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Патент USA US2109060

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Feb. 22, 1938.
E. s. DENNISON
2,109,060
CROSS HEAD AND PISTON ROD AND PISTON CONSTRUCTION
Filed Feb. 25, 1937
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
fig. 1.
a”:
law! rad/mu
Feb. 22, 1938.
E. S. DENNISON
2,109,060
CROSS HEAD AND PISTON ROD AND PISTON CONSTRUCTION
Filed Feb. 25, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
/Q5
(Z
I/u/en for:
Mam/d5. ?ea/3680a,
Feb. 22, 1938.
E. s. DENNISON
2,109,060
CROSS HEAD AND PISTON ROD AND PISTON CONSTRUCTION
Filed Feb. 25; 1937
’ 4 Sheets-Sheet 4
/09
A16
2
//3
‘95 .96
— - V07
/05
Fatented Feb.
2,100,060
" ‘
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE 1
2,109,060
C3085 HEAD AND ‘PISTON BOD AND PISTON
' ~
CONSTRUCTION
'
Edward 8. Dennison, New London, Conn, auignor
to Electric
t Company, Groton, Conn, a
corporation of New Jersey
_
_
Application February 25, 1937, Serial No. 127,670
13 Claims. (Cl. 123-176)
This invention relates to internal combustion
engines, and has to do with ‘a cross-head and
piston rod and piston construction particularly
suitable for use in two-cycle double acting iniec
5' tion engines.
,
Exhaust valve means, ?ied December 7, 1936, and
Serial No. 119,422, for Internal combustion en
gine, ?ied January/7, 1937. The construction of
my invention has been illustrated, by way of ex
ample, as applied to a two-cycle double acting
My invention is directed'to improved means
injection engine, for which it is particularly suit-‘
for connecting the cross-head, to. the piston rod
of an internal combustion engine and supplying
may be applied to advantage to other types of
cooling oil to the piston through the rod, while
10 assuring adequate strengthoi the latter, the pre
vention of rocking or tilting of the pistonrod
able. In certain aspects, however, my invention '
, internal combustion engines. '
I have illustrated my invention as applied to an 10
engine comprising a crank case 0 of suitable
construction within the lower portion of which
the engine crank shaft (not shown) is mounted
in a known manner. A cylinder I0 is suitably
mounted in an entablature H supported by 15
head are properly disposed relative to those of brackets, one oi’ which is shown at I2 in Figure 2,
the piston rod in the assembling of these parts. which bracketsare mounted upon U frames, one
It is also an object 01' my invention to provide av of which is shown at l3 in Figure 2, within the
piston of improved construction, assuring ade ‘crank case 0. ‘The brackets and the entablature
relative to the cross-head at its connection to the
latter, ready accessibility for assembling and dis
assembling-the piston rod and the cross-head,
l5 and assuring that the oil passages of the cross
20 quate cooling thereof. Further. objects and ad
1 are suitably bolted to the U frame, and the cylin
vantages will appear irom the detailed descrip
tion.
'
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.5
In the drawings:
~
~
_
-
. '
‘
Figure l'is an axial sectional-view through a
25 cylinder and a piston ,of an engine embodying
my invention, parts being broken away and cer
tain parts being shown in elevation;
I
Figure 2 is .a transverse vertical sectional view
through the crank case and associated parts of
30 the engine of Figure 1, the piston rod and cross-‘
head being sectioned substantially on the line
2--2 of Figure 5, and the upper portion of the
connecting rodbeing shown in section, parts be-v
ing broken away and certain parts being shown
35
in elevation;
'
_
_
"
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken ‘substantially
online3-—3ofFigure4;l
_
_
" Figure 4 is a sectional view taken substantially
on line 4--4 of Figure 3, parts being broken away
40 and shown in section in different planes for
20
der is secured to the entablature by a clamping
ring l4, which ring is bolted to the entablature.
Cylinder I9 is provided with a central port boss
I! having, at, one side, a-series of inlet ports l6
and, at its other side, two series of exhaust ports 25
I‘! separated by a bridge element IS. A port belt
member IS, in part water-jacketed, is mounted
about boss I5 and de?nes inlet and exhaust pas
sages.
