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Патент USA US2109028

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Feb.‘22, 1938.
v
w, J‘ MILLER
2,109,028
PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed NOV. 4, 1931
ll Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.‘
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BY
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Febr22, 1938.
w. J. MILLER
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed Nov. 4, 193]
2,109,028
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ATTORNEY
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Feb. 22, 1938.
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed Nov. 4, 1951
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vPROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed Nov. 4, 1931
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Feb. 22, 1938.
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed Nov. 4, 193]
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed NOV. 4, 193]
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Feb. 22, 1938.
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION‘FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed NOV. 4, 193]
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INVENTOR:
Feb. 22, 1938.
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
Filed Nov. 4, 1931
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR' MAKING POTTERY
Filed Nov. 4, 193]
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Feb. 22, 1938.
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PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR MAKING POTTERY
INVENTOR.‘
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Patented Feb. 22, 1938
2,109,028
~ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE _
PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR‘ MAKING
POTTERY
~
.,
William J. Miller, Swissvale, Pa.
I
Application November 4, 1931, Serial N0.' 573,017
'
75.01am!-
This invention relates to methods and apparatus for manufacturing pottery ware, particularly plates, cups, saucers and kindred shapes
from clay and has to do particularly ‘with improvements in processes, installations, mechanisms,_and apparatus, for the manufacture of
pottery ware.
'
'
.
(Cl. 25-2)
changing from one clay to another without inter
vrupting production.
q
To maintain a predetermined bulk of clay in
the blank or semi-formed ware and to provide
for quick alteration in a known degree of this 5
bulk without interrupting production.
To adjust in a known degree the thickness of
This application is a continuation in part as to the blank without altering its bulk and without
all divisible subject matter of my application for
interrupting production.
10 United States Letters Patent Serial No. 343,693
To feed the clay to molds‘ with substantial 10
now matured into United States Letters Patent
avoidance of inclusion of air and other foreign
No. 2,046,525. In my French Patent No. ‘701,108 ' substances in the clay, and mastication thereof,
and my Dominion of Canada Patent No. 342,561 after the clay has been once conditioned.
and my United States Letters Patent No.2,0‘i6,525
15 there are described processes and equipment for
the manufacture of pottery ware on mass production lines from the clay mass to the formed
ware ready for the ?ring kilns, all the operations
being mechanical without requiring the clay or
20 ware to undergo any manual operation or even
of the latter pressure.
-
a
To effect more dependable release of the blank
from the forming die._
i 20
to-be touched by human hands. The numerous
instrumentalities of this equipment, moreover, are
capable of adjustment, interchange, or both,
To provide quick location in accurate position
of the ware forming dies and pro?le tools and
means for varying the distance between dies and
mostly without arresting the general operation of
pro?les to a predetermined‘ extent.
the equipment, giving great ?exibility in the
quantity and variety of ware produced andallow-
To provide for quick adjustment and inter- 25
change of the ware pro?ling and other forming
'ing the production to be effected economically
tools and accessories.
under the most varying requirements ranging
from large output of a few staple kinds of ware,
30 to relatively small orders of many were varieties.
’
To provide for very rapidly spreading the
charge over the mold and at a gradually increas- 15
ing pressure and a high terminal pressure; and
to avoid or considerably reduce undesired yielding
The present invention relates more particu-
larly to further improvements in the mass pro-_
duction of pottery ware along the general lines
_
'
To provide a common source of ?uid supply in
the various steps of manufacture while permit
ting adjustment of application in the individual 30
steps.
_
To effect immediate removal of trimmings oi’
clay to preferred points of deposit during ware
described in my said copending application, and
35 which may be associated with or substituted for
corresponding steps in the processes or corre~
spending apparatus in the equipment described
therein, but which are capable of independent
use,
40
The main objects of the present invention will
now be outlined as follows:
To produce high grade jiggered pottery ware
In the circulation of ware molds onva con
veyor, in a closed cycle through fabricating sta
tions, to provide for automatic take-up of slack 40
in the conveyor at predetermined places.
In the circulation of ware molds on a conveyor
fully automatically from preformed slugs of conditioned clay.
45
To prevent damage to the porous molds due to
temperature inequalities between the same and
the clay applied thereto.
To prevent sweating cf the clay during drying.
To produce simultaneously a multiple of shapes,
in a closed cycle through fabricating stations, to
halt temporarily an element of the conveyor
while maintaining the adjacent conveyor ele- 45
ments taut.
Other objects and advantageous features of
my invention are shown anddescrlbed in the ac
companying drawings wherein like characters of
50 sizes‘ and styles of said ware.
reference designate corresponding parts and 50
To form clay gobs or mold charges of measured
bulk which may be varied while continuing production.
To produce pottery ware in a multiple of types
of clay simultaneously and provide for quickly
forming operations.
'
To convey surplus clay removed from the ware 35
surface, away from the pro?le tool to beyond the
brim of the mold.
wherein:
'
-
.Figure l is a diagrammatic view of a complete
installation including slug preparation and ware
formation units, and a dryer; the dryer showing
an extra forming unit on the top and also mech- as
2
2, 1 09,028
anism for regulating conveyor chain slack. Fig.
Fig. 40 shows the construction of the water
1A is a sectional and diagrammatic elevation of
an intermittent pug mill for supplying clay, heated
nozzles;
' if desired, to the feeder conveyors; Fig. 1B is an
elevation showing a pug mill extruding directly‘
onto angles; Fig. 10 shows the angle containing
Cl
a slug of clay; Fig. 1D shows a quick method of
positioning the slug on the feeder conveyor; Fig.
adapted to prepared slugs C of conditioned pot- '
IE is a front view of the pug mill.
10
tery clay,-if desired heated,‘ which slugs are
deposited on angles D, Fig. 10, of suitable mate 10
rial for enabling them to be handled; or ex
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the complete ma
chine for forming ware;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the machine;
truded directly into the feeding apparatus as
Fig. 4 is a sectional view in elevation on line
IV-‘IV of Fig. 3;
15
'
I
-
per Fig. 1A; a fabricating machine comprising a
feeding station A, a pro?ling station B and a.
conveyor '5 for transporting a series of mold trays, 15'
suspended by trunnions from links of the con
veyor chains, through these stations; a drier E
through which the formed ware is passed either
'
Fig. 5 shows a view of the mold tray advanc
ing lever and cam;
_
‘
Fig. 6 shows a ware treating unit which is
mounted on the dryer;
’
Figs. 7 and 8 are diagrammatic views of cam
by the same or a different conveyor; and, if de
20 and toggle mechanism for raising the mold
chucks;
sired, further fabricating stations F, H, K, Fig. 1, 20
,
arranged behind the drier in the direction of ware
Fig. 9_ shows a cam drive used on the jigger
brake and trimmer;
travel.,or at an intermediate stage of the drier,
I
or both. Each mold tray has a plurality of mold
seats and the machine is adapted to fabricate
simultaneously a corresponding number of 25
Fig. 10 is a plan view of a. water valve;
25
Fig. 11 is a sectional view of Fig. 10 on line
XII-XI‘
diiferent lines of ware.
Fig. 12 shows a plan and end view of a mold
tray;
30
‘
.
