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Патент USA US2108963

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Feb. 22, 1938.
G. FREUDENBERG ETAL
METHOD OF HAIR WAVING
,Filed Feb. 3, 1936
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Feb. 22, 1938.
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Feb. 22, 1938.
G. FREUDENÉERG ET AL,
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METHOD OF HAIR WAVING
Filed Feb. 3, 1936
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Feb- 22, 1938.
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METHOD oF HAIR wAvING
Filed Feb. 5, 1936
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Feb. 22, 1938.
G. FREuDENBl-:RG ET A1.
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METHÓD Op HAIR WAVING
.Filed Feb.„ 3, 1936
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2,108,963
Patented Feb. 22, 1938
PATENTfoFI-‘ice
UNITED STATES
_` 2,108,963
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`
METHOD OF HAIR WAVING
Gotthard Freudenberg, New York, N. Y., and
Alfred Edmund Reimers, Harrington Park,
v N. J., assignors to The Nestle-Lemur Company,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of Ohio
Application February 3, 1936, Serial No. 62,094
'
zo claims.
(o1. 132-36)
The present invention relates to a method and
mechanical system for hair waving.
'
'Although the present invention has broad ap-A
plication to methods of hair waving' generally
hang down from the hair waving machine or hair
waving head to the various heaters positioned
above the clamps of or around the head of the
woman whose hair was being waved not only gave
5
5 where the hair is submitted to the influence of ' the woman a sense of being encaged and being
subjected to'some unpleasant operation, and in
heat to cause it to take on permanent wave char
acteristics, the present invention, however, will addition, caused the person whose hair was be
be. illustratively described in connection with the
processes of Croquignole hair waving.
10
,
In methods of Croquignole hair waving in use
up to the present time, it was customary to block
off the hair on the woman’s head in squares or
small areas and to gather the strand of hair
from each arca into a strand which strand was
l5 clamped closely adjacent to thescalp by means
of a clamping device.
'
.The end of the strand ywas wound up on the
curling rod until the curling rod reached the
clamp whereupon the curling rod was iitted into
20 pivotal'rnounts in the clamp and was tightened
up by a key and cooperating ratchet combination
on the clamp vand curling rod.
» After the coil of hair had been suitably clamped
and placed on the curling rods as described, and
25 after such curling rods had been placed upon the
clamp and tightened, a small pad having a .felt
`
or fabric face moistened with a suitable solution
with an impermeable foil and/or papervbacking
outwardly was placed on the hair coil.
30
-
The pad was then clamped into position by an
electrical heating device consisting of two elon
gated semi-circular jaw ‘ elements which Were
spring pressed together and which were provided
with electrical resistance heating units, each-of
35 the clamps being preferably connected by in-V
sulated wires to a hair waving machine having
suitable electrical connections or electrical con
_ trols and enabling control ofthe heating eiIect
of the heating devices or heaters.
40
-
_In this process of hair waving the heat applied
by the heating clamp to the pad and to the curl
of hair inside would gradually increase over a
. period of time until'the treatment has been com
-pleted.
`
‘
45
Moreover, with processes of the character just
described, it was not possible readily to control
the amount of heat applied and the amount of
heat tended to increase toward the end of the
treating process before the heaters were removed
i0 with the result that the temperature applied to the .
hair inside the hair waving pady would rapidly
increase particularly when too little solution was
applied and after all the moisture had been
evaporated.
l
In addition, the large number of Wires which
ing waved to remain in substantially ñxed posi
tion without being able to move about, read or
indulge in. other recreation.
The process also took considerable time, usually
requiring a preheating period of 31/2 minutes, a
heating and steaming period of 5.minutes and a
cooling period of 5 minutes, a total of about 114/2
15
minutes before the heaters could be removed.
Other methods of hair Waving have also been
suggested in `which the hair waving machine and
the large number of wires extending dorm to the
head of the customer had been eliminated, which
involved the utilization of pads or pouches filled
ì
4with
dry chemicals. These pouches upon being
moistened would heat up due to inter-reaction of
the chemicals and cause a heating of the hair.
AHo-wever, the amount and control of the heat in
this type of pad Was not satisfactory and the
chemical material, although carefully prepared
and graded, would nevertheless, give uneven
elîects.
`
In addition, the pads would be subjected to the
action oi the atmosphere moisture and tempera 30
ture before being applied to the hair and this also
would cause a substantial variation in the heating
powers of the pad.
It is one of the objects of the present inven
tion to provide an improved process of hair wav 35
ing and particularly Croquignole hair wavingin
which the customer would not be constrained or
caused to remain in ñxed position without being
able to move her head freely, which will eliminate
the necessity- oiv having a large number of wires 40
extending down from the .machine to the head of
thev customer, and which at the same time, permit
an accurate and careful control of the heat ap
plied to the hair, and which further would sub
stantially shorten the period during which the. 45
heaters are applied to the hair andthe time re
quired to complete the- permanent Wave.
With such a shorter waving operation, a greater
burden is placed upon the operator since the
time periods of the shorter heating operations 50
becomemore critical andvin addition the opera
tor must function with greater rapidity and in
creased accuracy.
.
-
l
1t is- therefore a further object of the present
invention to provide a heating arrangement which -
2,108,968
2 .
will enable a more accurate control of the amount
of heat applied to the hair being curled and the
temperature of the heaters when so applied. in
dependent ofthe thought or judgement of the
operator, which although it may be manually
initiated into operation, will be automatically
controlled to prevent overheating or vgeneration
of excessive temperatures,
A still further ohìec't is to provide an improved
relay and which will be thrown bfut of operation
to open the circuit by a thermostat, the heating'
coil of _which may be connected in parallel with
the resistance heater. '
One type of signal may be provided to be i1
luminated when the main heating -current is on
and another type of signal may be provided to
indicate when the heating rods and heaters there
on are still being maintained by- proper temper
-hair waving system of the type described/in-` ature after the main heating 'current has been
cluding mechanical and electrical arrangements
turned
in which the various elements of the mechanical
and electrical arrangements to be used may be _of
an inexpensive and durable construction and may
be more readily assembled, handled, repaired and
replaced.
'
f
.»
Other objects will -be obvious or will appear
during the course of the following specification.
In the preferred construction, the machine is
20 provided with a plurality of heater rods, arranged
in series or in groups, so that assurance will be
had that the heaters will be elevated to the
proper temperature, even though a considerable
time elapse between the time that the first heater
25 is placed upon the pad encircling the coiled hair
and the last heater has been placed in position
_upon the hair coils of the same person or cus
tomer. Each rod may contain a resistance coil
wound so as to assure a uniform distribution of
'
30 heat therealong.
The hair heater or heater clamp which will
hereafter be called the heater, preferably con
sists of two semi-circular clamping heat-storing
oñ‘.
I
~
.
l
10
.
In the preferred construction, the heating ma
chine is so correlated in respect to the head of
hair being treated that the heating machine is
provided with a series of signals indicating to the 15
operator the time at which the heaters may be
applied to the hair and taken away from the hair._
vBy ->using the pre-heating arrangement, as
above described, it is possible to decrease the wav
ing period by half since with the method just 20
described, the pre-heating takes place before the
heaters are on the head for a period of 41/2 min
ut'es While the steaming period withl the heaters .
on the head may be 2 minutes or less, after which
the heaters are removed and replaced on the heat l25
ing rods.
It has been found satisfactory to utilize a hair
waving method or process in which the hair is
clamped close to the roots and then coiled upon.
a curling rod and amxed with assurance that 30
there will be as little space as possible between
the coil of hair upon ythe curling rod andthe
scalp, the heater and the curling rod being adapt
members of a suitable magnesium alloy, devoid of y ed to cooperate in such a. manner that the wav
ing may be carried out very close or substantially' 35
35 resistance heating means, but which may be
heated to a proper temperature when placed on
the heating rods which are constructed so as t6
adjacent to the scalp with a minimum space
required for the clamping operation and for .the
enable the heater to be placed thereon and which `
pivotal mounting of the curling rod.
will insure a predetermined amount of heat being
transmitted to and storéd up in said heater.