The cylinder is suitably water-jacketed,‘
and boss I! is provided with passages 20 for ?ow
30
therethrough of cooling water from the lower-to
the upper cylinder water-jacket. The upper end '
of cylinder I 9 is closed by a sectional water-cooled
head 2| bolted to a thickened element or boss 22
at the upper end. of the cylinder. An injection
35
nozzle 23 isvmounted in head 2i centrally thereof
for injecting fuel into the cylinder.. The lower
end of the cylinder is. closed by a head24‘bolted
to a thickened element or boss at the lower end
of ‘the cylinder, said latter head also being sec 40
showing the oil passages, certain parts being ;tional and water-cooled. Suitably disposed in
shown’in plan; '
_
Figure 5 isa plan view, on an enlarged scale,
of the cross-head and associated parts, the piston
45 rod being shown in transverse section, and the
guide means for the cross-head shoe being shown
fra'gmentarily and in section, certain parts being
broken away;
.
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken substantial
50' on line 6-6 oflFlgure 5; and
.
Figure 7 is a sectional view taken substantially
on'li'ne‘ 1—'| of Figure 2.
'
The engine herein disclosed is, in general, sim
, ilar in construction to the engine disclosed in my
'55 copenjding applications, ‘Serial .No. - 114,568, for
jection nozzles (not shown) _are mounted in head
24 for injecting fuel into thejiower end of the
cylinder substantially 'chordally thereof.
The
construction of the‘ head 24 and the mounting of 45
the injection nozzle associated therewith may be
the same as in my above identi?ed copending ap
plication for internal combustion engine, ?led
January '7, 1937, Serial No. 119,422. Head 24 has
associated therewith a stuffing box 25 of known
type, and a dome member 26 is appropriately
50 .
mounted upon the top of crank case C and has
associated therewith a stu?ing box 21 aligned
with the stu?ing box 25. The engine so far de
scribed is similar in construction to that of my
as:
i
2,109,060
two above identi?ed copending applications, and
at 66. Member 64 fits snugly about the upper end
need not be illustrated nor described in greater
detail, it su?icing to note that the engine may be
of any desired construction suitable for the pur
welding, and serves to close the upper end of
of tube 33. to which it is suitably secured as by
passage 34. At its upper end, spool member 64
poses intended.
is provided with a relatively thin ?ange 66- dis
A piston 33 operates in cylinder i3, and has as
sociated therewith a piston rod 3| which operates
through the stumng boxes 26 and 21. Rod-3| is
posed adjacent the underiace of the center of;
provided with an axial bore 32 which is reduced
10 in diameter at the lower end of the rod, as shown
in Figure 2. A tube 33. of less exterior diameter
than the interior diameter of bore 32, has a close
sliding fit in the lower end oi.’ rod 3| and extends
upwardly through bore 32, in concentric spaced
15 relation thereto, to a short distance above the
upper end of rod 3|. Tube 33 thus de?nes, with
bore 32, an annular passage 34 for cooling oil,
the upper end portion of this passage being ?ared
upward at 34a. The tube 33 also de?nes an oil
passage, and opens, at its lower end, through [the
lower end of rod 3|. The latter is also bored
from its lower end to provide two supplemental
passages 36 opening at their upper ends, by ports
36, into passage 34 adjacent the lower end there
25 of. The passage de?ned by tube 33 is an oil in
top wall 46 of head 39. The outer portion of this
?ange‘ is spaced a slight distance‘ from an annular
surface 61 provided on the underiaceoi wall 46
and disposed parallel to ?ange 63. The clearance 10
between surface“ and ?ange 56 retards the es
cape of oil from above ?ange 66 su?iciently to
assure that the space 63 above spool member
I4 will be at all times maintained ?lled with oil,
and positive ?ow of oil over the underface of wall 16
46, above ?ange 63, is assured. The oil entering
space 63 from tube 33 ?ows outward from the lat
ter along the underiace of wall 46, at the central
portion-thereof, escapes between ?ange 66 and
surface v61, ?owing outward along the remainder 20
of the roof of chamber 42, and then ?ows down
ward in chamber 42 along wall 44, escaping
through the ducts 63 to groove 49 of the de?ector
43. The central portion of top wall 46 of head 33
is e?'ectively cooled, thus eliminating danger of
let passage, and the passage 34 is an outlet pas
cracking or other injury to this wall due to over
sage, suitable means to be later described being heating. The ?ow of the cooling oil along the
provided for supplying oil to the tube and for ' inner and the outer faces of the depending wall
conducting oil away from the passage 34.