The fabricating machine hereinafter described
.
comprises two stations A and B as aforesaid,
. Fig. 13 shows a deep ware mold positioned on
a tray;
1.
but these may be supplemented by further
fabricating stations, for example, for take out or 30
backing up at F, etc., ?nish and swabbing at H
'
Fig. 14 shows a plan view of the. moldseat on
a tray;
‘
.
.
_
' and take out at K when a more diversi?ed pro
Fig. 15 is a ?at ware mold positioned on a
tray;
35
I
_
‘
Figs. 41,_ 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46 show modi?ca- '
tions of details of the charge feeding station.
In general outline,'the complete installation for
the manufacture of pottery according to the
present invention consists of: pug mills I, la
duction is required, as described in my French
-
Patent No. 701,108.
The feeding station A is
Fig. 16 shows the chuck structure in detail; _ adapted to receive elongated conditioned clay 35
Fig. 1'7 is a plan view of Fig. 16;
slugs and has devices, Fig. 1A, for automatically
Fig. 18 is a side elevation of mechanism which advancing the slug to a charge severing or segre
operates the water valve;
gating mechanism capable of great precision of
Fig. 19 is a plan view of Fig. 18;
.
charge measurement, a die for accurately form
40
Fig. 20 is a sectional elevation of a cam shaft ing and contouring the charge onto the mold, a. 40
buffer;
plunger for delivering the measured charge on
Fig. 21 is a plan view partly in section showing the mold under ideal conditions, and means for
details of the feeder station;
reliably releasing the charge from the die and
Fig. 22 is an elevation partly in section, corre
plunger. The pro?ling or forming/station B,
45 sponding to Fig. 21;
according to the present invention, has an‘as 45
Fig. 23-shows a detail of the feeder belt drive; sembly of appliances including pro?le blade,
Fig. 24 shows a clay gob being pushed out of trimmer, air and water nozzles, which can be
the jaws by which it was severed fronrthe slug; interchanged as a unit while permitting inde
Fig. 25 shows methods of mounting the pro?le pendent adjustment of all the appliances.
50 for cup and saucer;
The invention is hereinafter described under 50
Fig. 26 shows in plan and section a V4, turn the following topical heads, viz.: (1) .The prep
thread connection;
aration of the clay slugs, (2) general description
Fig. 27 is a detail of the feeder belt drive;
Fig. 28 shows two views of the clay charge
55
being extruded and preformed on a porous mold;
Fig. 29 is a side elevation of a pro?ling and
trimming unit for shallow Ware;
1 Fig. 30 is an end view of Fig. 29 from right to
eft;
'
Fig. 31 is a side elevation of a pro?ling and
trimming unit for deep ware;
Fig. 32 is a plan view of Fig. 31;
'
'
Fig. 33 is a plan view of a curved and angular
pro?le tool;
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
.
34 is an elevation of a pro?le tool;
35 shows a conventional pro?le tool;
36 shows a removable cam;
37 shows an adjustable sheave used in
70 driving the jigger spindle;
Fig. 38 shows a universal clamp employed for
mounting some of the forming tools and appli
ances;
Fig. 39 is a diagrammatic view of‘ the water
75 system;
of the driving mechanism for the mold con
veyor and forming units, (3) the feeder and
preforming station, (4) the forming or pro?ling 55
station, (5) the drier, and (6) modi?cations of
the various devices and details thereof.
Preparation of the clay slugs
In the making of pottery ware, it is desirable
to apply the charge of plastic clay securely to
so
the mold in the form of a batt or blank or pre
shaped form of the correct volume. contour, thick
ness, diameter, and condition, so as not to involve
any more work than necessary in further process
ing at a subsequent-station and that the control of
these factors should be reliable, convenient, and
therefore as free from operationinterruption as
possible. For this purpose carefully conditioned
clay slugs of uniform predetermined size and 70
shape of cross-section are provided for feeding
to the machine.
_
The clay is conditioned in the pugs and ex
truded onto retaining angles D, Fig. 1C, for in
sertion in the pottery forming machine to be
/
75
3
2, 109,098
fabricated into ware. These angles are prefers
different cross-section, and for‘ controlling the
ably ‘treated with a substance such as castor oil
to reduce adhesion of the clay thereto but may
be lined with a porous material such asiielt to
decrease adhesion. The‘ pug mills, Figs. 1A and
1B, of the extrusion type, are provided with con
trollable connections lb for conveying a heating
medium such as steam, hot air, or electricity to
chambers lc in the shell of the pug mills and/or
10 the interior of the same to raise and control the
temperature of the extruded slug of clay, or the
clay and water may be heated prior to insertion
number of slugs extruded, the mill is provided,
as shown in Fig. 1A, with interchangeable die
members having ori?ces of different shapes and
in the pug for a purpose hereafter explained.
To provide for the making of multiple kinds and
15 sizes of were, each requiring a different quality
of clay or size of extruded slug, I provide a plu
rality of -pu3~ mills in close .proximity to the
fabricating machine and each pug may be pro
vided with a plurality of openings (Fig. 1E) for
20 extruding slugs of di?erent cross-sectional sizes
and/or shapes. Also each pug may be fed with
clay of different color, quality or condition.
The angles D serve to preserve the shape of
the extruded slug C and provide for stacking the
25 slugs without the clay slugs themselves coming
in contact with each other due to the angles
being larger than the slugs. .The angles D also
provide for transporting the slugs without dis
tortion and applying in correct position and
30 alignment, to the belts in the feeder station.
The slugs and also the supporting angles D are
sizes. The mouth of the pug mill has a slot in,
open at both ends, formed therein into which ‘
the ori?ced die I y‘ can be slidingly inserted. The
die is located in the slot by means of a detent
He, and gibs prevent the die from ‘being pushed
away from the pug casing by the clay. Screws
'10
lm (only an upper screw shown) are provided ‘
in the outer lips of the slot Ih, which enable
the die to be seated against the inner faces oi’
the slot and also permit the pressure of the clay
on the die to be relaxed when it is desired to 15
change the die. This is effected by inserting the‘.
new die into the slot until it is in edgewise abut
ment against the die to be removed, and then
pressing the new die' into place with simulta
neous ejection of the other die.
~
20
The slugs C thus deposited. on the transport
able angle supports D may be manually delivered
to the charge segregating and feeding station A
of the machine. One way of doing this is shown
in Fig. 1D, in which the angle and slug are 25
shown at the left, placed in a position alongside
a conveyor belt of the feeder station, which posi
tion is de?nitely located by an, angle guide DI
‘which can be adjusted on its support D2‘ by means
of a screw D3 extending through a slot D4 in 30
the support D2, to suit slugs of di?erent width.
made to a size suited to the size of the were be- . The angle support D, and the slug C, are then
ing made, thus, when a large charge is necessary,
slugs of larger cross section are employed than
35 when making small ware. The maintenance of
I cross sectional uniformity of the slug is of su
' preme importance as it provides for subsequent
accurate segregation of charges having a uni
"40
form bulk.
Also, the compacting of the clay
by the pug orifice serves to eliminate cavities or
other defects in the clay which might be re
flected in the‘ware subsequently made. Any lap
ping or juncture marks in clay, prior to applica
tion, have a detrimental e?ect on the ware pro
45 duced and it is desirable after slugs leave the
pug ori?ce, to avoid any'mastication or lapping
over effect tending to produce lines of juncture.