Y
It has been found desirable to provide a test
rod’ to receive a plurality of heaters to enable
a determination of the most satisfactory steaming
- period and also to provide a plurality of addi
tional rods to receive and preheat the heaters
employed during the hair waving operation.
Because of the speed of operation it has been
found desirable not to heat all the heaters at one
‘
.
It was found desirable to form the hair waving
pad of a triple layer construction, the inner layer f 40
being made of flannel or felt and the backing con
sisting of parchment paper which is pasted at its
sides to the ñannel. The foil constituting the in
termediatellayer, should preferably be loosely held
between said paper and absorbent and be of suin
45
cient thickness to retain its shape when bent>
over the coiled hair.
.
l
The above and other objects will appear more
time, but just sumcient at a time so that when `clearly from the following detailed description,
they have been elevated to proper temperature which when taken in connection with the accom 50
and the electrical current cut off, they~may bev pany‘ing drawings, will illustrate preferred em
conveniently all applied to the prepared hair coils- bodiments of the inventive idea.
Referring to the drawings:
before any of the heaters fall to too low a tem
perature.
Figure l is affront elevational view of the heat
55
To assure maximum accuracy and relieve the
operator it is desirable to provide an automat
ically controlled, manually initiated electrical cir
ing r'nachine with the cover opened. .
55
Figure 2 is a side sectional view on the line
, 2_2î of Figure 1 with the cover in position.
cuit arrangement which will cut oí the current
Figure 3 is a showing -of the heater rods vof
to the heating rodsiïwhen the heaters have been ' Figure 1 upon the line 3_3 of Figure 2 with the
60 raised to proper .temperature and which will also cover plates partly removed to show the internal 60
indicate when the'lieaters have thereafter fallen construction upon an enlarged scale.
to too low a temperature to be utilized.
Figure 4 is a' fragmentary sectional view on the
This will avoid the _possibility of the heaters line 4_4 of Figure 2 upon an enlarged scale show
overheating due to oversight on the part of the ing the construction and möunting of the ends .~
operatory and also will relieve the necessity 4for of theheater rods.
65
the operator to calculate or set the heating time,
Figure 5 is a fragmentary side sectional view
similar to Figure 2 but on enlarged scale, upon
as heretofore, and will further make it unneces
sary for the operator to turn of! the heating cur
the line 5_5 of Figure 3 of the upper part of
rent when the heaters have been raised to proper thev heating machine.
temperature.
_
Figure 6 is a fragmentary side elevational view
70
The preferred form of circuit for this purpose on the line 6_6 of Figure 3 of the connections
is a thermostatically controlled circuit with a
main relay switch which will be thrown in to
energize the heating rods upon manual actuation
of the energizing circuit for the solenoid of the
on the ends lof the heater rods and mounts '
thereof.
, .
Figures 7, 7a and 8 show one form of thermo-‘
stat, Figures '7 and 8 being respectively side ele
3
'2,108,963
vational and top elevational views, the resistance
heater being removed from the thermostat in
Figure 8 and Figure 7a being a side sectional
_ view upon the line ‘la-1a of Figure 7.
Figures 9 and 10 are alternative wiring dia
grams illustrating the electrical connections to
the heating rods and to thecontrols of Figures
curling rod 29 until the curling rod reaches the
pivotal mounts 28 and 32, whereupon the pivot
bearing 31 of the curling rod 29 may be placed
on the pivot mount 32 and the somewhat larger
pivot bearing 38 of the curling rod 29 may be
placed in the pivot bearing 28.
'
'I'he pawl 30 is resilient and will snap onto the
ratchet 3|.
1 to 8.
Figures 11 and 12 show the heater, Figure 11
10 being the side elevational view of the heater in
position upon the heating rod and Figure 12
being a transverse sectional view on the line
|2-I2 of Figure 11, both being upon enlarged
scale.
Figure 13 is a topperspective view illustrating
15
how a strand of hair is Wound upon the curling
rod and then placed in position on the heater.
Figure 14 is an inside view of one form of hair
waving pad which may be utilized to enclose the
20 coil of hair upon the. curling rod of Figure 13,
part of the pad being broken away to show the
intermediate layer of foil.`
Figure 15 is a top perspective view illustrating
how the heater of Figures 11 and 12 may be ap
25 plied to the coil of hair upon the curling rod
after the pad of Figure 14 has been placed there
on.
Figure 16 is a diagrammatic longitudinal sec
tional view of the coil of hair upon the curling
A
-
The squared extension 39 at the >end of the
curling rod 29 enables the curling rod 29 to be 10
tightened by a suitable key (not shown) whereby
the hair may be tightened.
It will be n"oted that the pivot mounts 28 and
32 are positioned directly over the front edge
of the bar 25 with the result that there will be 15
a minimum stretch of hair between the clamping
rod 26 and the curling rod 29.
l
After the lstrands of hair, about thirty, have
been clamped, wound upon the curling rods 29 »
and then tightened by the operation just de
scribed they may be enclosed in hair waving pads,
one of which is shown in Figure 14.
_
These hair waving pads consist of a sheet o
ñannel or felt 49 to which may be applied 'av suit’
able treating solution, one form of pad beingv 25
about 2‘1/2” square, and being adapted to receive
between 1 to 4 cc. of a suitable treating ñuid
about 2 cc.\being preferred.
~
A
rod enclosed in the heater.
The back of the pad is formed by the sheet
of impermeable fabric or parchment paper 4|, 30
Figure 17 is a diagrammatic plan view similar
to Figs. 9 and 10 of another. electrical wiring
diagram for thev device of Figures 1 to 5 but
utilizing a diiîerent thermostat construction.
the side edges of which are bent over, as indicated
at 42 and glued or pasted down to the faceof the'
fabric 40. Between the paper back 4| and the
fabric face 40 is the yfoil 43, which may be desira
to 5 in heating the heaters of FiguresI 11, 12 and
13 and also illustrating the steaming of the coil
of hair after the heater has been placed in posi
tion as shown in Figures 15 and 16;
Figures 15 and 16.
The heaters B, as shown in Figures 11 and 12,
are each provided with two alloy-metal heat
storing jaws 44, the alloy metal for example be
First, brieily to describe the process of perma
nently waving hair," the head of the_woman is
divided intogareas and the strands 36 of hair
from each of these areas arer collected and
loy, for example containing magnesium and small
amounts of aluminum and manganese;
Among the preferred. alloys which may vbe uti
bly aluminum foil and which is preferably of such 35
Figures 18, 18a, 18h, and 19 illustrate the ther
mostat construction utilized in the circuit of Fig- ' a thickness,- say between 0.001 to 0.003 and pref
ure 17; Figure 18 being a transverse sectionalv erably about 0.002 inch, that .it will retain the pad
view on the line |8-|8 of Figure 19; Figure 18a in position about the coil of hair upon the curling '
,
being a cross sectional view upon line Isa-_Isa rod 29.
Then, after all of the clamped and coiled 40
40 of Figure 19; Figure 18h being a bottom eleva
tional view on the line |8b---|8b >of Figure 18a strands 36 of hair have been enclosed in tl’iel '
and Figure 19 being a side elevational view on the moistened pads, as shown in Figure 14, the heat
ers B, _as shown in Figures 11 and 12, are heated
line |9-|9 of Figure 18.
_
upon the heater rods of the machine of Figures
Figure 20 is a chart including curves illustrat
1 to 5 and placed upon the hair, as indicated in
45 ing the operation of the machine of Figures 1
35
clamped closely adjacent to the scalp by the
clamping device A of Figure 13 which is provided
with a base 25 on which is pivotally mounted at
2l, the lrubber enclosed clamping arm 25. One
end of the bar 25 carries a pivotal mount 28 for
the curling rod 29 and also the pawl 30 to co
60 operate with the ratchet 3| on the curling rod 29.
