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Патент USA US2108990

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Feb. 22, 1938.
E. MORLOCK
‘
2,108,990
APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS SPLI'I‘TING OF FATS OR OILS
Filed July 6, 1956
Fig.2
Fig.5.
After/16y
2,108,990
Patented Feb. 22, 1938
UNITED STATE 5-
PATENT orFlcl-z
2.108.590
APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS SPLIT
TING 0F FATS OB OILS
Emil Moi-lock, Franklort-on-the-Maln, Germany
assignor to American Lnrgi Corporation, New,
York, 'N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application July 8, 1938, Serial No. 89,131
In Germany January 15, 1935
ZCll-ima. (C1. 87-.4)
This invention relates to an apparatus for the
continuous splitting of fats or oils.
It is known to split-up oils or fats into fatty
acids and glycerine by intimately mixing the
b. Compartments d, e, j, a, h. are formed in the
autoclave by the partitions o. The mixture to be
split is supplied through the pipe 1:, and the prod
uct of the operation is discharged by way of the
pipe I. The shaft b is passed through the walls
5 fats with added water and exposing them to suit
able temperatures. At the same time addi of the autoclave with the aid of stu?lng boxes.
tions of zinc, zinc oxide and other substances, The shaft is driven through a belt pulley'i or the
possessing the property of facilitating the split
ting process, are often employed. The use of such
10 additions can also be dispensed with by operating
at temperatures between the approximate range
of ZOO-240° C.
The splitting is performed in autoclaves, ar
ranged vertically or horizontally and provided
with mechanical or hydraulic stirring devices for
the purpose of mixing the oil or fat and water.
The known method of procedure is usually in
termittent, inasmuch as the autoclave is emptied
when the treatment of each charge is completed.
20 Proposals have also been made for rendering the
process continuous by passing the mixture to be
decomposed through a. conduit of adequate
length. This method however, has failed to
acquire any practical importance, because partial
25 separation of the mixture of oil‘ andsplitting
agent occurs during the passage through said
conduit, and also because the time required for
producing the maximum result of the splitting
treatment entails the employment of conduits of
like.
_
_
,
The stirrers c are of similar design to the ro
tors or guiding devices of multi-stage rotary 1°
pumps (Figs. 3 and 4). They consist, for ex
ample, of two annular discs es and c4 mounted on
the shaft 1) by means, for example, of a hub 01.
Located between the two discs are the blades n,
and there is an intake gap 02 between each disc
and the hub. These devices set up, in the several
compartments a brisk‘ circulation which may, for
example, follow the course indicated, for the
compartment d, by the arrows shown.
Since, under normal working conditions, a sta
tionary condition obtains the amount of sub
stance. that can pass over from one compart
ment to the next-preferably by way of the
opening 11 at the bottom of the partition—is only
so much as corresponds to the quantity that is
continuously admitted into, and discharged from,
the autoclave.
Since the quantity actuated by
the stirrers is a multiple of that introduced into
the vessel, a positive circulation takes place in so
the several compartments.
The autoclave is partially ?lled with liquid
The present invention aims at providing an
apparatus which enables continuous splitting to . for example, up to the level 111; represented by a
broken line in the drawing—-so that the action
be fully accomplished. To this end, in accord
ance with the invention, the autoclave-which of the stirrers produces an emulsion of fat, water 85
and steam or of fatty/acid. glycerine, water and
is preferably horizontal, and is ?tted with stir
rers-is so designed that chambers are formed
steam. The amount of the liquid contents is
for example, either by the stirring mechanism selected so that the time during which the ad
itself or by auxiliary devices-in which, from the mitted liquid remains in the vessel corresponds
point of admission of the liquid onwards, the de
to the period needed for the splitting.
40
40 gree of splitting attained increases by stages.