A frame housing a series of belts ie supported
on rollers if mounted on anti-friction bearings, '
50 suitably supported in position under the pug ori
.
?ces, serves to support the angles D to receive the
relatively limber slugs as they emerge from the
extruding orifices. To provide clearance for in
serting and supplying empty angles D, I arrange
merely tilted over into theposition shown at the
right of_Fig. 1D in dotted lines, in which the
slug is supported by the feed belt, and the angle
then removed.
.
.
-
When making were of a staple kind in which
continuous production over a long period of time
is desired, the slugs may be automatically fed in
to the feeding station A by means which will now 40
be described. An individual extrusion apparatus *
or pug mill, Fig. 1A, is mounted in front of each
feed apparatus, see Figs. 21--22, and is varranged
to extrude clay intermittently in amounts deter
mined by computation or by previous practice 45
directly into said feed apparatus.
‘
A short idler belt l8ca or rollers to reduce ad
vance resistance and support ‘the slug may be
interposed. between the die i7‘ and the feeder
jaws l8e., This belt IBca takes the place of the
feed belt :l8c shown in Figs. 21——22 and subsequently described.
.
60,“
.
The pug mill l delivers the sing O directly onto
the belt I 8c'a, this mill being driven by a motor
the ori?ces of the pugs at the lower side of the - 21 through gears 211.. The motor starter is con as f
casing.
'
The angles and deposited slugs are moved to
the right (Fig. 13) by the force of the extruded
clay and to prevent distortion of the slugs by
60 . reaction of the angles, the belts le slope slightly
downwards from the mouth of the pug mill. As
all the slugs from a multi-ori?ce pug mill do
not emerge at a uniform speed, each belt sup
ports one slug only and is mounted on rollers
independent of the others. A gap lg between
the belts facilitates cutting the slugs at the joints
between the angles.
The slug sizes are also progressively stepped
in height for each given width and the widths
are also progressively stepped to thereby pro
vide a slug having a cross-section best suited to
the production of a compact charge when segre
gated. To avoid complication. a minimum num
ber of slug sizes should be used.
To enable a single pug mill to deliver slugs of
trolled by a relay 27c.
_ ‘
An anchor 21' is provided, adapted ‘to, engage
the slug and be moved thereby. This anchor 21'
is pivoted on a lever 2s and its travel is defined
by stops 2t and 2ti forming'contacts in the cir
60
cuit of the relay ‘Me. A spring 2a urges the an
chor 2r in the direction of ‘the stop 2t in the
motor starting branch 2t2 of the relay circuit,
which spring is tensioned by the slug as it ad
vances to the right. The stop ‘it can be adjusted 65
longitudinally with respect to the stop ‘2tl in
order to provide for adjustment of slug advance
and size of charge or gob, for which purpose the
stop is mounted on a screwed rod 2t3 cooperating
with threaded guide 2“ and has an indexed op 70
erating head 2225 and scale 2t‘l. The other stop
2“ may be ?xed and it is connected in the motor
stopping branch ‘R6 of the relay circuit. The
anchor 21' is raised by a cam 2w.
_'
The operation is as .follows: The anchor 121' is
4
,
I
-.
2,109,098
a
raised from ‘the slug by the cam 2w whereupon
and lower tracks le for the mold trays are
mounted on the brackets lb and feet lj' respec
A energizes the motor starting branch of ' the relay tively. The main frame members l are provided
‘ circuit and causes the motorv to start and a slug with bearings lh supporting a shaft li to which a
' to be extruded'by the
I~ onto the belt gear l7‘ and a pair of sprockets lk are secured.
' i8ca. As the slug advances it carries the anchor At the right hand end, the‘ frame members 3 are
If . _2r-against the'stop Iti thereby energizing the provided with. bearings supporting a pair of
1 motor stopping branch of- the relay circuit and ' sprockets 50 secured to a shaft 5d. Two chains
_" stopping the motor. ‘The jaws lle then pinch o? 5 carrying the trays iii are in engagement with
the gob.’ ‘The _motor remains stopped until the
cam zwiagain-actuatea the anchor and initiates sprockets 5c and lit-and are supported inter
thereof by the trunnions 5g of the trays.
_-an'other ‘cycle. .The cam ho is driven -from\the mediate
The trays are in sliding engagement with the
j ‘machine drive in suitably timed relation with re
tracks lit‘ and le. The chains extend through
Swot to the operation of the jaws lie. I thus di
the drier and fabricating stations outside the
' vifectly- measure the slug advance instead of slug forming machine as hereinafter described and
simport-as shown in Figs. 21-22. , a
are supported beyond the drier by another pair
ofvheating the clay will now be of sprockets lki (Fig. 1). The gear l1 is in en
‘xpiainedx- In-making pottery as now practiced. gagement
with pinion Ih rotated by a shaft 51'
the plastic clay, when thrown onto the mold, is and a worm gear drive Ii driven by a shaft 5k.
- cold, viz., quite perceptibiy below room tempera
A motor 6 supplies power and transmits‘ its mo 20
'ture and very considerably below dryer tempera
tion to the shaft 5k through gears Ga and 6b, a
ture, so that when the ware reaches the dryer shaft
60, and lit and a clutch 8d, thus providing
- the clay sweats until it absorbs enough heat from
for
continuous
rotation of the sprocket lk., A
the surrounding air to nearlyequalize that of synchronizing chain
1, (Fig. 1) is provided to
the surrounding air. Evaporation however al
keep the sprockets lkl—-lk2 in step and main 25
ways keeps the damp were below dryer tempera
the slack therebetween constant notwith
ture. The thermal shock of suddenly applying a tain
standing theexcess slack in the other portion of
‘ cold'batt (at about 60' F.) to a hot mold (at
the conveyor chains. The trays 5]‘ (Fig. 2) are
about 135°‘ F.) tends to cause hair line cracks in
30 the plaster mold surface due to rapid contraction, hung above their center of gravity by their trun
nions by so they will be maintained in a horizon 30
which is called mold crazing. To bring this cold tal
position, regardless of direction of travel of
clay to nearly dryer temperature and evaporate
5. The shaft 60, in addition to driving the
the sweat off the surface requiresconsiderable chain
conveyor
sprockets, also drives the device for
time which in a chain dryer requires‘ more molds, actuating the
mold trays in the slack portion of
35 increased length, more power to move, and more the
mold conveyor, which is more fully described 35
drying I air. The increased length of time the
and‘claimed in my British Patent No. 293,023.
mold surface is saturated results ‘in shorter mold For
this purpose the shaft 60 is connected by ‘
life due to rotting whichv progresses during sat
the spring 2u moves it against the stop It‘ which
uration only.
40
worm gearing 8 to a cross-shaft 8a carrying a
'
All these disadvantages are overcome by ap
plying uniformly preheated charges, with a mini
_ ‘pair of cams
81) (Fig. 5) which cams oscillate
levers 8c pivoted to the frame at 8d, rollers 8! 40
mum of intermediate atmospheric exposure to _
'themolds. I
-. This improved method is‘ impractical in pres
ent manual Jiggering‘practice, unless the cus
tomary spasmodicmanual delivery of large clay
slugstc the Jiggerman, resulting in intermediate
progressive surface cooling and drying of the
slug and consequent non-uniform viscosity and
w
temperature, of the charges is avoided.