The other pivot mount 32 for the curler rod 29
is carried by the end of the arm 26 and is asso
ciated with the latch 33 which enables thel arm
26 to be clamped against the side of the base 25
as best indicated at Figure 13.
These clamping devices A are more fully shown
and described and also claimed in the copendlng
‘ application of Otto Seiter, Serial No. 52,520,
ñled December 2, 1935.
'I'he end of the strand 36 is vthen placed upon
the curling rod 29, as shown in Figure'13, and
the ñnger 35 is closed down upon it, such finger
35 being pivotally mounted upon the vcurling rod
29 at 34.
`
»
-
The strand of hair 36 is then wound up on the
50
ing metal known as Dow metal or some other al
lized are those containing about 93 tor96% mag
nesium, 4 to e6% of aluminum and 1/4 to 1/2 of 1%
of manganese.
'
In one construction which has been found sat
isfactory the cylindrical metal jaws or heat stor
ing members 44 are made about 21A» inches in
length, about 1/8 to ,3g inch in thickness and 60
about 3A inch in width having a weight of
about l16 grams or between about 14 to 18v grams. -
The speciñc gravity of the metal used is pref
erably about 1.76 to 1.82'.
'
V
The edges- of Vthese jaws 44 are rounded as in
dicated at 45 as shown in Figure 12 at 46 and they
are intermedially bulged as indicated at 41 in
Figure 16 to accommodate the shape of thecoil
of hair which is usually of maximum protuberance
at the middle portion of the curling rod 29 (see 70
Figure 16).
To the outside faces of the bars 44 are riveted,
the spacer disks l4|! and to these spacer disks are
connected by the same rivets 49 the ends 50 of
the U-shaped arm members 5|.
`
75
4
i 2,108,963
These arms 5| are preferably of sheet metal and
opened or pressed downwardly into the enclosure
at their upper extensions 52 are screwed or riv
eted as indicated at 53 to the lower ends 54 of the
85 it is stopped by contact of its end flange 83
against the flange 94 projecting outwardly from
the face plate 95 of the panel structure M.
, bakelite or heat insulating finger'pieces 55.
The sides of the members 5| are provided with
inturned ears 56 which receive the'pivot rod 51.
When the sliding cover 9| has been moved up
01
Wardly to close the recess 88 of Figure l, the inf
The pivot rod 51 receives the spring 58, the legs turned flange 93 will be stopped against the down
59'and 60 of which press the‘two finger grip ele l turned flange portion 95 (see Figure 5) from the
ments 55 apart and the jaws 44 together.
top 91 of the casing 18 and willbe'locked in posi
The ñnger pieces 55 are provided with the slots tion by the spring locks 98 which are positioned
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
60 and 5|, the outside area of the finger piece ._ ` in the runway 98.
around the slot 6I being preferably _grooved or
The panel structure M includes the base mem
corrugated to enable a convenient ñnger grip ber |111, of say laminated bakelite or some other `
thereon.
relatively strong insulating material.
The lower` slots 68 and the spacer disks 48, as
II‘he bakelite plate | i8 is connected by the stud 15
shown in Figures l1 and 12 limit or decrease the bolts and nuts ||| to the lower ñange |12 of the
amount of heat which may be transmitted from bracket ||3 which at the upper end of its side
the heater jaws 44 to the portion of the ñnger flange |14 is bolted at ||5 to the dependent side
pieces 55 around the slot 6| which is'handled by wall members |15.
the operator. y
The hanger member |18 also provided with an 20
The detailed construction of the heater device inturned portion 4|23 as shown in Figure 4 which
of Figures l1 and 12 and the hair waving pad of contacts with the periphery of the face of the
Figure 14 are covered in copending applications. plate` 95.
n
Thesides of the panel ||8 (see Figure 4) re
It will be noticed that the jaws of the heater
44 of Figures 11 and l2 are curved not only so as
ceive the insulating bars |24, |24', |242 which are 25
conveniently to grip the coil of hair indicated at provided with studs |25 ñlling in recesses or bores
35 in Figure 16, but also the heating rod 15 as
i 25 in said panel to ñx the position thereof.
shown in Figures 1l andy 12, the operation of which
The bars |24, |24', and |242 are provided with
rod 15 is now to be more fully described in con
recesses |21 which receive the end of the shells
nection with the construction of Figures l to 5
30
|28 of the heater rods 15, 15 and 11.
and the wiring diagram of Figure 9 and the ther
Referring to Figure 4, each of the heater bars
mostatic controls of Figures 7 and 8.
v 15, 18 and 11 are provided with a central rod |29
Referring to Figures 1 to 6, the pre-heater ma
of porcelain or some other heat resistant or in- -'
chine is provided with `a test heating rod 15 and sulating material around which is wound the coil
havingy suiîicient place for two heaters as »shown
|39 of resistance wire, the rod |29 and the bar 35
in Figures 11 and 12. A group of three heating
|30 being separated from theshell and spaced
rods 16 having room for 15 rheaters and another within the metal shell |28 by an'insulating pow
group of three heating rods 11 having room for der |31, such as for example the powder composed
15 more heaters are also shown in Figures 1l and
of‘in whole or in partl of calcined magnesium
12, all carriedY on the panel structure M.
40
oxide.
-'
i
'
The panel structure M, as shown in Figures
Into the ends of the shells |28 (see Figure 4)
1 and 2 is provided with a sheet metal stand or
are inserted the connector-elements |34 which
support 18, the base 19 of which is provided with are insulated from the shell |31 by they sleeve
rollers or. other ñoor contact members 88. 'I’he
45 lower portion of the casing 18 forms a compart
ment 8| receiving the drawers 82 carrying the
various supplies such as treating solution, hair
Waving pads, and so forth, as shown in Figure 14,
clamps as shown in Figures 13 and 15, curling
50 rods as shown in Figure 13 and heaters as shown
in Figures 1l and 12.
«
Access is had to the compartment 8| and the
drawers 82 by the doors 83 on the front ofthe
cabinet which are provided with handles 84 (see
55 Figure l). The upper part of the cabinet 18 is
provided with an enclosure 85, the rear portion of
which is provided with the ventilators 88 andthe
front portion of which takes barrel form, as indi
cated at 81. The barrel 81 is intermediately cut
away at 88 (see Figure i) to form an opening
.through which- panel structure M carrying the
|32 and the washers |33.
From the more closely wound portion |35 of 45
the coil |38, a connecting wire extends through
a door through the connector elements |34 and
this connecting wire is clamped upon a shelf |41
at the end of the element |34 by the screw |39.
The p'lugl |34 is provided with the cylindrical 50
portion |35. The shoulder or shelf |31 for re
ceiving the bus bar or contact strip |38 _which is
screwed thereto by the screws or bolts |39 which
extend down to the panel ||0 and are held there
on by the nuts |39a.
'
,
As shown in Figures 5 and 6, the heater rods
16 are similarly provided with shelved cylindrical
members |39 carrying the bus bar |48 and this
bar |48 Ais connected by posts |4| and the screws
|42 (see Figure 6) onto the panel |10.
60
The bus bar |38 in connection with the rods
heating rods 15 to 18 is accessible. The sides of . 11 (see Figure 5) is connected by similar posts
the opening are walled in by the side plates | I6.
|43 to the base plate H0 and circuit connections
’ The side plates | I6 of the recess 88 are provided
65 with angle runways 90 carrying a sliding barrel
|44 and |45 are respectively made to one each
Aof said posts |4| and |43, which in turn supply 65
shaped cover 9| by the tongues 9|a (see Figures the bus bars |40 and |38.
2, 4 and 5). The angle runways 90 are welded at
The supporting construction just described is
their vertical sides I|1 to said side plates IIB (see I the same at vboth sides of the panel structure M
Figure 4). The slide plates I I6 are connected by so that current maybe caused to ñow between
70 the angles |20 to the casing top 9|, the :flange |2| the opposite bus bars |38 and _|48 through the 70
of the angle member |28 conforming to and being coils |38 ‘as shown in Figure 4 to heat the me
bolted, welded or riveted to the curved portion |22 tallic shells |28 of the heater rods 16 and 11.
of the casing 18 (see Figure 4).
