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Патент USA US2108900

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Feb. 22, 1938.
H. o. PETERSON
2,108,90
ULTRASHORT WAVE OSCILLATION GENERATOR CIRCUIT
Filed Nov. 8, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet l
JIICWPHO/YE
INVENTOR
H.O. PETERSON
BY IQ)
ATTORNEY
‘
Feb. 22," 1938.
H. o. PETERSON
'
2,108,990
ULTRASHORT WAVE OSCILLATION GENERATOR CIRCUIT
Firled Nov. 8, 1934
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2'
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+4.0. PETERSON
BY
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ATTbRNEY
Patented Feb. 22, 1938
masts ,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFiCE
2,108,900
ULTRASHORT WAVE OSCILLATION GENER
ATOR CIRCUIT
Harold Olaf Peterson, Riverhead, N. Y., assignor
> to Radio Corporation of America, a corpora
tion of Delaware
'
Application November 8, 1934, Serial No. 751,984
10 Claims.
This invention relates to a method of and ap
paratus for generating ultrashort wave oscilla
tions, and in particular to a circuit arrangement
wherein the principal elements of an oscillation
5 generator tube constitute the conductors of a
concentric transmission line.
Heretofore it has been the practice to gener
ate ultrashort wave oscillations with circuits em
ploying a tube and an associated oscillatory cir
cuit connected to the elements of the tube but lo
cated externally of the tube envelope.
One com
mon form of such an oscillatory circuit is a
15
(Cl. 250-36)
former I in circuit with source of energy II, and
at the other end thereof to the inside conductor
through another by-pass capacity. Numeral 5
indicates the insulating dielectric of the capaci
ties at both ends of the line.
It will thus be seen
that the grid 3 is at the high potential end of a
one-quarter wave length resonator, the grid ele
ment 3 being well shielded by the anode ele
ment 4.
It is preferred to operate the tube as a Bark 10
hausen type oscillator, wherein the grid is main—
tained at a high positive potential with respect
transmission line operating with standing waves
to the cathode and the anode at a much lower
upon it.
potential, whereby pendulum motion of electrons
emitted by the cathode is obtained about the 15
'
It is known that if a conventional type of tube
is connected to such a transmission line constr
grid. If desired, a constant magnetic ?eld, such
tuting an oscillatory circuit, that the capacities
as is provided by coil 8 and unidirectional source
of the elements within the tube will cause a
change of constants in the transmission line
which might be sufficiently detrimental to pre
vent the circuit from functioning as a true trans
mission line. One of the objects of the present
invention is to provide an improved form of tube,
so constructed that the elements themselves form
25 a uniform transmission line, and this is achieved,
in the preferred form of the present invention,
by the provision of cylindrical elements con
of potential l4, may be employed to reduce the
structed as concentric transmission lines on which
standing waves are developed.
Although elements of this form are preferred,
it is to be distinctly understood that the inven
tion is not limited thereto, since other shapes of
transmission line may also be employed.
A better understanding of the invention may
35 be had by referring to- the following detailed de
30
scription, which is accompanied by drawings
wherein Figs. 1-4, inclusive, show different em
bcdiments of the invention, and Fig. 1a shows a
cross sectional view of the tube of Fig. 1.
Referring to Fig. 1 in more detail, there is
shown a complete transmitting circuit arrange
ment employing a tube whose elements are con
structed to form a transmission line one-quarter
of a wave length long. In this tube, the ele
45 ments of which are shown located within an
evacuated envelope H), which may be of glass or
other suitable material, there is shown a con
centric transmission line which is one-quarter
of a wave length long comprising an outer anode
50 4 and an inner grid 3, the latter of which is a
55
flow of electrons along the length of the con
ductor. For this purpose, unidirectional source
of potential l2 supplies the grid with a high posi
tive potential and source is supplies the anode
with a much lower positive potential, although
it will be understood that the anode may be at
zero or negative potential with respect to the 25
cathode.
If it is desired to modulate the oscillations,
there maybe provided a modulation microphone
'l which impresses modulating currents upon an
ampli?er 6, in turn connected through a trans 30
former 24 with the anode and cathode of the
tube.
Any suitable utilization circuit, such as an
antenna 9, may comprise the output of the cir
cuit and be connected to the inner'conductor of
the concentric line, as shown.