.
‘
By heating the clay to say 135° F. or higher,
theware immediately after formation, is in con
dition forldehydration with consequent advan
tages of quick dewatering of the mold, expedited
drying, elimination of thermal shock to ‘the
mold. This increases the life of the molds and
on the levers engaging the operative cam track.
The levers 8c have at their upper ends adjust;
able pawls By making intermittent contact with
the trunnions 59 on the right hand stroke of the
levers ‘only and trailing idly as the levers move 45
to the left, thus providing for shifting some of
the trays intermittently to the right in the course
of the general advance of the chain and trays
over sprockets llc and 50. A suitable rest 8k is
provided to temporarily and yieldingly maintain 50
the trays and chain in shifted position during the
idle movement of .pawls 8g.
As the trays are shifted to the right, slack ac
cumulates to the right of the shifted tray and is
dissipated or absorbed to the left of the tray due 55
reduces the ?oor space, cost and upkeep of the _ to the synchronous travel of sprockets lk, lkl
and lid. The conveyor chain 5 can be extended
drying equipment.
to the right and/or left of the machine'to any
Driving mechanism of conveyor and forming desired point, while maintaining the mode of
.
_
_
an i to
,
operation described.
60
To compensate for conveyor chain length vari
ation and wear, I provide an adjustable guide
- of the machine are mounted in a frame com
pulley structure which is shown located near the
prising a main frame casting and a secondary front end of the dryer E. (Fig. 1). One of the
frame casting. The main frame casting consists lower tier' of guide pulleys is provided with bear
of longitudinal members 4, a base la, brackets - ings 550. which- are loosely guided by a ?xed chan 65
lai spacing the base from the longitudinal mem
nel 56b. A spring 560 inserted between the bot
bers l, brackets lb extending upwardly from the tom of the bearing 56a and a fixed abutment 56c
members l and feet lf, all these parts forming supports part of the weight of the pulley struc—
The mold conveyor and the fabricating units
an integral casting. Cross bars lc having bear
ings in the brackets lb sustain the secondary
frame casting la2, which has a middle horizontal
member la3 secured to the cross bars by means of
screws Gal, a lower horizontal member lab, and
75 an upper‘ bracket portion lal. Upper tracks ld
ture and a screw 56d determines the extent of
said support. This arrangement provides auto
matic takeup and also partly or completely elim
inates the catenary or slack section Se in advance
of the trays and determines the tension of the
chain at that point. A stud 561‘ and nut 56g se 75
. 2,109,023
5
cured in the bearings ?aand sliding freely in a the gear I62‘, thus the brake is released and the '
?xed abutment 5671. provides for limiting the de-, clutch applied in rapid sequence, almost simulscent of the idler, thus adjustably determining taneously and vice versa.
the extent of the catenary, or slack elimination,
' 5 or slack remaining at that point.
The cross shaft 80, Fig. 2, is also used to drive
the fabricating units of the machine, for which
purpose a sprocket 9 is secured to shaft 8a. and
transmits motion through a chain to to a sprocket
_ ‘
The shaft l6m has also secured toit, a gear
ISM (Fig. 4) meshing with a gear I60 secured 5
to a shaft lGp to which is secured an adjustable.
sheave liq which transmits motion to a spindle
lirthrough the‘ medium of a V-belt l6s and ad
justable sheave I St. The spindle "Sr is vin
The shaft 80. has secured thereto various cams
splined-sllding engagement with the chuck spin- 10
die Ha and chuck H of the pro?ling station.
As'the pitman I611. is reciprocated, the chuck
spindle- I to with the chuck II is caused to in
for actuating the chuck devices located beneath
15 the trays, see Fig. 4. To provide for eliminating
adjusted to synchronize the periods of rotation 15
10 9b, driving a ‘shaft 9d to which are secured cams
for voperating the various implements positioned
above the trays which will be described later.
termittently rotate and rest and the cams it are
resiliency in the elevation of the chucks l0 and . with that of the elevation of the chucks by the
ii, secured to shafts Illa andl la, a toggle mech
nism diagrammatically illustratedv in Figs. '7 and
8 and detailed in Fig. 4 is provided.
20, This toggle mechanism also exerts progressive
ly increased ' terminal elevating force on the
chucks, and a smoother, slower, and more ac- .
curate terminal movement.
-
. A 'cam. llib on shaft 8a oscillates a lever “Id
25 pivoted at its lower end on a fulcrum l?di and
'-
carrying a roller lllc engaging the cam.
The
upper end of this lever “id is jointed by ‘a link Hie
to a lever illf connected by suitable joints 10a,
‘
cam "lb and also, in synchronism with the tray
shift and other operations for a purpose herein
after more fully described.
.
In Figs. 3- and 4, the cam shaft M has secured 20
thereto two cams 9e and which are in engagement
with rollers 91 secured to levers 9g pivotally-se
cured at 9h to-the frame do at one end and at the
other to 'a cross head 9k, pivoted at 9m for oper
ating a plunger which feeds the clay charges to 25
the molds. A guide bar 9n, Fig. 2, depends from
the pivot 9m and‘ isv guided at 90. A roller 9p
is pivotally secured to 9n and a lever sq is piv
which diifer somewhat in the two forms shown in Q oted to the frame at one end and to a tension
spring 9s at the other. A cam‘ portion 9r contacts 30
30- Figs. '7 and 8, to one of the toggle levers Ilih. Piv
with the roller in. such a way that when the cross
oted medially on a fulcrum llihl. The other tog
gle member “if is jointed at its upper end - l?il to. head 91: is in its lowermost position, the spring 98
exerts its maximum pressure, and, when the cross.
the chuck stem Iliav or spindle I la and at its low
head is in its uppermost position, the lever 9a- and
" er end [012 to the toggle lever lilh, this joint con
35 stituting the knee of the toggle. The parts are
so arranged that in one condition shown in Figs.
_ 'l and 8, the toggle members "in, “it and the
chuck stem are in alignment providing rigid ver
tical support for the chuck, while in the other
40 condition the toggle parts are collapsed, corre
sponding to lowered chuck.
As it is. of vital importance to insure against
uncontrolled resiliency to obtain accurate termi
nal elevation to the chucks l0 and II as will be
Q 45 explained later, the toggle mechanism, due to the
elements thereof being in compression and not
I subjected to bending ‘strain. provides a simple
but efficient solution. As the cam Nib is rotated,
the chucks i0 and II are caused to reciprocate in
50 synchronism with the movement of the chain 5c,
cam portion 91.- are substantially in a vertical po- 35 '
.sition and exert no vertical pressure on the roller ,
9p and consequently the cross head 9k descends‘
by gravity only at its upper end of travel, and '
under progressively increased spring power'at its
lowermostend of travel", for a purpose herein- 40
after more fully described. The shaft 911 (Fig. 3)
has secured thereto a grooved cam 9t transmit
ting motion to pitman 911. and arm 13 secured tov
shaft l3a having bearing in the frame 224 and
serves to oscillate said shaft [3a for operating 45
the pro?ling and trimming appliances as herein
after described. The shaft 9d alsohas secured
thereto, vcams 9w operating on a roller I! (Fig. 4)
secured to lever “a which in turn is pivoted to _>
the frame 4a at I4! and at the other end to a 50
cross bar lie for operating slug severing jaws‘ as
hereinafter
described. Cams 9:: for the feed belt
shaft 8a.