_ Referring to Figure 4 because of the insulating
The cover 9| is provided with a handle 92 (see bar |24, the terminal |34 and the insulators |32
Figures‘l and 5). When the sliding door 9| is and |33, the heat generated at the end of the -
2,108,963
shell |28, adjacent where it is inserted into the
recess|21 of the block |24 will be much less
than at the- middle portions of the shells |28 of
of when the heaters B should be removed from4the hair, as indicated at Figures 15 and 16.
the heater rods 18 and 11 so that it is desirable
to Wind the coil |38 more closely at |35 adjacent
the ends thereof and adjacent the support blocks
or bars |24, whereby a. more uniform heat dis
tribution will be maintained over the entire
length of the bar assuring that the two end
10 heaters B placed upon each of the rods 16 and-11
. will be equally heated with the intermediate
groups of three heaters placed upon each of these
rods.
>5
,
v
'I’he cylindrical end portion |41 of the test
15 heater rod 15 (see Figure 6) is connected directly
to the posts |46, with its lower portion cut off to
about the top of theA post |46. The screw |48
screws into said post through the end portion
|41. The lower end of the post, as indicated at
20 |49 passes through the base board/H8 and is
provided with the electrical connection |58.
The >face plate 95, as shown best in Figure 3
y is supported on the posts |55 fitting in the re
cesses |56 in the bars |24 (see Figures 3 and 6)
25 and also on the posts |51. The front and back
of the recess between the blocks |24_, |24' and
|242 is enclosed by the front and rear walls 538
-and 53| (see Figure l). The plate 95 has a cen
.tral squared opening |18, the width of Vwhich is
30 suñicient to permit the rods 16 and 11 to receive
ñve heaters B each of the type as shown in Fig
ures 1l and 12 and is provided with a smaller
recess |1| at the top thereof to expose a portion
'I‘he time intervals will more fully appear in '
connection with the curves of Figure 20.
As shown best in Figure 5, the‘six electric lights
|82 which illuminate the red windows |18 to |88
and the green windows |18' to |88' of Figure 3
are received in the sockets |83 which- sockets in
turn are supported upon the base |84.
v
_ This base is supported by the brackets |85 from 10
the main plate ||8 and the lamps |82 _are -sepa
rated by the partitioning walls |88 so that 'they
will individually illuminate one of >the red or
green windows |18 to |88 and |18' to |88'.
The thermostat |98 and relay devices |89 which 15
are utilized in the circuit are also carried upon
a board |81 which is supported by the bracket
|88 from _the main base |18.
’
'
The4 thermostat elements may be of various
types and for example, as shown in Figures '1 20
and »8 or vFigures 18 and 19 and their structure
and operation will be more fully described. The
relays |89 may be of conventional structure.
` '
Referring to Figure 9, the rods 15, 16’and 11
are respectively provided with circuit connections
|58, |44 and |45, the circuit connections |44 and .
|58 leading to the b_us bars |48 and |88 respec
tively.
rI'he other side of the bars 15, 18 and 11 are
respectively connected by the leads 2|8, 2|| and 30
2|2 to the main conductor 2|3 which returns to
one side- of the electrical source 2|4.
‘
The` other side of the electrical source 2|4 sup
plies Athe conductors 2|5 which in turn supplies
the three conductors 2|8, 2|1 and 2|8.
said rod to receive two heaters B. .
Referring to the operation of oneof the but
|12
provides
i
The lower part of the face plate
tons |18 in Figure 9 (see also the> control board
ofthe rod 15 which will be suilicient to permit
a control and signal board which has- a button
|13 operating the test rod 15, another button |14
for operating the group of rods 16 and a third
40
button |15 for operating the group of rods 11,
These three buttons |13, |14 and |15 can only
be operated one at a time by an arrangement
which will be subsequently described in connec
tion with the wiring diagram of Figure 9 so that
the heat will be applied only to the rod 15 or to
45 the group of rods 16 or the group of rods 11.
The throw out button |18 (see Figure 1) en
ables the rods 15 or 18 or 11, according to which
is operating to be thrown out of operation.
The central panel |11 covers a central opening
in the lower portion |12 of the plate 95 behind
which is positioned a series of electric lights, say
six in number, which electric lights' respectively
illuminate the red windows |18, |19 and |88, said
windows being respectively illuminated when the
rods 15 or the rods 16 or the rods 11 are being
heated by the coils |38.
’
Positioned alongside of the red windows |18,
|19 and |88 are the corresponding' green windows
|18', |19’ and |88’ (see Figure 1) which become
60
illuminated when the red lights go out.
The wiring circuit of Figure 9 which is to'be
described, is so arranged that the lights |18 to
|88 will automatically be turned off when the
rods 15 to 11 have reached the desired tempera
ture and the green lights will then remain illum-'
inated after the current is cut oil' from the rods
15, 1G and 11, until the rods will have cooled to
such a low temperature that the heaters B there
on cannot be satisfactorily applied to a hair coil
as illustrated in Figures 16 and 17.
The green
lights indicate to the operator the period when
the heaters may be applied to the hair coils.
The clock |8| which is positioned alongside of
the central panel |11 enables a ready indication
-in Figure 3) the two contacts 2282 and 22|’ are
normally closed while the contact 2|9 is -open.
, Buttons |14 and |15 are also respectively pro
40
vided with normally opened contacts 228 and
22|, while the throw oif button is provided with ,
three closed contacts 2193, 2283 and 22|3.
When the button |18 is depressed to operate>
the test rod 15 the contacts 2282 and 22|’ _which 45
are on the circuit of the rods 18 and 11 will be
opened and the Contact 2|9 will be closed.
The opening'of the contacts 22|)2 and 22|’ will
prevent heating of the rods 16 and 11 when the
50
rod 15 is being heated.
The closure of the contact 2|9 on the other
hand, will establish a circuit through the 'conduc
tors 222 and 223 through the coil 225 and con
ductor 226 to contacts 2|9’ of button |14.
Then from the contact 2|9' the current will 55
flow to and through the contact 2|92 which will
be closed when the button |15 .has not been de
pressed. From the contact 2|92 the current will
ñow to the contact 2193, which will remain closed
when the throw off button |16 has not been op 80
erated.
From the contact 2|93 the current will flow
through the conductor 221 to the thermostat |98
and from the thermostat |98 to the lead 234 and
back to the source of energy 2| 4 through the 65
conductor m3. ,
-
-
The flow of current just traced, however, exists
only long enoughr to pick up the armature 228
of the relay |89, .thus closing the main circuit
from the conductor 2|6 through the switch 228, 70
the conductor |58, the heater rods 15 andthe
lead 2|3 back to the source ~2|4’.
The circuit 2|6>---|58 thus closed, however, will
assure continued 'energization of the solenoid coil
225 by the Icy-pass resistance 224 and the con 75
6
2,108,963
ductor 226 past the closed contacts 2|9’, 2|92,
and 2| 93. Therefore, the relay switch 228 will
remain closed until the circuit through the coil
225 is opened at one of the contact pairs 2|9’,
Ul 2|92 or 2|93, or by the opening of the contacts
249 of ‘the thermostat |90.
'I'he ends of the leaf structures _240 and 242
of the thermostat |90 (see Figure 8) are provided
respectively with down turned and upturned end
10 fingers 25| and 252 which contact with the end
of the adjusting screws 253 and 255. These
screws are supported in the brackets 254 and
258.
y
»
able to set the clock |8| to a desired number of
minutes of steaming time and when the clock
rings a bell, as shown, which may >be provided
therein or lights a light which may also be pro
vided if desired, the heaters of Figures 11 and 12
are removed from the hair coils, as shown in Fig
ures 15, 16 and replaced in the same order on the
rods 15.
i
’
As indicated in Figure 20, the solid curve 258
diagrammatically -represents the change in tem 10
perature of the semi-cylindrical elements 44 of
the heaters of Figures 11 and 12 while the dotted
curve 259 represents the temperature of .the hair
The center leaf structure 24| is made of ther
coil.