The circulation in the compartments can also
In order more clearly to understand the inven
be .produced by devices other than those de
tion, reference is made to the accompanying scribed. For example, the shaft b can be pro
drawing, which illustrates diagrammatically and vided with radially designed blades which impel
by way of example, one embodiment thereof, and the liquid contents radially outwards from the 45
in which:—
'
centre. A structure of this character is shown
Fig. 1 is a vertical longitudinal section, whilst in Fig. 5 in which b-l is the shaft and r are the
111g. 2 is a diagram representing the course of
the splitting process in the various compart-_ stirring‘ blades. This stirring ‘mechanism can
30
inconvenient length.
50
ments of the autoclave: and
Figs. 3 and 4 represent details of the stirring
mechanism.
Fig. 5 illustrates a side view of a modi?ed stir
ring mechanism.
.
Referring to Fig. 1, a is the autoclave, with the
actual stirring members c mounted on the shaft
maintain an ordered circulation in each com
partment, even without the partition 0. Each 50
stirring unitcirculates large quantities of liquid,
the volume of liquid within reach of each unit is
continuously acted upon by the same unit, and
only so much liquid can pass from one stirring
device to the next as is'supplied.
2
The advantages oi’ the apparatus of the pres
ent invention are as i'ollowsz-
_
Owing to the active circulation in the several
compartments, no portions of the introduced liq
old can pass, in a more or less direct manner, to
the outlet, and consequently the ‘calculated dura
tion of the exposure to treatment in the appara
tus is actually realised. Moreover, a further sub
stantial advantage results from the circumstance
10 that the degree 01' splitting in the several com
each 01’ said stirring devices including a pump
like rotor body having intake ports in the central
portion thereof and outlet ports in the peripheral
portion thereof and being capable of causing
poweri'ul circulation of said material along a plu
rality of circular paths in a vertical plane, parti
' tion walls between said stirring devices restrain
ing said material against displacement in the
horizontal direction, and relatively small open
ings in said partition walls for transferring small 10
quantities of liquid from each stirring device to‘
partments increases by stages, the cause of this
advantage beingthat the rate at which the split
the subsequent one in accordance with the ad
ting proceeds depends on the degree of fissionv mission of fresh liquid to be treated to the auto
existing for the time being. If no fatty acid, or clave.
15 only a small amount of same, be present at the
2. Apparatus for the continuous splitting of
outset, the splitting proceeds slowly, and the. rats or oils comprising a horizontal autoclave
same occurs as the end of the process is neared
of elongated i’orm,'intake and outlet openings at
that is to say, towards the attainment of the opposite ends of said autoclave to introduce ma
maximum possible end condition. By reason of
20 the admitted liquid becoming mixed at once with
the charge material which has already attained
‘a certain degree of splitting, the reaction immedi
ately sets in vigorously, and progresses intensively
in the several compartments up to the last com- I
25 partment, in which the ?nal condition is present.
terial to be treated thereinto and to remove treat
ed material therefrom, a shaft rotatably mounted 20
in said autoclave in the direction of the longi
tudinal axis thereof, a plurality of hubs spacedly
mounted on said shaft, 8. pair of annular discs
held by each of said hubs, an intake gap between
each disc and its associated hub, a plurality of 25
‘blades between each pair of annular discs and
The increase in the degree of splitting in the
several compartments is diagrammatically rep \ forming a stirring device therewith to cause pow
resented in Fig. 2.
'
eri'ul circulation of said material along a plural
I claim:
'
ity of circular paths in a vertical plane, parti
30 1. Apparatus for the continuous splitting of tion walls between said stirring devices dividing 30
fats or oils comprising a horizontal autoclave said autoclave into a plurality of‘ compartments,
of elongated form, intake and outlet openings at and small openings in the lower portion of said
opposite ends of said autoclave to introduce liq
partition walls for permitting restricted ?ow of
uid material to be treated thereinto and tore
material from one compartment to the follow‘;
35 move treated material therefrom, a shaft rotati
ing one in accordance with the amount of fresh
ably mounted in said autoclave in the direction liouid admitted to said autoclave.
of the longitudinal axis thereof; a'plurality of
stirring devices spacedly mounted on said shaft,
mm. MORLOCK.
CERTIFICATE OF commoner.
Patent No. 2,108,990. ~
February 22,. 1938 .