'
The shaft So has also adjustably secured-there drive are adjustably secured to the cams 9w by
to, two cams [6 (Fig. 9) serving to reciprocate screws 91: and contactwith rollers Md secured
55 a pitman i6a through the medium of rollers ISb, to lever lle which in turn is pivoted to the frame 55
do at “I and at‘ the other end connect with a
one roller and one cam being located and pro
jecting from opposite sides of the pitman lid, cross bar llgl which actuates the pitmans My
for controlling the rotation of the chuck of the which in turn actuate the belt moving mecha- .
nism hereinafter described. The horizontal "bar
pro?le station B. The pitman is pivotally con
[4g] serves to operate all the pitmans My to that 60 v
_ 60 nected to an oscillating arm I60 (Fig. 2) which
in turn is connected by link lid to a lever lGe avoid the use of a. separate cam and lever for
pivoted to the frame la at one end and‘ to a. feeding‘ each slug. A fork secured to the pitmans‘
the shifting mechanism Fig. 5 and the cam
pitman H5)‘ at the other, and intermediately to
a clutch sleeve 169. The pitman I6! is tapered
65 at its forward end (see Fig. 3) and projects be
Ma serves to operatively connect pitmans Hg and
bar Hgl.
In Fig. 2, protractor dials Saa are shown se'-~ 65
.cured to the ends of the shafts 8m and 941 for the
siliently maintained by springs i611. in contact purpose of ascertaining and recording, for subse- 5
tween the halves or gap in a brake band I872 re
with the hub of a gear l6i which in turn engages lquent re-setting, the various ‘cams on the cam
a gear Ilik (Fig. 2) secured to a shaft iim. The shafts to thereby provide for predetermined set
70 halves of the brake band are spread by the pit
man "! when pitman Ilia. is moved to the left to
thereby release the brake and simultaneously
move the clutch sleeve its! to engage the clutch
and thereby connect shaft Go. to the gear Vl-Gi due
75. to the free half of the clutch being secured to
ting of various functions of each separate mech-' 70
anism to suit various types of‘ ware and conditions
of clay etc. obtained by previous tests. A pointer
9ab facilitates accuracy.
An adjustable coupling 6h connecting shafts 5k
and 6c facilitates adjustment of the cam shaft 841 75
6
2,109,028
with that of the sprocket 470 to initially bring the pensates for variation in clay viscosity and pro
chain slack and tray shift into synchronism.
vides for controlled resiliency of the chucks.
To give adjustable spacing of the lines of ware
The chuck is also provided with a scale I To .
fabrication, the trays 5]‘ (Fig. 12) are provided visibly located, thus providing for adjusting and
with a series of dowel holes‘, evenly spaced in the vmaintaining in adjusted position, the altitude of
flanges‘ of the side pieces 5m, which‘holes match the chuck, which in turn controls the thickness
dowel holes in the cross bars of the machine on
‘ which the fabricating units are mounted, so that
these units may be accurately positioned in align
ment without tedious measurement and adjust
ment. The dowel holes in 5m serve to position
cross bars 571 or lugs 50 (see Figs. 13, 14, and 15)
which support and adjustably and accurately po
sition, mold holding rings 5p. For convenience
and economy in mounting various types of molds,
the upper as well as the lower ?anges of the
channel sides 5m are perforated. To reduce the
shock of impact of colliding trays, when slack is
being accumulated, resilient members 5q are pro
20 vided at the corners of the trays. For molds of
large diameter, the bars 5n are spaced farther
apart than when small diameter molds are
mounted. This arrangement also provides for
spacing the units to best advantage, that is to
of the batt or ware. The chuck is further pro—
vided with a bushing I ‘id externally threaded and
in engagement with the interior threaded portion
of the chuck, slots or ?utes being provided in the 10
periphery of the bushing Nd and a detent lie
provided in the chuck wall to maintain said ring
in adjusted position. A scale on the bushing (see
Fig. 17) provides a visible means of'ascertaining
the position of adjustment for a purpose herein 15
after described.
The ring
lid is preferably
chamfered on the top or mold seating surface
and a screen secured on the under side.
The
chamfer prevents dirt lodging thereon and also
applies inward radial pressure to counteract the 20
internal bursting pressure set up in'the mold
during the batt pressing operation.
In operation, these chucks reciprocate to raise
the molds llaa (Figs 13-15) off the mold sup
say, when small molds such as for cups and
porting rings 5p into engagement with fabricat 25
saucers are employed exclusively, then a greater
ing units and it is necessary to accurately posi- ,
number of units may be applied and the center , tion the mold with relation to the fabricating unit
distance or brim clearance of the molds spaced to ' vertically and. desirable and economical to make
best advantage, vice versa, when large molds are this adjustment while in operation. In actual
operation, the speed of the machine will range 30
30 employed exclusively, a less number may be
mounted, or as in’ the practical operation of this
between 6 and 12 pieces of ware per minute in
machine in dinnerware plants, the machine may
be'equipped with units, one to make cups, another
saucers, another cereals, bread and butter plates,
dinner plates, etc., ‘so that at each functioning of
the machine, one complete unit of a dinner set
may be fabricated to thereby provide for synchro
nized production of dinner sets, (except pieces of
irregular shape which have to be cast), without
the necessity of storage of one article while an
other is being made. The coacting fabricating
mechanisms hereinafter described are also pro
vided with corresponding dowel holes preferably‘
snug ?tting dowels to avoid need of adjustment
and the supporting bars therefor mounted to
bring these holes in exact'alignment with those
of the trays to thereby provide for quick selective
adjustable mounting of molds and fabricating
units.
In Fig. 4, the feeder unit “A” is shown as se
cured to a frame girder A1 by means of dowelled
studs A2, a series of holes being provided in girder
A1 (Fig. 3), similar to that shown in Fig. 12.
Figs. 16 and 17 show the preferred method of
mounting the chucks I0 and II, (Fig. 4) on the
‘’ spindles 10a and lid.
The spindles are threaded
preferably internally and provided with a posi
tioning device such as a screw or detent IT, a
stud Ila depends from the chuck 'and is externally
60 square threaded and provided with a series of
positioning ?utes llb into which the positioning
device I‘! is projected to retain the stud in angu
lar position. The square threads on stem I10,
have vertical lost motion in the hollow spindle Illa
but are a snug sliding ?t laterally so that a lim
ited amount of free vertical travel of the stud Na
in the spindle 10a is provided for.
A spring I‘Ial is adjustably positioned below
the stem to maintain it elevated. During the
70 pressing and pro?ling operations, this serves as
an overload release and also to more gradually
progress the mold to maximum elevation and in
proportion to the resistance met from work being
done. A stiff clay spreads and pro?les slower
than a more ?uid clay.