.
15 mostatic bimetallic construction and is much
As soon as and as long as the solenoid 225 has
stronger in its resilient action so that when it is been energized the switch 228 forming part of
in extreme positions it Will force the iingers 25| the relay |89 will be closed completing the circuit
and 252 off their adjusting screws 253 and 255 of the heater rod 15 across> the contacts 229 and
230.
f
as indicated by the space 263 in Figure 7a..
20v
As indicated in Figure 8, and also in Figure 9,
The current will also ñow in parallel with the
when the coil 233 starts to heat concurrently with heater rod 15 across the conductor 232 which will
the rod 15 the structures 240 and 24| will move illuminate the red signal |18 and through the
together with the contacts 249 closed to main
resistance 233 and the conductor 234 to the
tain a circuit to energize the solenoid 225 and other side of the circuit 2|4 said resistance 233
25 lclose the relay |89. In four to five minutes the - forming part of the thermostat construction |90.
leaf structure 24| will have moved suñiciently so
The construction |90 of Figure 9 is shown in de
that the finger 25| -will come in contact with the tail in Figures ‘7 and 8 and it consists of an in-'
end of the adjusting screw 253 stopping move
sulated base 235 which is screwed at 236 to the
base |81 (see Figure 7).
"
ment of the leaf structure 240.
30
However, the bi-metallic structure 24| will
The basev carries the Z-brackets 231 and 238
continue to move toward the leaf structure 242 which are screwed at 239 and 244 to said base
Y which is _stopped against the end of the screw 255, 235 and at their upper ends are provided with con
to close the contact 250.
_
_
nections 258 to the resistance heater 233 which
The adjustment of the screws 253 and 255 is circuited across the conduits |50 and 234, as
35 should be such that as soon as the contacts 249
have separated then the contacts 250' will be,I
closed and referring to Figure 9, this operation
will extinguish the red signal |18 and connect
the conductor 2.51 to the conductors 234 and 2|3
shown in Figure 9.
_
15
20
25
30
35
The opening of the _contacts 2_49 lshould take
place-when the rod 218 has been heated to the
Directly under the resistanceheater 233 are
the spring leaf constructions 240, 24| and 242
which are normally in the position as shown in
Figures '7a and 8 when cold. The spring con
struction 24| may include bi-metallic elements, 40
as may also the constructions 240 and 242.
The leaf structures 240, 24| and 242 are mount
proper temperature say between 700 and 800 de
grees F. The opening of the contacts 249 will
ed at 259 and clamped together with insulating
separators 260 by the bolts 26|.
40 illuminating the green signal |18'.
-
45 deenergize the solenoid 225 of the relay |89 per
The leaf structures 240. 24| and 242 are re
45
initting _the switch 228 to open and cutting off ' spectively connected to the binding posts 243, 244
the heating coil |30 within the rod 15, and the and 245 as shown in Figure 8. _ The leaf struc
tures 240 and 24| are adapted to be electrically
-connected by the contacts 249 while the -leaf struc
The extinguishing of the red signal |18 and _ tures 240 and 242 are adapted to be connected by 50
50
lighting of the green signal |18’ is an indication the contacts 250. 'I‘he _center leaf structure 24|
_to the operators of the machine v(see Figures 1 ' is'al'so preferably provided with radiating ñns not
to 5) that the heaters on the rods 15 have been shown or other radiating means to assure that it
_will cool down suñlciently rapidly to correspondv
elevated to the proper temperature for applica
55 tion _to the pad enclosing the coil’of hair as in ' to the rate of cooling of the heater rod 15 and _
Figures 15 and 16.
'
the heaters thereon.
Since no further current has been supplied to
It will be noted that'in Figure 20 the thermo
the rod 15 and to the resistance element 233 of stat of Figures 7 and 8 is adjusted so that the
the thermostat |90, the temperaturewill begin current will be on for about four minutes pre
senting a red signal whereupon a thermostat will 60
to fall and as soon as this occurs the bi-metallic
vstructure 24| will move back to original position ~automatically turn off the current to the heating
as shown in Figure 8, -with the contacts 250' rod 15, and also turn off the red signal |18.
closed until the ñnger 252 strikes the end of the
At the same time, the green light |18' will light
heating resistance element 233 of the thermostat
device.
adjusting screw 255.
65
`
for such a period until the heater rods 15 or the
heat storing elements“ thereon, as indicated in 65
tinue to move toward the position of Figure 8 'Figures 11 and 12 will have fallen in tempera
the contacts 250 will be separated opening the ture so that they mayno longer be satisfactorily
circuit across the green signal |18' which will utilized for Waving hair.
give an~ indication to the operator of the ma
As indicated in Figure 20, the heating is dis-A
70 chine of Figures 1 to 5 that the heating clamps continued when the temperature of the heater 44 70
of Figures 11 vand 12'are now at too low a tem
increases to 700 degrees F. or above and when the
perature to be u_sed in permanent hair waving current is then turned off by the thermostat |90
the temperature will increase for a short while
In the meanwhile, when the operator has re
and then will rapidly drop, as .s_ui‘liciently high
75 moved >the heaters from the rods 15, hewlll b@ temperature above 700 degrees F., however, being
Since the bi-metallic structure 24| will con
operation.
_
-
'
‘
15
7
2, 108,963
have about the same length of treatment, say
three minutes.
Usually, a normal head of hairwill have about
30 coils of hair to be treated necessitating the
utilization of 30 heaters B.
maintained for about two minutes as indicated
by the green signal.
y
As soon as each of the heaters of Figures 11
and 12 have been removed from the rod 15 and
placed upon the hair coil, their temperature will
drop Very rapidly as shown by the curve 258 in
Figure 20 and at the same time, temperature of
the hair coil Will abruptly be raised to the steam
In such a case, as soon as the heaters have
Abeen'removed from the rods ~1li and then re
placed thereon, after the hair has been steamed,
the pads are removed from the hair which is per- '
ing temperature, as shown by the dotted curve 259
10 which steaming temperature may be 4maintained
mitted to cool to room temperature, as indicated
in Figure 20, by the dotted curve.
The other 15 coils of hair are then processed in
for a period of time which may vary with the
character of hair from between one to three
minutes.
-
the same manner by heaters B raised to temper
'
The test rod 15 holding two heater devices, as
15 shown in Figures 11 and 12 enables a testing of
a strand of hair which will' determine the best
heating period for the entire head of hair.
It will be noted in referring to Figure 20 that
the temperature curve 258 of the heaters || and
20 I2 is so controlled that the hair will be substan
tially raised to the steaming temperature of 212
degrees well within the first twenty seconds and
maintained at such temperature for substantially
a minute and a half.
When the steaming has
ature on rods 11.
v
The heating of the rods 11 may be initiated by 15
pressing the button |15 to close the contact 22|
and open the contacts 2|!)2 and 220', the latter
preventing simultaneous closure of the switches
228 and 228’.
_
`
i
Only one of the rods or group of rods 15, 16, 11
may be heated at one time in view of the fact the
buttons |13, |14 and |15 in closing their own
circuits simultaneously open the circuitsV of the
other groups.
.
been completed, the heater B of Figures 11 and
The red signals |81, |19 and |80 respectively
12 is removed from the hair and replaced on the
rod 15.
The pad of Figure 14 is then removed from the
hair coil and the hair coil ispermitted to cool
30 while tightly coiled upon the curling rod 29 as in
dicated at Figures 15 and 16 before it is un-wound
therefrom so that it will attain a permanent wave
effect.
indicate when the rods 15 to 11 are being heated
and the green signals |18? to |80’ indicate when
the rods 15 to 11 have been raised to proper tem
perature‘ so that the heaters-B may be removed
The process just described in connection with
the test rod 15 may be repeated in connection
with the groups 16 and 11, similarly functioning
parts being indi-.cated by the same numerals
primed in the Wiring diagram of Figure 9.