44 and the roof and the outer wall of channel 43
Piston rod 3| is provided, at its upper end, with serves to cool the head 33, as a whole, in a highly
a relatively thick outwardly projecting ?ange 33. ei?cient manner. This 011 ?ow, as well as the
The piston 33 comprises an upper head 39, a ?ow oi the oil in the chamber 42, is indicated by
lower head 43, and a spacing member 4| disposed the arrows in Figure l.
about rod 3| below and in contact with ?ange 33.
The lower head43 de?nes an interior channel
Head 33 de?nes an interior central chamber 42 63 extending about a hub 6| which ?ts snugly
and a channel 43 extending about this chamber about piston rod 3| and is provided at its upper
and separated therefrom by a wall 44 depending end with an outwardly projecting ?ange 62. A
from top wall 46 of head 39. Wall 44, at the lower
end of chamber 42, ?ts snugly about the upper
end of rod 3 I, appropriately formed for that pur
pose as shown.
The lower end of channel 43 is closed by a
?anged de?ector 46 seating, in part, against the
underface of head 39. The lower or base element
45 of de?ector 46 is clamped between the underiace
of head 39 and web element 41a of a ring mem
ber 41 of angle cross-section, the upper end of
which seats in a rabbet formed in the lower end
of head 39. Ring member 41 is secured to head
50 39 by cap screws, one of which is shown at 43,
de?ector 63, ?anged at its upper end, closes the
upper end of channel 63 and is clamped between
the upper face of head 43 and a ring 64 of angle
cross section, the lower end of which seats in a
rabbet formed in head 43, web 64a of this ring
being secured to head 43 by cap screws, one of
which is shown at 65, these cap screws also pass
ing through the ?ange of de?ector 63, which is
clamped between web 6411 and the upper end of
‘head 43. De?ector 63 is provided with a depend
ing portion 63a of approximately C shape in
cross-section spaced away from the outer wall
of channel 60 and extending inward along and a
passing through web 41a and screwing into
slight distance above the inner face of bottom
head 39.
wall 43a of head 43. The upper or base portion
of de?ector 63 is depressed and provided with an
'
De?ector 46 ?ts snugly about the lower portion‘
55 of wall 44, at the outer face thereof, and is pro
vided, in its inner face, with a groove 49 which
receives oil from chamber 42 through short pas
sages or ducts 53 in wall 44. Above groove 49 the
de?ector 46 is decreased in thickness to provide a
60 slight space 5| between the de?ector and the outer
face of wall 44, at the upper portion thereof, it
being noted that the de?ector is provided, at its
upper end, with an outwardly projecting element
52 which extends along the roof of channel 43 in
65 proximity thereto and towards the outer wall of
this channel. ' Oil supplied to groove 49 from
chamber 42 is thus caused to ?ow upward along
the outer face of wall 44, then along the roof
of channel 43, and thence downward along the
outer wall of this channel, the latter being pro
vided with appropriately located outlets, to be re
ferred to more in detail presently. A spool mem
ber 64, disposed within chamber 42, is suitably
secured upon the upper end of piston rod 3|, as
75 by means of cap screws, one of which is shown
upwardly projecting rib 66 de?ning, with piston
rod 3|, an annular depression in which ?ange
4|a, at the lower end of spacer 4| seats. This
?ange He is bolted to ?ange 62 of hub 6| of the
lower head 43 by means of studs and cooperating
nuts, one of these studs and its nut being shown
at 61 and 63, respectively, it being noted that
the stud also passes through the base or depressed
portion of de?ector 63. Spacer 4| is provided,
at its upper end, with a ?ange 4| b which seats
against the underface of ?ange 33 of piston rod
3| and issecured thereto by bolting studs and
cooperating nuts, one of these studs and its nut
being shown at 69 and 10, respectively. It will
be noted that the stud 69 passes through the base
element of de?ector 46 which is thus clamped be 70
tween ?ange 33 and wall 44 in the same manner
as the base element of de?ector 63 is clamped be
tween ?anges 4|a and 62.