This therefore also com
each fabricating line depending upon the size
of the ware being made, and the dwell period of '
the chuck in lowermost position equals about 1/3
of each cycle thus providing ample time especially 35
if a detent is employed for adjusting the height
of the chuck without stopping the machine. The
chuck is further provided with a recess‘through
its side, housing a gear l1)‘ (Fig; 16)‘ which en
gages the ?utes or teeth of the ring l'id thus pro
40
viding for adjustment of the position of said ring
while in operation. When making ware em.ploy-'
ing molds having a cavity such ‘as cup molds;
it is desirable to support the molds at the bottom
to prevent fracture of theintervening rather 45
fragile plaster walls of the mold between the
?anges I'lg (Fig. 13) and the bottom l‘lh,'due to
pressure from the forming implements, this ring
lid (Fig. 16) therefore, provides for supporting
the mold on the chuck brim H1‘, or on the ring
l'ld, or on both. ‘This arrangement may also be
desirable when making large plates, wherein
molds are employed such as shown in Fig. 15, ‘to
properly support the central portion of the mold.
The chuck is further provided with a bore Ilj
for the purpose of conveying sub and/or super
atmospheric pressure to the chuck cavity below
the mold to either seize the mold or repel it from
the chuck at de?nite instances to thereby insure
more reliable functioning of the machine.
.60
The mold in Fig. 13 is also provided with an
upper ?ange ilk which provides for supporting
the'mold in the ring 5p without interfering with
the seating of the chuck against the ?ange Hg.
The mold Fig. 15 is supported on the mold ring
5p by the outer edge of the ?ange i'lm, a gap I712
providing for access of the chuck.
Figs. 18 and 19 show the means for actuating
the water valves, shown attached to shaft 903,
and adjusting the instant of actuation of the con? 70
trol cam.
A cam disc 92 on the shaft 9d is pro
vided with a series of threaded openings 3| into
which a number of studs i5 are secured. These
studs engage the arms of a star wheel I 5b'and
shift it one notch or 1/6 revolution and as the valve
7
2,109,028
requires a 1A; revolution from one open to an
other open position, it follows that at every al
'ternate functioning, the valve is opened and
closed. These Studs may be placed at various
positions and serve for adjusting the relative
instant of and number of functions of the ?uid
control valve during one cycle. The disc 92
is also adjustable on its shaft.
-Fig. 20 is a sectional view of a cam motion
10 stabilizing device.
When cams having quick
descent are employed, the tendency is for the
shaft to leap ahead at that point to the extent
the lost motion in the transmission gearing will
permit, and this affects the functioning of other
15 cams at that point. To overcome this tendency,
one or more actuators 32k are provided rotating
with the cam shaft and they are arranged to con
tact with a roller 32 pivotally mounted on a bell
crank lever 32a pivoted to a casing 32b, the hori
zontal portion of the bell crank resting on a buffer
piston 32c which is normally kept elevated by a
spring 32d. Piston 320 is a close working fit in
a bore 321‘ in the casing 32b and a reservoir 326
communicates with the piston bore 32]‘ through
25 ports 32g and 32h. A needle valve 321' controls the
size of the opening 32g, and a ball check 325i
prevents out?ow of liquid from the bore 32!.
When the reservoir 326 is ?lled with a buffer
liquid, for example, oil or water, the bore 32f
also ?lls, and when piston 320 is depressed, it
resists to the extent that the valve 322‘ obstructs
expulsion of liquid from the bore 32f. On the
upward or idle travel of piston 32c, liquid passes
freely past ball valve 327‘. The actuator 3210 is
secured to the cam 32m or its shaft and is so
mounted angularly and its contour is such as
to equalize the reverse impulse imparted by the
roller 321 against the quick drop surface of the
'cam 32m, and thereby stabilize the operation of
other cams, on the same shaft.
'
92b hereinafter described, and is located by dowels
I8cI2 and dowel holes in like manner. One of
the belt driving rollers I8c3 has secured‘ thereto
a spider I9b, Fig. 23, of a clutch mechanism.
This spider is provided with wedge shaped recesses
I90 in its periphery, housing rollers I9e pressed
by springs I9d against the inner periphery of a
ring gear I9f meshing with rack teeth I9g on
the pitman. Mg which is reciprocated from the
cam mechanism 93:, Fig. 4. As the pitman‘ Hg is‘
reciprocated, the clutch mechanism causes the
rollers I803 and consequently the belt I80 to be
progressed forward, in'one direction ‘only, the
‘rollers I9e trailing idly when the ring gear‘ISf ro
tates clockwise.
of the belt I80. The belt roller I803 is driven by a
friction drive, Fig. 23, and the pitman Hg is guid
ed in the frame member I8c9. A micrometer
screw I9k is screw threaded in the frame member
I809, its graduated head l9p cooperating with the
?xed scale I90. This screw I9k serves as stop for
an abutment ISgI on the pitman Hg. The pit
man I4g is pushed to the left by the cam 91: 25
and retracted. by a, spring I9m so that‘ its travel
termination to the left is constant and‘its travel
to the right is adjustable. Presuming that one
rotation of screw I9k advances the screw one
graduation on scale I90, it is evident that minute 30
micrometer adjustments 'of the advance of the
pitman Mg and consequently of the clay slug C
may be made while the machine is in operation
and by noting the position of theindicating dial
and the scale I90, and with a predetermined 35~
size slug on the belt IBc, the machine may be set
to _cut off extremely accurate ' vweight‘ charges
initially without tedious experiment. ,Also, the
weight may be increased or decreased to a known
extent quickly and while the machine is in opera 40
tion.
' Feeder and preforming station
When employing the transferring angles, Fig.
I C, the preferred form of belt structure for feed
45 ing the slugs is as shown in Figs. 21 and 22.
Each slug feeder belt lBc which is endless and
made of rubber covered non-resilient material, is
mounted so the upper rim thereof is at a higher
elevation than the surface of a platen I 8cI to
50
thereby reducejor avoid contact and resistance to
15
‘
In Fig. 22, is shown a structure‘ which provides
for accurately adjusting the extent of progression
'
'
The abutment IBgI with which the screw I970
contacts, is adjustably secured to one end of the
pitman Mg, by means of notches in the pitman
and a corresponding tooth on the abutment, a 45
spring I9g2 holding the parts in engagement.
This provides for quick major adjustments of slug
advance.‘ A scale on the rack indicates the posi
tion of the abutment.
To provide for discontinuing the feeding of clay 50
the advance of the projecting end of the slug and , to. any unit, a latch 2I slidably socketed in the
insure uniform and reliable advance. This
platen may be hollow and have a porous upper
‘face through which air under pressure can be
frame I802 is provided, which when thrown into
engagement with a notch of the pitman Mg holds
the pitman Hg in extended position and prevents
progression of the clay.
H! in ‘forced to prevent adhesion or release the slug tip _
Figs. 21 and 22 also show the preferred mecha
from the platen.
.
A rectangular frame I802 houses a series of nism for segregating charges of clay from the
drive rollers I803 for the belt, which is supported preformed sills and delivering the charge to the
on idle rollers I804 and undulated over the rollers -
60 I803 which are of small diameter to provide ample
traction in a minimum vertical space. The front
belt roller I8c5 is mounted in a yoke I806 slidably
arranged on the frame I802 and adjustable rela
tively thereto by means of screws IBc‘I threaded
in lugs I808 of the frame I802, for the purpose
mold. The frame member I8 is of open rectangu
lar box-like construction and houses a pair of 60
jaws I8e pivoted at I8,‘ to the top portion I8d of
the member I8. A vertical bore I8g extends
through the jaws and the exterior entrance end
I8h of the jaws are in the form of an are having
the center of the hinge or pivot pin I8)‘ as a center.