35
Fig. 1a is a cross sectional view of the tube
along the lines A, A.
Fig. 2 shows another embodiment of the inven
tion, wherein the outside conductor of the con
centric transmission line is made tobe the cathode, 40
electron emission in this case being obtained at
desired points, herein designated 2, 2, spaced one
half wave length apart, by coating the inside of
the outside conductor with suitable electron
emitting material and supplying concentrated 45
heat at the desired points through transformers
l, I.
The inside conductor 3 is the grid, which is .
maintained positive with respect to the cathode
and is shown constructed in the form of a per
forated cylinder.
In this embodiment electrons.
perforated continuation of the inside conductor
passing through the perforations in the cylinder
of the concentric transmission line. The outer
conductor or anode 4 is connected at one end of
the line through a capacity to the cathode 2,
will cause a concentrated space charge within
the cylinder and consequently a repulsion force.
The desired concentration of electron flow at the
which is supplied with. heating current by trans
nodal points of this transmission line‘ is herein,‘
50
2
2,108,900 '
obtained by means of constant magnetic ?eld
coils 8. The potential curve is shown by the 'dot
and-dash lines. The outputcircuits herein com
prise dipole antennae l5, l5 connected with
transmission lines l6, IE to the potential nodal
points on the grids 3. A re?ector ll serves to
concentrate the radiation from the dipoles in
any desired direction.
'
'
,
It will be noted that the magnetic ?elds are
so polarized as to concentrate the flow of elec
trons to restricted sections of the length of’ the
tube. Every other antenna feeder is reversed
and so-connected that the antennae l5, l5 radiate
cumulatively in the direction, perpendicular to
.
,
15 the axis of the re?ector I1.
Fig. 3 shows still a third embodiment wherein
the outer conductor has its inside coated with
suitable electron emitting material at a desired
point which is chosen to give proper loading of
20 the oner-quarterrwave length resonator, as shown
in the drawings. In this embodiment the con
centric transmission line has an overall length
of one-quarter wave length, and the distances
“at” and‘r‘b,” are so chosen as to give the proper
25 loading.
1
V
Fig. 4 shows a still further modi?cation utiliz
ing a magnet yoke IT. The inside conductor of
the concentric transmission line in this instance
may comprise some magnetic material, such as
30 nickel, in which case’a highly concentrated mag
netic ?eld may be produced perpendicular to the
axis of the concentric transmission line. The
electron emitting material is herein shown at the
top on the inside of the outer elements, the out
35 put being shown obtained from a tap at the-bot
tom of the tube over lead “3. The magnetic
‘?eld is so arranged as to concentrate the flow
of electrons to a restricted section of the length
oscillatory circuit in the form of a concentric
transmission line having inner and outer con
ductors of a length substantially a multiple of
one-quarter of the lengthof the operating wave,
said conductors comprising electrodes of said
devices, said inner conductor comprising a per
forated grid over at least a portion of the length
of said conductor, said outer conductor having
its inside coated with an electron emitting ma
terial at predetermined points throughout its 10
length, said points being opposite perforations
on said grid whereby the emission of electrons
from said material enables said electrons to pass
through the perforations in said grid, means for
heating said electron emissive material and for
applying suitable polarizing potentials to said
electrodes, and means for obtaining oscillations
from said device comprising a utilization circuit
connected to a voltage nodal point on said grid.
3. A system in accordance with claim 2, char 20
acterized in this that said predetermined points
on said outer conductor are spaced apart an even
multiple of one-quarter the length of the oper
ating wave, and said utilization circuit, comprises
two antennae each connected to a voltage nodal 25
point on said grid.
4. An ultrashort wave length oscillation gen
erator circuit comprising a multi-electrode elec
tron discharge device having within its envelope
an oscillatory circuit in the form of a concentric
transmission line having inner and outer con
ductors, said inner conductor comprising a per
forated grid and said outer conductor comprising
an anode, a source‘ of electrons located within
said grid, said anode: being capacitively coupled
to said grid at one end of said line and capaci
tively coupled to said source at the other end of
said line, means for maintaining said grid at a
' high positive potential relative to said source and
of the tube. '
'
/
V
anode, and means for producing a magnetic ?eld 40
40 7 It will be understood, of course, that the in
within
the length of said concentric transmission
vention is not limited to the precise details
shown since various modi?cations may be 'made line.
in therstructure of the elements without‘ depart
ing from the spirit and scope of the appended
45 claims, nor is the invention limited to the posi
tive grid type of oscillation, inasmuch as the
principles may also be applied in the type of
oscillation circuit wherein the anode is made
positive and the grid negative with respect to
50
the cathode.
