in said initial position, and means to
release Vsaid latch means.
3. In a Wagon, in combination, doors adapted
such as clay or certain other loads, such as frozen
dirt. Such loads require, for eflicient operation
of automatically opening doors of this type, doors
which are able to open immediately they are
released.
'I'he embodiment of the invention illustrated in
Figs. 7 and 8 is substantially similar to thatwhich
to open under the action of gravity, a cylinder
on said wagon, a piston therein, means for sup
plying liquid under pressure to one end of said
cylinder to cause said piston to close the doors,
means independent of the .door opening for mov
ing said piston towards said end of said cylinder l0
after the doors are closed, latch means for hold
has just been described. Consequently the same
ing the doors closed when said piston is thus
reference numerals are employed to indicate
those parts which are identical in operation and
function. The distinctive feature of this modi
fication resides in the fact that no spring 65 is
adapted to be opened by their weight and the
weight of the load, a liquid -operated cylinder on
employed, but the piston is returned to initial
position before the opening Vof the doors by pres
sure fluid provided by the pump 60. Owing to
20 the absence of the housing 64 and the spring 65,
the cylinder 56 may be made Vsubstantially
shorter. In addition to the pipe connections 5l,
58, and 59 connecting the rear end of the cyl
inder 5B to one delivery outlet of the pump 65,
25 I provide additional conduits E6, 61, and 68 con
necting the forward end of the cylinder 55 to an
outlet of the pump 60. When the actuating lever
6€ is moved to position c, as shown in Fig. 7,
pressure ñuid is supplied to the rear end of the
30 cylinder 56 for the purpose of closing the doors
I3 as before. When the actuating hand lever El
is moved to position d the fluid is enclosed in the
rear end of the cylinder 56, the piston 55 being
located in the forward end of this cylinder.
35 When the actuating lever 6| is moved to the ex
treme position e, pressure fluid is supplied
through conduits 68, 51, and 66 to- the forward
end of the cylinder 56 with the result that the
piston 55 is moved to its extreme rear position in
40 the same manner as it was moved to this posi
tion by the spring 65 in the embodiment of the in
vention ñrst described. The co-ntrol lever 5l is
now moved quickly to its initial position a, the
pump Sil is rendered inoperative and the flexible
member 53 is elevated in slack condition so that
the opening of the doors when they are released,
occurs Without any delay or dashpot effect owing
to the employment of pressure iiuid for closing
the doors.
Although the invention has been disclosed in
50
connection with the specific details of preferred
embodiments thereof, it must be understood that
such details are not intended to be limitative of
the invention except in so far as set forth in the
accompanying claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent of the United States is:
1. In a wagon, in combination, doors adapted
60 to open and close, liquid operated means adapted
to actuate the doors in one direction, said doors
being operated in the opposite direction by grav
ity, actuating mechanism for moving said liquid
operated means to its initial actuating position in
dependent of movement of the doors, latch means
for holding said doors against operation by grav
ity when the liquid operated means is in said in
itial position, and means to release said latch
means.
70
2. In a wagon, in combination, doors adapted to
open under the action of gravity, liquid operated
means connected to said doors to close them,
means operative independent of the door opening
for actuating said liquid operated means into in
75 itial door-closing position, latch means for hold
moved, and means to release said latch means.
4. In a wago-n, in combination, bottom doors
said wagon, a piston therein, iiexible means oper
atively connecting said piston to said doors,
means for supplying liquid under pressure to one
end of said cylinder to Cause said piston to close 20
the doors, a spring for moving said piston back to
its initial door-closing position when the pressure
of the liquid is decreased, latch means for hold
ving said doors closed when the piston is returned
to said initial position, and means to release said
latch means.
-
5. In a wagon, in combination, bottom doors
adapted to be opened by their Weight and the
Weight of the lo-ad, a liquid operated cylinder on
said wagon, a piston therein, flexible means oper- '
atively connecting said piston to said doors, means
for supplying liquid under pressure to one end
of said cylinder to cause said piston to close the
doors, a spring within the cylinder for moving
said piston back to its initial door-closing posi
tion when the pressure of the liquid is decreased,
latch means for holding said doors closed when
the piston is returned to said initial position, and
means to release said latch means.