Bearing against this contoured surface I8h, are
of keeping the belt taut. _
’
A depending extension I8c9 of the frame I802‘ slug guides I8i serving to guide the slug‘ C cen
rests on‘ a crossbeam I8c|ll of the machine frame trally to the bore IBg. These guides I8i have
in which is ?xed a series of spaced dowels I8cI I._ scraper ends I87‘ which bear against the con~
toured surface I8h of the jaws We and serve to 70
70 The feeder belt frames I8c2 have corresponding scrape off any clay that might adhere to the
dowel holes whereby the frames can be easily and
accurately located transversely of the machine in
alignment with the devices with which the slug
feeders cooperate. The other end of the belt
frame I802 rests on a frame member I8 or base
face I8h and thereby prevent accumulation of
clay at that point. The cutting edges IQ of the
jaws IBe when in'open position are substantially
in alignment with the vscrapers I87‘ so that all the 75
8
2,109,028
clay will be scraped off and an unbroken surface
provided for entrance of the slug C. The scrapers
I87‘ are adjustably supported as by the adjustable
link Ilk which permits their angle of inclination
‘relative to the slug sides and their extent of ap
proach to each other, or slug clearance to be ad
justed. The spring IBm ‘serves to resiliently main
tain. the edge I87‘ against the jaw face I8h. The
pivots Iln of the link I81: are in form of bolts
to‘ clamp the link in any desired position at one
or both ends. The tension of the spring I8m is
adjusted by screw I80 to thereby ‘adjust the degree
of pressure with which the scrapers I81‘ contact
with the jaws I 8e.
15.
‘
The guides I“ are preferably faced with a
porous material over a chamber connected to a
a quickly removable base 28b (fully described
later). A porous die 20b is cemented or‘ other
wise removably secured in the die base 200,‘ Figs.
26-42, or directly in the base 29b encircling a
sleeve 20c secured permanently-in the base, a
chamber 204! being provided between the die and
the sleeve. A conduit He provides for conveying,
under valved control, a fluid under substantial -
pressure to vthe chamber Md. The die proper
20b is of porous material such as porous mixture
of cement and sand, .openstructure bisque, etc.
A plunger ilt'providedlwith. a porous face 20g,
" _
is in telescopic. ‘engagement-with the sleeve 20c _ 4' ‘a
and is provided with detent-20f and chamber‘ "is
valves with a
source oficompressedrair.
stem 20f is; ad
1.5j
source of- air at superatmospheric pressure‘ .justably secured tpjtheeiwineaa ikfFlg. 2).
through control valves, to repel slugs of adhesive ‘i . 1'18. ‘22
for quickly inter
nature from their surfaces to insure unretarded changing. vthe.‘q'feecler'plunger";1,2,0)‘ in predeter
20' accurate advance of the ‘slug.
mined poaition'w‘and
minor ad
However when clay of a less adhesive nature is justmentsrffjljhe‘upper
frame .
being used, a highly polished, abrasive resistant
face, such as ‘chrome plate may be employed.
The jaws I8e are provided with lugs 30 and‘arrns
1: is‘
,
1
‘ind rrovmedryaa, guide-‘bushing
vlkl
tout the W‘dilmetenblunger' of
the
adaptable thereto
plunger :0! is I
25' 30a, and are operated by means of a reciprocable internally throadedsnd provided with. a screw or .
yoke 207' driven through a sliding bar IlcI from '~ detent-lid for adjultably
it'to the plung
the cam 9w, lever Ida, and crossbar Ilc (Fig.,4). erstem iii. A clamp
untamed to‘ the __
This yoke has tapered ledges engaging tapered ‘stud. and provided with a boss lkl; which isa
?anks of the jaw lugs 30 in the left hand move
sliding‘fit in a bushing lie‘ and two-dowels-lk!
30 ment of the yoke 201, to close and lock the jaws,
are secured in the bar Ski and enter, accurately 30
and dogs 300 which engage the jaw arms. 30a in spaced holes in the crosshead 0k aligned with the
. the right hand movement of the yoke, to open the
. jaws. The jaws are cut away at the, side nearer
the pivot I8] and a separate complementary mem
ber Ilcl corresponding in shape to the cut away
portion is stationarily mounted in the frame I8 or
‘as an extension of a bushing Me, to prevent ad-'
Vance of the clay beyoynd the rear of the ori?ce.
-
1 The mating edges Ile! of the member I8eI and
40 of the cut away part of the jaws are circular to
wipe off any clay which may be projected over
the joint face.
- .
As the jawsv I8e close to sever a charge, the cut
ting edges I9 will displace some material to right
and left. When extremely soft sticky clay is em
ployed, it tends to sag against the jaw faces I8h
andv to adhere thereto.
To avoid this I provide for simultaneously cut
ting and retracting the slug end away from the
faces I8h as, in Fig. 46, I show a method of re
tracting the belt to a known extent as the jaws
close. A lever I9q frictionally engages the shaft
I91‘, and at its other end on one side abuts against
a stop I98 and on the other side against an ad
, justable spring Hit; a screw I9u adjustably limits
the clockwise travel of the lever I9q. As the belt
is progressed, the spring I9t is compressed and on ‘
the return} movement of the pitman Mg, the
spring I9t tends to reverse the direction of travel
60 of ‘the belt I80 to a known extent to thus retract
the material away from the Jaws I8e.
In Fig. 27, a modified form of retracting mech
‘ anism is shown.
The belt I8c has secured to it
holes in the other supports heretofore described,
, t 2
serving to accurately position the plunger 1615-.
tively to other apparatus without'tedious, adjust; ' ‘
ment. The parts 9k3 and 20! are provided with 35
an index dial and pointer to visibly ascertain and ;
record the adjustment, the detent 9706 serving
for quick adjustment while in operation. As
shown in Fig. 4, the stud ZIIi extends up through
another clamp bar 50k, nut 50m and key 501:.‘ 40
The narrow 'width'of the bar SkI permits the
quick removal of the'entire assembly through the
cross head Us by simply loosening the nut 50m
to clear the dowels Ski, then rotating‘ the as
sembly 90°. Also the upper guide bushing 91“
is- common to all diameters of plunger-s, therefore
need not be exchanged. Thus the plunger may
be adjusted correctly, before installation, from
previous records, and delay in production is
avoided.
'
.
Figs. 21 and 22, also ‘show mechanism for
quick interchange of dies. The floor of the
frame I8 is cut away and the inner sides are pro
vided with grooves 29 through which project de
tents 29a. The die base 2% is tongued at the .
sides to fit into the grooves 29 and on its upper
surface provided with a wearing plate 29c. The
ducts 20c connect through quickly removable
couplings to the valves (Figs. 10 and 411).‘ To
replace a die, the plunger is elevated, the air GO.
connection is uncoupledand the die with its base
is pulled out to the right or left and another die
slipped into place and coupled up, and as the seat—
ings are snug and accurately machined, instant
alignment with the mold is assured. The. detent
29a insures alignment and prevents accidental
a chain I911 which is advanced directly by pitman
My through pawls I9w spaced to engage the chain
links progressively, so that the slug is advanced
positively to a known extent and the retraction is displacement of the die. .