Spacer 4| is provided with a plurality of length
wise extending ribs 12, certain of these ribs be 75
9,100,000
a ing each provided, a short distance'below ?ange
.
.
a
varied as desired to'suit conditions. The ?ow of "
4|b, with an-outwardly projecting lug ‘l8. hring
u of .-r cross-section ?ts tightly betweenthc rings
the oil from-the upper piston head to the, lower
piston head, and from the latter to the~outlet
41 and 84, and is provided with suitably dis.
-
posed elements 'l4aseating between lugs ‘I8 of‘
84 of the piston rod 8|, is indicated by
arrows in-Figure 1 andwill be clear theref >
ribs Hand?ange 4"). This ring, which is split y from and from, the ‘above description.
in a known manner, completes the sectional con
Lower end portion 8|a of piston rod.8| is ac
struction. of the piston, and it is provided with curately turned and ?nished to a slightly reduced
suitable openings for accommodating the nuts uniform diameter, for a suitable length, equal to
10 10, as will be clear from Figure 1, ‘it being noted approximately the, reduced diameter of the rod. 10
that the ribs 12 of spacer 4| are suitably disposed
The lower end of piston rod 8| is ?at and normal
to accommodate the nuts 88 of the bolting stud 81. _ to the axis thereof, and may have secured there
While the piston 88 is preferably of the sectional on, as‘by means of screws 88, a spacing ring 8| .
construction shown and described, it may be of providedwith openings disposed to register with
15 any other suitable construction, it being noted 'the lower end of tube 88 and the lower ends of 15
that each of the piston heads is provided with
the supplemental outlet passages 88, as will be . I
suitable grooves which‘ receive piston rings, in a _ clear from Figure "I. Portion 8|a of piston rod '
8| ?ts snugly into a corresponding socket formed
in the upper end of a cross-head 82, the bottom
of this socket being ?at and normal; to the axis 20
of the piston rod. Rod 8| is further provided,
above portion 8|a, with an exteriorly threaded
portion 8|b. A securing nut 88, comprising an
upwardly. tapering body 88a and. an 1. outwardly
projecting ?ange 88!) at the lower endvof the 25
known-manner. '
Each of the ribs 12 of spacer 4| is provided
with a lengthwise bore forming an oil passage
15. In Figure 1, the left hand passage ‘I8 is in
register, at its upper end, with the lower end of an inclined duct 18 extending through ?ange 88
and in register, at its upper end, with a ‘port ‘I’!
25 opening through the base portion of de?ector 48.
. Port Tl opens into 'a groove 18 formed in the
body, screws upon portion 8") of the rod. .The :
upper surface of ?ange 88b is convex and of
lower end of wall 44, extending from the outer
face thereof and terminating short of the inner _ sphericalcurvature about a center e located on
face of this wall. The outer end of groove ‘I8 the axis' of piston rod 8| and below the latter,
as in-Flgure 2. A clamping member 85 is dis v30
the lower portion of de?ector 48, which ?ts_ about . posed about body 88a of nut 88 and is provided,
wall 44. The lower end of passage 15 is in regis
at its lower end, with a base curved conformably
30 is in register with a port'l8 extending through
ter with a port 88 through the base or web ele- - to and seating upon‘ the upper face of ?ange
ment of de?ector 88, this port opening into a
35 groove 8| in the upper face of ?ange 82, extend
88b. Bolting studs 88, suitably anchored in
cross-head 82, pass through member 85 with
ing from the outer face of this ?ange and termi
Y suitable clearance 88a about each stud. ' Member
nating short of the inner face thereof. The 85 is provided, in its upper face, with depressions
outer end of groove 8| is aligned with a port 82 of spherical curvature extending‘about the studs
in the portion of de?ector 88 extending about - 88, these depressions receiving washers 81, the
40 ?ange 82. It will be clear that oil from channel underfaces of which are of spherical curvature '40
43 ?ows therefrom downward through thepas
sages and ports shown and described, into chan
and seat in the depressions. Securing nuts 88
screw upon the studs 88 and bear upon washers 8'!