In connection with the heating rods 16, the but-~
40 ton |14 when depressed will close the normally
open contact 220 and open the contact 2|9’ and
22|2. This will energize the solenoid |89’ and
close the switch 220’ whereupon electric current
will ñow through the coils and the heater rods 16,
the opening of the contacts 219' and 22|2 pre
venting closing of the switches 228 and 2282.
At the same time, the red signal |19 will light
and when the rods 16 has been heated to the
proper temperature the contact 249' will open->
and the contact 250’ will close extinguishing the
lamp |19 and illuminating the green signal |19',
which will remain lighted until the thermostat
|90' again causes opening of the contacts 250’.l
During this interval when the green signals
GO
therefrom and applied to the hair coils.
l
` 30
The throw oiî button |16> controls contacts
2 |93, 2203 and 22 |3 which normally remain‘closed,
but which, when open, will throw out the‘ relay
switches 228, 228’ or 2282.
It is, of course, apparent that each one of the 35
heater rods might be provided with an individual
control as test rod 15 or the rods 15 to 11 could
be arranged in other groupings to carry a smaller
or larger number of heaters than two for the rods
40
15 or l5 each for the groups of rods 16 and 11.
It has been found, however, in commercial
practice that the grouping as set forth herein is
most satisfactory and lends itself to the conven- _
ience of the operator of the hair waving machine.
'I'he wiring diagram of Figure 17 is substan
tially the same as that of Figure 9 except that
the thermostatic arrangement of _Figures 18 and.
19 is utilized in lieu of the thermostatic arrange
ment of Figures 7 and 8.
Identical parts on Figure 17 as on Figure 9 are
indicated by the same numerals as on Figure 9.
The thermostat of Figures 18 to 19 is normally
supported from the base 300 by the mounting
are on (for say approximately two minutes) -the
sleeves 30| which are attached-to the base by
screws 531.. The thermostat construction per se
operator may successively remove the 15 heat
storing members B from the rods 16 and place
them upon the coils of hair enclosed in the pad
is provided with the opposite contact carrying
plates 302, 303 which are spaced apart by the
sleeves 538, said sleeves receiving the bolts 539
as indicated in Figures 15 and 16.
which screw into the mounting sleeves 30|.
~
„
Between the contact plates 302 and 303, is po 60
sitioned
the bi-metallic thermostatic plate 304.
'oiî the 15 heaters B from the rods 16 and apply- `
The thermostatic plate 304 at its adjacent pe
ing them to the hair will take about one minute.
riphery is provided with studs 540 which carry
At the start of the operation, the clock |81 is
the contact plates 54|.
_
'
.
operated to ring at the end of the desired steam.
._ 'I'heïbiÍ-metallic plate 304 carries one plate 54|
ing time determined by the test previously de Aatfone side to cooperate with the contacts 3|3
scribed (which steaming time, for example,'may and three plates 58| atthe other‘side toV coop
It has been found that this operation of taking
be about three minutes).
'
‘
‘
’
As soon as the clock IBI-rings indicating the '
erate with the contacts 3| |, 3| |' and 3|2.- `
'
, The contacts 3|3, best shownin Figures 18a
steaming time is up, the operator then removes-`~` and 1822 are adjustable and they includethe> stud
screws‘ 542 which are lockedin position by lock
coils assaid heaters B Weregplac‘ed/thereon. »
nuts_5__ß3 on the spring leaves`544. The spring
By removing the heaters _from the ’rods'lß and’ leaves’ 544 are' connected at 545 to the binding
the heaters B inthe same order from >vthe 'hair'
75
2,5
then re-.placing them on'th'e rods' '1_8 ¿inthe same
order, assurance is had: that `eachcoil 'ofv hair> will
posts 301.
The binding posts 301 are provided
with'the clamping screw 546.` The insulating
10»
8
` 2,108,963
plates 541 are positioned between the leaves'544
and the base plate 302.
In the alternative wiring diagram of Figure 10,
,
the rods 15, 16 and 11 are controlled by means
The recess 548 permits ready access to the ` of thermostatic bi-metallic plates 325, 325', 3252',
studs 542 and lock nuts 543 to *enable adjust
3253 which are respectively provided with the
ment.
_
auxiliary heating coils 326, 326', 3262, 3263. One 5
,
'I‘he binding posts 305 are connected to the of the higher resistance heating coils 3263 of the
contacts 3| 2. The binding posts 306 are each plate 3253 is connected in parallel or in shunt
respectively connected to one of -the members of with each of the heating coils 326, 326', 3263.
the pairs of contacts 3|| and 3||a. The other When heated to the predetermined .temperature
contacts of the pairs 3|| and 3| la are connected _ the plates 325 will snap over into the dotted line 10
by the studs 555 (see Figures 18a and 18b) to positions opening the circuit.
the end leads of the resistance coil 3| 1.
A single relay construction 321 with the sole
The studs 555, the coil 3|1, the posts 305 and noid 328 and the switch 329 is employed, the
306 and the contacts 3| |, 3| la and 3|2- are insu
particular rod or group of rods to be heated
15 lated from the plate 303 by the insulating _discs
510 and 51|.
By the arrangement, as shown when the bi
metallic plate 304 snaps away from the contacts
3H, Sila, and 3|2 the resistance heating coil
20 3|1 will be entirely cut off from the circuit 2|6,
250 and the circuit through the main resistance
heater 215 will be broken at two points at both
sides of the auxiliary resistance heater 3|1.
The snap action of the bi-metallic plate is ad
justable since the plate is supported at 556 by
the threaded stud 551 which screws through the
outer plate 303 of the thermostat.
By loosening the lock nut 558 and applying a
wrench to the squared end 559 of the stud 551,
an adjustment of the bi-metallic plate 304 may
be had.
The heating coils, as diagrammatically indi
cated at 3|1, 3|1’ and 3|12 on Figure 17 are as
sociated with the bi-metallic plate 304 so as to
being determined by the manually actuated se
lectorl switch 330. This selector switch 330 is
adapted to establish connection with the con
tacts 33|, 33| 233|2 respectively connected to the
rods 15, 16 and 11.
There are two push buttons provided, the start 20
ing button 600 and the throw out button 60|.
When the button 600 is closed it will cause ener- -
glzation of the solenoid 328 through the circuit
602, 603, the resistances 604, 605, the conductor
606, the thermostat 3253 and the conductor 601 25
back tothe source. `Energization of the solenoid .
328 after closure of the switch 329 through the
conductors 602, 608, the switch 329> and then
through the same course as previously described.
The throw-out button 60| will act as a shunt 30
across the solenoid- 328 to enable de-energization
thereof at any time.
`
‘
When the switch is in the position of Figure
10, the rod 15 will be heated and the red signal
cause snapping of said plate from the position as
|18 in parallel with the rod 15 is illuminated until
shown in Figure 17, where it closes the contacts _ the resistance coil 326 heats up the thermostat
3| I, 3| la and 3| 2 to the opposite position where plate 325 suilìciently to cause it'to snap over.
it closes the contacts 3| 3 and opens the contactsV
'I‘his will open the circuit through the rod .15
and the red signal |18. The opening of the cir
As is apparent from an inspection of Figure cuit at the plate 325 will cause an increased cur ,40
40
17, when the circuits are closed by one of the ' -rent to flow through the conductor 6|0 lighting
buttons |13 to |15, the current will ilow across the green signal and through the conductor 6||
the respective contacts 3|| and-3| la to energize and the respective coil '3263. .