‘governed by the back pressure from the jaws v The operations, of feeding and preforming are
aided bythe degree of pressure of the inclined performed as follows: A slug of clay is placed on
?anks of the pawls I910 against the links of the the belt I8'c, the‘ jaws I to being open, the slug is
chain I90, the degree of which may be adjusted advanced a predetermined distance beyond the“
through the screws‘ I91: and the springs I911.
cutting portions I9, and over the'opening I8o
Figs. 21 and 22 show, as an example, a pre
(Fig. 21), the jaws then close, cutting off the
forming mechanism for bowls or cups. ' The
projecting stub and also then tend to compress
75 frame ll of the jaw mechanism is provided with _ and form to partial cylindrical shape, the pinched
75
.
I
2,109,028
off gob or piece of the slug. This compressing
rangement
also serves to hold the gob and prevent it from
at certain points may be increased on the molds
falling out of the opening I89 prematurely.
operation, the degree of hardness
' where they are subjected to ware or ‘severe pres
sure from batt application.
This may be pro
(See Fig. 24). The plunger 20f now descends,
and simultaneously the mold'is elevated, and the
vided for by coating the surface of the mold with
charge is progressively compressed and spread
a suitable hardening solution such as shellac or
over the plate mold as shown in the lower ‘two
views of Fig. 28. The charge ?rst contacts with
providing the mold with a permanent metallic
reinforcement as ‘shown in my copending appli
the middle of the mold, then is gradually spread
cation Serial No. 343,693 by Figs. 8 and 8A.
10 over the surface of the mold, progressively con
tacting with the surface thereof to an equal
degree all around and pushing out any air in ad- _
vance thereof.
The termination pressure is very high due to
15 the gradual restriction of the space between the
'10
Forming and pro?ling station
After the batt is formed and the mold depos
ited on the tray, it is advanced to the next sta
tion B and another chuck ll elevates it to ?nal
forming operating position through the toggle 15
mold and die and is further accentuated by the and cam mechanism shown in Fig. 8. The action
circumferential ?nal substantial closing of the here is different from that imparted at the press
ing position. It is preferred to elevate the mold
gap between said mold and die.
A ring 20b! Fig. 22 of resilient material such rather rapidly until the batt contacts with the
pro?le tool, or within from .030 inch to .050 inch 20
20, as rubber is preferably mounted on the die ad
of maximum elevation, then slowly to maximum
jacent the ware brim to de?ne and ?nally com
pact said brim. Its resiliency facilitates slight . elevation, to avoid ripping of the clay surface by
the pro?le tool. This is followed by a dwell pe
vertical variation in mold elevation, for deter
riod followed by a very slow drop of about .005
mining batt thickness, without substantially al
25 tering the degree of brim compacting. Under inch to provide for progresssively reducing the 25
pressure of the pro?le tool on the ware surface
excessive pressure it yields and permits the ex
cess clay to escape in thin sheet form and on de
during the terminating polishing operation and
compression‘ it progressively parts from the clay
also avoid the usual tool mark on the ware sur
batt brim. A resilient porous material such as
30 felt may be employed and air under pressure
applied thereto during parting of batt from the
die to absolutely ensure release.
The ?nal elevation of the mold and ?nal de
pression of the plunger may or may not be si
35 multaneous as found most advantageous. The
complete elevation of the mold is only momen
tarily to provide a pause during which the ap
plied clay charge stabilizes itself and comes to
rest.
After this short pause, it is preferred to
40 drop the mold slightly by providing the cam lllb,
as shown in Fig. 4, with an offset IBM, and, sub
stantially simultaneously, to admit compressed
face when ware and tool are parted abruptly, then
rather rapidly until the mold nears the mold ring 30
5p, then slowly while depositing the mold on the
ring, then the chuck is dropped rapidly. This
method of procedure produces ware free from
tool marks and is particularly applicable when
the batt is mechanically applied and of depend
able unvarying thickness and contour.
Referring to Fig. 2, a girder 22 supported by
bracket 22a is secured to the frame part M2 and
provided with a suitable bearing to support a
rocker shaft 13a to which are secured arms 220 40
connected together by a cross bar 22d. To girder
22 are secured the pro?ling implements (see
air to the cavities 20d and 20h and consequently Figs. 29, 30, 31, 32) by means of dowels and bolts
through the porous die 20b and head 209 to the He, the girder 22 being provided with a series
juncture of the formed clay batt and the porous of holes similar to that shown in Fig. 12. To 45
dies, which serves to rupture the bond, repel the reduce the time necessary in the replacement of
clay batt from the die, and ensure adhesion of the these pro?ling implements and provide for ad
batt to the mold. The chuck is kept elevated to justment while in operation, thus providing for
the maximum of continuous operation, I have
hold the mold in this position the maximum pe
assembled into one unit and arranged to be as 50
riod
of
time
permissible
in
a
cycle,
thereby
pro
50
viding a prolonged interval during which the batt sembled and adjusted on a dummy set up appa
and mold may be repelled from the die without ratus, mechanisms ordinarily individually at
serious consequences. Should there be slight tached to the machine. Thus, I have assembled
into one unit the. pro?le tool, the trimmer and
tendency to adhere and the chuck were imme
diately lowered, then the mold would drop a con-v operating mechanism, the water and air applica 55
siderable distance and might be broken by the tion nozzles and a spill plate or splash guard so
impact. However, this short drop being only that when changing from one type of ware to
about a‘; of an inch, provides for delayed release another, the time necessary is materially re
duced, and when applied, immediate production
without serious consequences and consequent in
obtained without tedious interruptions due to
60 terruption of operations. To still further pro
vide against possibility of adhesion of the batt
and mold to the porous die, and also insure ad
hesion of the batt to the mold, vacuum is applied
to the duct l'la~ (Fig. 16) in the chuck just prior
-65 to ?nal elevation of the mold, then prior to the
mold contacting with the ring 5p, the vacuum is
shut off and super atmospheric pressure may be
admitted to release the mold' from the chuck.
To provide against the formation of ring marks
70 on the ware the charge is spread preferably
rather quickly which prevents halting of the
spreading action which might otherwise take
place due to setting or hardening of the clay be
fore the charge has completely covered the mold.
75 To further insure against interruption or de
adjustments.
.
.
The preferred form of pro?le for ?at ware is as
shown in Figs. 29, 30, 34, in which a frame 22f
is integral with or ?xed on a head 22g. The
frame 22f was heretofore made of wood, but I 65
prefer to make it of a light metal which does not
stain clay such as aluminum. In Fig. 34, is
shown the preferred method of securing a pro?le
blade 22h onto the frame 22)‘, providing for quick
replacement of blades when they become dull 70
from use. The frame 22]‘ is provided with two
rectangular bosses 221‘, and the blade 22h with
two projecting ears 227'; a clamp 22k secured by
screws 22m retains the blade 22h in position
against upward displacement, the ears 229' resting 75
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