nel 80 between the outer'wall thereof and por- . for securing the clamping member 85 -to and
tion 83a of de?ector 88. This oil .then ?ows alongv
forcing it toward cross-head 82. The lower end
.45 the bottom wall 48a of head 48 toward hub 8|, _ of nut 88 is spaced a slight distance above the 45
it being noted that the oil entering channel 80
cross-head 82, and is provided with a slot 98
is caused, by the de?ector 88, including portion
83a thereof, to'?ow downward along the outer.
which receives the upper end of'a key I80 secured '
wall of channel 88.
50
,
by screws |8| in a groove in rod 8|, this key pro
jecting into a keyway I82 opening into and ex-'
Passage 15 of the right hand rib ‘I2 shown in
Figure 1 is in register, at its lower end, with a
port 88 through the base or web element of the
tending from the upper end of the socket in cross
de?ector 83. This-latter port 88 is in register
socket of cross-head‘ 82, as will be explained more
fully hereinafter, and also assures proper posi
tioning of nut 88 upon portion 8") of piston rod 55
with the upper end of an inclined duct 85 ex
55 tending through ?ange 82 and opening, at its
lower end, into channel 88 adjacent hub 8|, and
between the latter and portion 88a of de?ector
88. The upper end of passage ‘I5 at the right
head 82. Key I88, serves-to assure proper posi
tioning of portion>8|a of‘ piston rod 8| in the~
8|, while also holding this nut against turning
movement. The annular plate, 8| serves as a
spacer for compensating for any slight inaccu
hand of Figure'l is in register with the lower; racies in machining of the parts, it being under
60 end of a short duct 88 extending through ?ange stood that the thickness of this plate may be 60
38 of piston rod 3|, and closed at its upper end
by the base portion of de?ector 48. Flange 38 is ,
further provided with a duct 81 intersecting duct
86 and opening into the ?ared upper portion 84a
65 of outlet passage 34. It will be understood that,
in practice, certain of the ribs are provided with
passages which permit down?ow of the oil from
channel 43 of head 38 to channel 80 of ‘head 48,
varied as required.
Forming the upper face of ?ange 88b of nut1i8
and the cooperating ‘face of clamping member 85
in the manner stated, with provision for clear
ances between the studs. 88 and member 85 and
between the latter member and the body 88av of the
nut, in conjunction with the provision of the
washers 81 and the spherical depressions about the
studs 88, permits of slight movement of clamping
member 85, relative to nut 83, about the center 0. 70
This is advantageous in that it prevents or greatly
reduces unequal tensioning of the studs 88 and
also prevents subjecting the piston rod, at its
others of the ribs 12 de?ning, with the asso
70 ciated ducts, up?ow passages for discharge of
the oil from channel 80 to the outlet passage 34.
The number of the down?ow passages and the
number of the up?ow passages, as well as the
cross area thereof, will depend upon the pressure, connection to the cross-head 82, to objectionable
75 rate of oil ?ow, and other factors, and may be \ transverse stresses. The lower end of rod 3|,"or 75
4
2,100,000
plate 9|, seats upon the bottom of the socket in a: centrally or the man or the socket and is
cross-head 92, and is maintained in sealing con 1" in‘ register with-the central opening of plate 3|,
tact therewith by the pressure exerted through which central opening is in register with the lower
the stud-98 and clamping member 35, it being end of tube 33. In this manner, I provide a pas~ .
noted that portions 3Ia and 3Ib of the piston rod sageway whereby oil is conducted from passage
are maintained under compression at all times._ I01 to the inlet tube 33 at the lower end thereof.
The. clamping member 95 is substantially square
Referring to Figures 3, 4 and 5, cross-head 92
in plan, and of somewhat greater width tjhanthe is provided with two short vertical passages I30
body of cross-head 92, the latter being provided, opening through the bottom of the socket in the
10 at its upper end, with lateral projections or ?anges
for reception of the studs 98, as will be clear from
* Figures 2 and 4. Since the studs 98 are spaced
from the piston rod 3| a distance somewhat less
than the width of ?ange 93b of. nut 93, this ?ange
15 is suitably notched to accommodate studs 98, as in
Figure 2.