EHIL MORLOGK. ' ,
It is hereby certified that error appears’ in the printed specification
of the‘above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 1, second
column, line 55, after "supplied" and before'the ‘period insert the words
to the _ former from the other side; and that the said Letters Patent should
be read with this correction therein that-the same may conform to the 'r‘ec-‘
0rd of the case in the Patent- Office.
Signed and sealed this 12th day or July, A. 1). 1958.
(Seal)
‘Henry Van Arsdale,
‘Acting Commissioner of Patents.
2
The advantages oi’ the apparatus of the pres
ent invention are as i'ollowsz-
_
Owing to the active circulation in the several
compartments, no portions of the introduced liq
old can pass, in a more or less direct manner, to
the outlet, and consequently the ‘calculated dura
tion of the exposure to treatment in the appara
tus is actually realised. Moreover, a further sub
stantial advantage results from the circumstance
10 that the degree 01' splitting in the several com
each 01’ said stirring devices including a pump
like rotor body having intake ports in the central
portion thereof and outlet ports in the peripheral
portion thereof and being capable of causing
poweri'ul circulation of said material along a plu
rality of circular paths in a vertical plane, parti
' tion walls between said stirring devices restrain
ing said material against displacement in the
horizontal direction, and relatively small open
ings in said partition walls for transferring small 10
quantities of liquid from each stirring device to‘
partments increases by stages, the cause of this
advantage beingthat the rate at which the split
the subsequent one in accordance with the ad
ting proceeds depends on the degree of fissionv mission of fresh liquid to be treated to the auto
existing for the time being. If no fatty acid, or clave.
15 only a small amount of same, be present at the
2. Apparatus for the continuous splitting of
outset, the splitting proceeds slowly, and the. rats or oils comprising a horizontal autoclave
same occurs as the end of the process is neared
of elongated i’orm,'intake and outlet openings at
that is to say, towards the attainment of the opposite ends of said autoclave to introduce ma
maximum possible end condition. By reason of
20 the admitted liquid becoming mixed at once with
the charge material which has already attained
‘a certain degree of splitting, the reaction immedi
ately sets in vigorously, and progresses intensively
in the several compartments up to the last com- I
25 partment, in which the ?nal condition is present.
terial to be treated thereinto and to remove treat
ed material therefrom, a shaft rotatably mounted 20
in said autoclave in the direction of the longi
tudinal axis thereof, a plurality of hubs spacedly
mounted on said shaft, 8. pair of annular discs
held by each of said hubs, an intake gap between
each disc and its associated hub, a plurality of 25
‘blades between each pair of annular discs and
The increase in the degree of splitting in the
several compartments is diagrammatically rep \ forming a stirring device therewith to cause pow
resented in Fig. 2.
'
eri'ul circulation of said material along a plural
I claim:
'
ity of circular paths in a vertical plane, parti
30 1. Apparatus for the continuous splitting of tion walls between said stirring devices dividing 30
fats or oils comprising a horizontal autoclave said autoclave into a plurality of‘ compartments,
of elongated form, intake and outlet openings at and small openings in the lower portion of said
opposite ends of said autoclave to introduce liq
partition walls for permitting restricted ?ow of
uid material to be treated thereinto and tore
material from one compartment to the follow‘;
35 move treated material therefrom, a shaft rotati
ing one in accordance with the amount of fresh
ably mounted in said autoclave in the direction liouid admitted to said autoclave.
of the longitudinal axis thereof; a'plurality of
stirring devices spacedly mounted on said shaft,
mm. MORLOCK.
CERTIFICATE OF commoner.
Patent No. 2,108,990. ~
February 22,. 1938 .
EHIL MORLOGK. ' ,
It is hereby certified that error appears’ in the printed specification
of the‘above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 1, second
column, line 55, after "supplied" and before'the ‘period insert the words
to the _ former from the other side; and that the said Letters Patent should
be read with this correction therein that-the same may conform to the 'r‘ec-‘
0rd of the case in the Patent- Office.
Signed and sealed this 12th day or July, A. 1). 1958.
(Seal)
‘Henry Van Arsdale,
‘Acting Commissioner of Patents.
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