,
the respective rods 15 to 11 and to light the
As a result the plate 3253 will be heated and
45 respective red signals |18 and |80 which are ar~
in a short time the plate will snap over into dot 45
ranged in parallel with said rods 15 to 11.
ted line position de-energizing the relay solenoid
It will be noted that the thermostatic heating 328 and opening the switch 329. 'I'his will hap
resistances y3|1 to 3|12 in case of Figure 17 are pen before the plates 325, 325' or 3252 have cooled
arranged in series with the heating rods instead sufficiently to snap-back into solid line position.
'I'his opening of the switch 329 may also be ac-. 50
50 of in parallel therewith as in Figure 9.
When the rods 15 to 11 in the diagram of Fig-4 complished at ~any time desired by closing the
u?e 17 have' heated sufñciently, the resistance button connection 60|. The green signal |19
elements 3|1 to 3|12 will have sufficiently raised will then be extinguished.
the temperature of the bi-metallic platesv'304
To start the pre-heating again it is necessary
55 respectively to cause them to snap over into the
to close the switch 600, when the plates 325 to 55
opposite curvature from that indicated in Fig
3253 have cooled and snapped back to their solid
- _ure 17 and close the contacts 3|3 cutting of! the
line positions, and after the vrod or rods 15 to 11
supply of electric current to the heater rods 15` to be heated have been selected by the switch 330.
to 11.
"
Instead of heaters of the type of Figures 11
60
The closure of the contacts 3|3 will cause the and 12, heaters with resistance coils in their jaws 60
illumination of the green signals |18', |19' or may be employed and positioned in connector
|80' respectively.
~
sockets or between spring contact clips which
As soon asv the thermostats havecooled down, cause a heating current to elevate such jaws to
the thermostat plates 304 to 3042 of Figure 17 a desired temperature. lThis ofcourse would
65 will snap over to their initial positions, as indi
eliminate the rods 15 to 11 but the circuits of 65
cated in Figure 17, to await another operation Figures 9, 10 and 17 and the stand of Figures 1 , l
by the push buttons |13 to |15.
’
It is, of course, obvious the circuit connections,`
as shown in Figures 9 and 17 may be varied so
70 as to cut in a resistance into the circuit of the
~rods 15_to 11 and thus maintain them at the ele
vated temperature for a longer period of time
and it is also possible to arrange the circuits so
that the rods 16 and 11 will be successively or
75 simultaneously heated to the desired temperature.
to 5 could be readily employed.
-
The connector ’sockets or spring contact clips,
which might close the circuit across contact pins
or bosses at the ends ofthe jaws 44 of the heaters 70
might be conveniently arranged in rows in lieuA
of the rods 15 to 11.
It is apparent that many other variations and
modiñcations ínightbe made in the device as
speciñcally described by way of illustration above
9
and it is to be understood that the illustrative
l embodiments described thereinhave been set
forth herein not by Way of limitation, since it is
intended to cover all such modlñcations and va
riations within the scope of the present invention.
In the thermostat of Figures 18 to 19, the
heater coil 3H may also be placed outside of
either plate 302 or 303 to give a more controlled
heating eiîect, and if desired, the space between
the plates 302 and 303 may be provided with an
10 ~ annular closure to decrease the cooling rate of
the disk 304.
What is claimed is:
'
1. A process of permanently Waving women’s
15 hair which comprises selecting a strand of hair,
clamping the strand closely adjacent the scalp,
winding the strand upon a curling rod until
Wound up to the place of clamping, enclosing the
wound up strand in a moistened pad, preheating
20 two metal surfaces to a desired elevated tempera
ture to cause several minutes steaming of the pad
Without additional heating, indicating when the
surfaceshave been heated and are being main
tained at said desired temperature, and then
25 clamping the pad between the previously heated
.9,0
metal surfaces.
2. A process oi--permanently Waving women’s
hair which comprises dividing the. head into
areas of desired size, position and shape, select
ing strands from said areas, clamping the strands
of hair closely adjacent the scalp, winding up
the strands into tight coils up to the place of
clamping, enclosing said coils in form retain
ing absorbent pads backed by metal foil, then
the strands into tight coils up to the place of
clamping, enclosing said coils in form retaining
absorbent pads backed by metal foil, then heat
ing a series of cylindrical metal elements, in
dicating the heating period and also indicating
When the metal elements have been suiiìciently
heated, thereupon automatically cutting off the
current, removing said metal elements succes
sively from the heater device and clamping them
onto the enclosed coils, indicating when the metal
elements should be removed from the hair coils
and successively removing them from said coils
and replacing them in the same order in 'the
heater device and then removing the pads to
permit the hair coils to cool, said indicating be
ing achieved by actuating visual signals.
5. A process of permanently Waving Women’s
hair Which comprises dividing the head into
areas of desired size, position and shape, select
ing strands from said areas, clamping the strands
of hair closely adjacent the scalp, Winding up
the strands into tight coils up to the place oi’
clamping, enclosing said coils in form retaining
absorbent pads backed by metal foil, then heat
ing a >series of cylindrical metal elements, in
dicating the heating period and also indicating
When the metal elements have been sufficiently
heated, thereupon automatically cutting off the
current, removing said metalV elements succes
sively from the heater device and clamping them
onto the enclosed coils, testing the character of
the hair to determine the length of time said
elements should be applied and when they should
be removed, indicating when the metal elements
10
15
20
25
30
should be removed from the hair coils and suc
35 heating a series of cylindrical metal elements ' cessively removing them from said coils and re- \
indicating the duration of the heating period and
also when the metal elements have been suñi
ciently heated, thereupon automatically cutting
oñ the current, removing said metal elements
40 -successively from the heater device and clamping
them onto the enclosed coils; indicating when the
metal elements should be removed from the hair
coils and successively removing them from said
coils- and replacing them in the same order in
45 the heater device and then removing the pads
to permit the hair coils to cool'.
'
3. A process of permanently waving women’s
hair which comprises dividing the head into areas
of desired size, position and shape, selecting
strands from said areas, clamping the strands of
50 hair closely adjacent the scalp, Winding up ,the‘
strands into tight coils up to the place of clamp
ing, enclosing said coils in form retaining ab
sorbent pads backed by metal foil, then heating
a series of cylindrical metal elements lby a heater
55
device, indicating the heating period and also
indicating when the metal elements have been
placing them in the same order in the heater
device and then removing the pads to permit the
hair coils to cool.
6. A process of permanently Waving Women’s 40
hair' which comprises dividing the head into
areas of desired size, position and shape, selecting
`a number of testÁ` strands from certain of said
areas, clamping the strands of hair closely adja
cent the scalp, winding up the strands into tight
coils up to-the place of clamping, enclosing said
coils in form retaining absorbent pads backed by
metal foil, then heating the same number of cy
lindrical metal elements, indicating the heating
period and also indicating when the metal ele 50
ments ?have been suiiiciently heated, thereupon
automatically cutting off the current, applying
the heated metal elements to the test strands for
diilerent periods to determine the proper length
of the heating period, then clamping, winding 55
and enclosing the' strands from the remaining
areas as previously described- and heating and
indicating the remaining metal elements as afore
suiîiciently heated, thereupon automatically cut
described, then removing said metal elements
ting off the current, removing said metal ele
ysuccessively from the heater device and clamping 60
ments
successively
from
the
heater
device
and
60
clamping them onto the enclosed coils, indicating them onto the enclosed coils, indicating when
the metal elements should be ~removed from the
when the metal elements should be removed from. halr'coils
and successively removing them from
the hair coils and successively removing them said coils and
replacing them in the same order
from said coils and replacing them in the same in the heater device and then removing the pads
65
order in the heater device and then removing
65
the hair coils to cool.
the pads ,to permit the hair coils to cool, said to ‘7.permit
An electrical preheater _comprising an ob
heater device heating said metal elements >in liquely disposed panel board with an upwardly
groups andsaid elements being placed upon the facing recess receiving a plurality of parallelly
enclosed hair coils successively and removed in disposed rods, each enclosing an electrical resist
70
70 the same ord'er in said groups.