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i‘
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cross-head and disposed in register with the two 10
eccentric openings in plate 9|, such ‘openings being in register with the lower ends of the supple- -
mental outlet passages 35. The latter passages,
in e?fect, open directly into the upper ends of
the passages M0. The latter passages open, at 15
their lower ends, into inclined passages I3I bored
.
Cross-head 92 is provided, at one side and ad
iacent its upper end, with a rectangular channel
or groove of considerable width in which seats the
20 inner portion of an elongated block I05 secured to
in the crossdhead 92, and passages I 3| open, *at'
their lower ends, into a passage I32 of greater
‘diameter bored in the cross-head 92 from one
end thereof and closed at such end by a screw
plug F33. The outer end of each passage I 3i is .
the cross-head by cap screws I 08. Block- I05 is
bored out from its ends to provide oil inlet and
closed by a screw plug I34, and passage I32 is
outlet passages I01 and I08, respectively, the in
ner ends of' which are spaced apart and the outer
intersected, adjacent its other end, by a vertical
passage I35 of equal diameter bored from the
upper end of cross-head 92 and closed, at its 25
upper end, by a screw plug I38. A short passage
I31 opens, at its inner end, into vertical passage
I35, and is in register, at its outer end, with a
port I38 opening through the inner wall of block
I05 into passage I08 adjacent the inner end there 30
II I. Each of these sleeves is provided with an of. It will be seen that the outlet passage 34 of
opening II2 a short distance from its outer end, the piston rod 3| is thus connected to passage I08
this opening being of considerable extent circum- , of block I05 for conducting oil from the piston
ferentially of the sleeve. Each sleeve II I receives rod. In this manner oil is conducted to the pis
v35 thereon a sleeve I I3 at the upper end of a tubular ton through tube 33 and, after circulating through 35
link II4, conveniently formed integrally with the the piston heads and associated parts in the man
link. Sleeve H3 is confined between ?ange IIO ' ner previously described, is conducted from the
and a washer I I5 through which passes screw plug . piston through passage 34 of the piston rod. It
I09, the latter being provided with'a head I09a will be noted that the proper oil connections are
assured by the act of assembling the cross-head 40
40 which seats upon the outer face of washer II5.
Link I I4 is pivoted, at its lower end, to a tubular and the piston rod, due to the provision of the
key I00 and keyway I02 previously referred to. ,
link I I8, the lower end of the latter link being piv
Since the portion 3Ia of the piston rod has a
‘ cted to a ?tting I I1 suitably mounted within the
ends of which are closed by screw plugs I09. The
block I05 is provided with integral ?anges -I I0, of
circular outline, which abutthe ends of_ cross
head 92, the portions of ‘the block extending out
ward-beyond ?anges I I0 being of cylindrical shape
30 and accurately ?nished to provide bearing sleeves
crank case C.
. snug ?t in the socket of cross-head 92, and the
It will be understood that, in prac
45 tice, there are two ?ttings II1, oil being supplied
under pressure to one of such ?ttings andythe
other ?tting constituting a return member
through which the oil is returned to the source of
supply. Linkage arrangements of this character
50 for supplying cooling ?uid to a piston are well
known in the art and need not be illustrated or
described'in greater detail. If desired, any other
suitable known means, ‘such as telescoping tubes,
may be provided for supplying oil to passage I01
and delivering oil from passage I08. Su?lce it to
state that suitable means is provided whereby
cooling ?uid, such as oil, is supplied to the passage
I01 and delivered from the passage I08.
lower end of this rod is held in sealing contact 45
with the bottom of the socket, in the manner
previously explained, no appreciable or objec
tionable leakage of oil about the lower portion of
the piston rod occurs.