6. In a wagon, in combination, bottom doors 40
adapted to be opened by their weight and the
weight of the load, a liquid operated cylinder on
said wagon, a piston therein, flexible means oper
atively connecting said piston to said doors, latch
ing means independent of the door closing mech
anism for holding the doors closed, means inde
45
pendent of the door closing mechanism for un- »
latching said latching means, means for supply
ing liquid under pressure to one end of said cyl
inder to cause said piston to close the doors, and 50
means for supplying pressure iiuid to the other
end of the cylinder to move said piston back to
its initial door-closing position, whereby the doors
may fall open when unlatched without retard
ing dashpot effect of said pistons.
’7. In a wagon, in combination, doors adapted
to open and close, liquid-operated means adapted
to' actuate the `doors in one direction, said doors
being operated in the opposite direction by grav
ity, actuating means for moving said liquid-oper
ated means to its initial actuating position inde
pendent of movement of the doors, a valve
adapted in one position to supply pressure liquid
to said liquid-operated means and in another
position to provide an outlet for the liquid thus
supplied, latch means for holding said doors
against operation by gravity when the liquid
operated means is in said initial position, and
means to release said latch means.
8. In a wagon, in combination, doors adapted
to open under the action of gravity, liquid-oper
ated means connected to said doors to close them,
means operative independent of the door open
ing for actuating said liquid-operated means into
initial door closing position, a valve adapted in 75
4
2,108,864
one position to supply pressure liquid to said
liquid-operated means, and in another position
to connect said liquid-operated means to a sump,
latch means for holding said doors closed when
liquid operated means is in said initial posi
tion, and means to release said latch means.
9., In a Wagon, in combination, doors adapted
to open under the action of gravity, a cylinder
.on said wagon, a piston therein, a valve having
lil one position for supplying liquid under pressure
to one end of said cylinder to cause said piston
to close the doors and in another position to
connect said end of said cylinder to a reservoir,
means independent of the door openings for
moving said piston toward said end of said cylin
der after the doors are closed and after the
valve is moved to said second position, latch
means for holding the doors closed when said
piston is thus moved, and means to release said
11. 1n a wagon, in combination, bottom doors
adapted to be opened by their Weight and the
YWeight of a load, a liquid-operated cylinder on
said wagon, a piston therein, flexible means oper
atively connecting said piston to said doors, a
valve having one position for supplying liquid
under pressure to one end of said> cylinder to
cause «said piston to close the doors and in an
other position to connect said end of said cylin~
der to a reservoir, a spring within the cylinder 10
for moving said piston back to its initial door
closing position when the pressure of, the liquid
is decreased by moving the valve to said second'
position, a latch for holding the doors closed
When theA piston is in said initial position, and 15
means to release said latch means.
l2. In a wagon, in combination, bottom doors
adapted to be opened by their VWeight and the
Weight of a load, a liquid-operated cylinder on
said Wagon, a piston therein, ñeXible means oper 20
l0. In a wagon, in combination, bottom doors. atively connecting said piston to said doors,
adapted to be opened by their weight land the latching means independent of the door-closing
Weight of a load, a liquid-operated cylinder on mechanism for holding the doors closed, means
said wagon, a piston therein, flexible means oper-- independent of the door-closing mechanism for
atively connecting said piston to saiddoors, a unlatching said latching means, a valve having
valve having one position for supplying liquid one position for supplying liquid under pressure 25
under pressure to one end of said cylinder to
to one end of said cylinder to cause said piston
cause said piston `to close the doors and in an,
to close the doors and in another position to
other position to connect said end of said cylinder connect said end. of -saidvcylinder to a reservoir,
to a reservoir, a spring for moving said piston
and means for supplying pressure fluid to the
back to its initial door-closing position when the other end of the cylinder to move said piston 30
pressure of the liquid is decreased by moving the back to its initial door-closing position, whereby
valve to said second position, latch means for the doors may fall open when unlatched Without
latch means.
holding the doors closed when the piston is in
said initial position, and means to release said
latch means.
retarding dashpot effect of said piston.
JOSEPH KUCHAR.
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