-
4. A process of permanently Waving women’s
hair which comprises dividing the head into areas
of desired size, position and shape, selecting
strands from said areas,vclamping the strands
75
of hair closely adjacent the scalp, winding up
ance coil, said rods receiving a plurality of
heaters with curved jaws to conform to the shape
of a hair coil to be preheated and applied to the
hair to cause waving; said rods applying heat to
said heaters to be stored and expended when 75
10
W
2,108,963
.
said heaters are> applied to coils of hair to be ,heat the same provided with a circuit arrange
waved.
-
ì
v
8. An electrical preheater comprising an ob
liquely disposed panel board with an upwardly
facing recess receiving a `plurality of parallelly
disposed rods, each enclosing an electrical resist
ance coil, said rods receiving a plurality of
I heaters, each provided with two elongated par
tial cylindrical bulged jaw members consisting
10 of a heat storing metal alloy, said jaw members
being provided with heat'insulated handle mem
- bers and with a spring biasing said jaw members
together, each of said heating rods including a
cylindrical metal shell, a porcelain rod therein
15 carrying a resistance coil and an insulating ma
ment to enable only one group to be heated atv af
time.
13. An electrical pre-heater for heaters to be
used in permanent hair waving comprising a
stand to be supported upon the iloor, an ob
liquely ‘disposed panel boardv carrying controls
at the lower portion thereof and carrying at the
upper portion thereof a plurality of elongated
electrical resistance heater rods to receive the 10
heaters', each including a metallic shell, a porce
lain rod supported therewithin, a heating coil
wound on said rod and an inert ñller between
said coil and said shell, means for supplying elec
trical current to said coil and means for auto 15
matically cutting off current to said coil when
terial between the coil and the shell.
9. An electrical preheater comprising an ob
the heaters have been raised to a predetermined
liquely disposed panel board with an upwardly
temperature, said> rods being horizontally and
facing recess receiving a plurality of parallelly parallelly disposed.
K
20 disposed rods, each enclosing an electrical resist
14. An electrical pre-heater for heatersto be 20
ance coil, said rods receiving a plurality of used in permanent hair waving comprising a A
heaters, each provided with two elongated par
stand to be supported upon the floor, an ob
tial cylindrical ja`w members consisting of a heat liquely disposed panel board -carrying -controls
storing lmetal alloy, said jaw members being pro j at the lower portion thereof and carrying at the
25 vided with heat insulated handle members and upper portion thereof .a' plurality of resistance
v25
with a spring biasing said jaw members to
heated rods to 'cooperate with said heat storing'
gether, the coil of each of said'heating rods be
and transferring Aheaters to be first placed on the
ing electrically insulated from the shell, said rods and then on clamped coils of hair enclosed '
coil being wound more closely adjacent the ends in pads, said rods being arranged in groups to be>
of the shell.
~
separately elevated to desired temperature, one 30
10. An electrical preheater comprising an group to receive test heaters and the other series
obliquely disposed panel board with an upwardly-- to receive heaters to be used in the waving oper
facing recess receiving a plurality of parallelly ation, said rods being horizontally and paral
35
disppsed rods, each enclosing an electrical re . lelly disposed.
sistance coil,l said rods receiving-a plurality of
15. An electrical pre-heater for heaters to 'be
heaters, ,each-provided with two- elongated par vused in permanent hair waving comprising a
35
tial lcylindrical'jaw members consisting of a heat y stand to be >supported upon the floor, an ob
storing metal alloy, said jaw members being pro
liquely disposed panel board carrying .controls
vided with heat insulated handle members and ¿at the lower portion thereof and carrying at the
40 with a spring biasing said jaw members tó
l‘upper portion thereof a plurality of resistance 40
gether, and signal means to indicate the heat-` heater -elements _to receive the heaters, a man
ing period and another signal to indicate when ual control to enable supply of current thereto,
said rods have been heated to proper temperature. an automatic control lto out off the current when
11. An electrical preheater comprising an the heaters have been elevated to proper tem
45 obliquely disposed panel board with'an upwardly
perature and signals to indicatefwhen the cur 45
facing recess receiving a plurality of parallelly .rent is on and on'.
disposed rods, each enclosing an electrical re
16. An electrical pre-heater for preheating
sistance coil, said rods receiving a plurality of heaters to be used in permanent hair waving com'
heaters, each provided with two elongated par
prising a stand to be supported upon the iloor, an
50 tial cylindrical jaw members consisting of a heat -
storing metal alloy, said jaw members being pro
videdv with heat insulated handle members and
55
with a spring biasing -said jaw members to
gether, said rods being arranged in groups, one
group being for test purposes and> other groups
being for the heating of the heaters to be succes
sively applied to the hair during a permanent
obliquely disposed panel board carrying controls
at the lower portion .thereof and carrying at the
upp'er‘portion thereof a plurality ofresistance
heater rod elements to receive the heaters, a
manual control to enable supply of current there
to and an automatic control to cut oiï the current 55
when the elements have been _elevated to proper
temperature, said heater elements being arranged
waving operation, and means «for successively so as to enable independent heating thereof,
'heating said groups.
whereby separate elements may be successively
60
12. An electrical preheater comprising an raised to the desired elevated temperature.
60
obliquely disposed panel board with an upwardly
17. An electrical pre-heater for ,preheating
facing recess receiving a plurality of parallelly heaters to be used in permanent hair waving com
disposed rods, each enclosing an electrical re prising a stand to be supported uponf the ñoor,
sistance coil, said rods receiving a plurality of an obliquely disposed panel board carrying con
65 heaters, each provided with two elongated par
trols at the lower portionthereof and carrying
tial cylindrical jaw members consisting of a heat at the upper portion thereof a plurality of re as
storing metal alloy, said Jaw members‘being pro
sistance heater rod elements to receive the
vided with heat insulated'handle members and
with a spring biasing said jaw members to
70 gether, said rods being arranged in groups, one
group beingfor test purposes and other vgroups
being for heating of the heaters to‘be successive
ly applied to the lhair during a permanent wav
ing operation, and manual switch means to in
heaters, a manual control to enable supply of
current thereto and an automatic control to cut
off the current when the heatersfhave been ele 70.
vated to proper temperature. and -signals auto
matically actuated to indicate when’the current
is on and has been cut oil'.
'
-
18. A hair waving- pre-heater comprising at.
75 itiate supply of electrical energy to said rods to - stand, a panel ’ construction carried by said'
11
`2,103,963
stand adjacent the upper portion thereof, said
panel carrying a plurality of heater receptors for
said heaters to enable preheating of said heaters
and a control board provided with manual means
to permit energization of a receptor or selected
group of receptors and preheating of the heaters
thereby and also provided with means to indicate
when the receptors are being energized and when
the heaters have cooled.
19. A hair Waving preheater for hair waving
10
heaters comprising a stand, a panel construction
carried by said stand adjacent the upper portiony
thereof, said panel carrying a plurality of heater
receptors for said heaters to enable preheating
15 of said heaters and a control board provided with
manual means to permit energization of a re
ceptor or selected group of receptors and pre
heating of the heaters thereby and also provided
with means to indicate when the receptors are
20 being energized and when the heaters have cooled,
said heater receptors each including a rod with
a metallic shell and electric heating resistance in
said metallic shell and electrically insulated from
said shell, the Winding of said coil being closer at
the ends of said rod than in the middle portion of
said rod.
20. A hair Waving pre-heater for hair Waving
heaters comprising a stand, a panel construction
carried by said stand adjacent the upper portion
thereof, said panel carrying a plurality of heater
receptors for said heaters to enable preheating
of said heaters and a control board provided with
manual means to permit energization of a re
ceptor or selected group of receptors and pre- Q
10
heating of the heaters thereby and also provided
with means to indicate when the receptors are
being energized and when the heaters have cooled.
said panel construction being obliquely disposed
and being provided with a recess receiving said
heater receptors and an insulating panel -posi
tioned behind said heater receptor and thermo
static and relay switch controls carried by said
insulated panel.
GOTTHARD FREUDENBERG.
ALFRED EDMUND REIMERS.
20
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