.
7
By the term “multiple of one-quarter wave
lengt ” used in the appended claims, is meant
any multiple ‘including one.
What is claimed is:
55
7
'
~
1. An ultrashort wave oscillation generator cir
lcuit comprising a multi-electrode electron dis
charge device having within its envelope an
oscillatory circuit in the form of a concentric
transmission line having inner and outer con
ductors of a length equal to a multiple of one
quarter of the length of the operating wave, said
conductors comprising electrodes of said devices,
'05
said inner conductor comprising a perforated
grid over at least a portion of its length, said
outer conductor having that part of its inside
portion opposite the perforated grid coated with
an electron einissive material, a source of energy
for heating said electron emissive material for
liberating electrons, means for applying suitable
polarizing potentials to the electrodes of said
device, and a utilization circuit coupled. to said
inner
conductor.
.
-
2. An ultrashort wave oscillation generator
circuit comprising a multi-electrode electron dis
charge device having within its envelope an
5. A circuit in accordance with claim 4, includ- .
ing modulating means connected between said
source and anode for varying the character of the 45
oscillations produced in accordance with varia
tions in the message to be transmitted, and an
output circuit connected to said grid.
6. An ultrashort wave oscillation generator
circuit comprising a multi-electrode electron dis 50
charge device having within its envelope an os
cillatory circuit in the form of aconcentric trans
mission line having inner and outer conductors
of a length substantially one-quarter of the.
length of the operating Wave and which are 55
capacitively coupled together at one of their
ends, said outer conductor comprising a cathode,
‘and said inner conductor the grid of said device,
means for causing said outer conductor to emit
electrons at a point thereon removed from said
one end of said transmission line, and an output
circuit coupled to said grid.
.
‘7. An ultrashort wave oscillation generator cir
cuit comprising a multi-electrode electron dis
charge device having within its envelope an os
cillatory circuitformed of a concentric transmis
sion line having inner and outer conductors ca
65
pacitively coupled together at one of their ends,
said inner conductor comprising a perforated
grid and said outer conductor comprising a cath 70.
ode arranged to emit electrons at the end oppo
site said one end of said line, means for applying
a high positive potential to said grid relative to
said cathode, and means for producing a uni
2,108,900
form magnetic ?eld in the length of said trans
mission line.
8. A circuit in accordance with claim 7, char
acterized in this that said means for producing
said ?eld comprise a coil surrounding said en
velope for producing a constant magnetic ?eld,
and a magnet yoke having poles on opposite sides
of said envelope, said inner conductor of said
transmission line being made of a magnetic ma
10 terial.
9. An oscillation generator circuit comprising
an electron discharge device having a pair of
electrodes in the form of inner and outer con
centric conductors having substantially uniform
15 ly distributed inductance and capacitance, said
outer conductor being substantially an integral
multiple including unity of one-quarter of the
length of the operating wave and being an emitter
of electrons in the form of a cylinder, means for
20 maintaining said inner conductor at a positive
potential relative to said outer conductor where
3
by said inner conductor is a collector of electrons,
means for producing a constant magnetic ?eld
Within the lengths of said concentric conductors,
and a utilization circuit directly connected to
said inner conductor at a potential nodal point
thereon.
10. An ultrashort wave oscillation generator
circuit comprising a multi-electrode electron
discharge device having within its enve
lope an oscillatory circuit in the form of a con— 1O
centric transmission line having inner and outer
conductors substantially one-quarter
of the
length of the operating wave, said conductors
comprising electrodes of said device, said inner
conductor comprising a perforated grid over at 15
least a portion of its length, means for applying
suitable polarizing potentials to said electrodes,
said outer conductor comprising an emitter of
electrons.
HAROLD OLAF PETERSON.
20
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