' The lower portion of the cross-head 92 is ap 50
propriately' formed to provide a bearing sleeve '
I40 which receives a wrist pin HI and associated
bushings I42 and anti-friction bearings I 43, pro
viding a pivotal connection between sleeve I40
and the upper end of a connecting rod I44, the 55
lower end of which is connected, in a known man
ner, to the engine crank shaft. ‘The connecting
' ' rod I44 and associated parts may be provided
Block I05 and the cross-head 92 are bored to
60 provide suitably disposed passageways for de
livering oil to tube 33 and conducting oil from
with suitable passages for supplying oil to the
wrist pin bearings in a known manner.
' '
60
A guide shoe I45, of known type, is suitably se
outlet passage.“ of, the piston rod 3|. Referring
cured to the other side of cross-head 92, con
to Figures 2 and 5, block I05 is provided with an
outlet port I20, adjacent the inner end of passage
I01, which port is in register with the outer end
veniently by bolting. This'shoe I45 operates in
suitable guideways I48 of known type, appro
of a horizontal passage I2I in the cross-head.
Passage I2I intersects a vertical passage I22 in
the cross-head, closed at its upper eud‘by a screw
known manner. The cross-head guide shoe is
of conventional type, as are the guideways and
associated parts, and none of these parts need be
illustrated ordescribed in greater detail. It is
priately mounted within the crank case C in a 65
plug I23. Passage I22 opens,.at its lower end,
70 into a short passage I24 extending lengthwise of . su?lcient to note that the crosshead has asso 70
cross-head 92 and opening into a passage I25 ex
ciated therewith suitable guide means, such as
tending transversely of cross-head 92 and closed the guide shoe and the associated guides, re
at its outer end by a screw plug I28. At its inner ferred to;
'
end passage I25 opens into a short vertical pas
It will be noted that the greater portion of the
75 sage I21 which opens into the socket of cross head cross section of the piston rod is available to 75
2,109,000
'5
'
transmit
both ‘tension and compression to the its‘ upper face ofconvex spherical curvature
v
cross-head, which assures adequate mechanical about a center on the axis ofjsaid piston rod, a '
strength. The piston rod ii is not drilled later ~clamping 'memberihaving its lower face curved‘
ally in a region subject to tension‘ during‘ oper ' conformably to and vseating. upon the upper face
ation,‘ which further contributes to strength of of said‘?ange, said member being spaced out
the piston vrod. It is recognized that holes drilled wardly from the body'of said‘nut, bolts ‘securing
laterally in the piston rod in a region subjected to saidlclamping member to and forcing it toward
tension during operation are objectionable and _ said cross-head effective for maintaining the low
frequently cause failures of thepiston rod, such‘ er end of said piston rod insealing contact with
10 holes being-known as stress raisers. A further the bottom. of said socket, said- cross-head'hav 10
‘ advantage of my constructionis‘ that _no attach
ing inlet and outlet passages opening through the
ments to the piston rod‘ are necessary in eillect-v bottom _of said ‘socket respectively in register with
> ing the cooling‘oil ‘connections, such connec
said piston rod inlet and outlet passages, means
tions being made automatically in assembling, for conducting cooling ?uid to and from ' said
15 the piston rod and the cross- _ d, All operations .inlet and ‘outlet
= -. - : of said cross-head, and 15
, ' =
in assembling and disassemb
g the piston rod
and the cross-head are,‘ performed ‘ ~ the upper.
, end of the latter, which is readilyv
ible, this
being conducive to expedition and facility in ef
a connecting rod operatively connected-to "said
cross
head;
-
‘
‘
'
‘
_,3. In a double acting internal combustion en
gine, a cylinder, a piston operating therein and
fecting the assembling and disassembling opera- ' provided with passages for circulation of cooling
The use of the studs, 86 and associated ?uid, a cross-head having. a socket in its upper
nuts 98 of standard size, insecuring the piston I end, a piston rod operatively connecting said '
‘ tions.
rod to ‘the cross-head, is‘ advantageous ‘in that piston and said cross-head and, seating in said ‘.
these nuts can readily be tightened or adjusted socket, said‘ piston rod having lengthwise inlet‘
to any desired extent, within limits, Suitable and outlet passages opening through its lower 25
locking means for-preventing loosening or dis‘ end and communicating with‘ said piston \pas
placement of the nuts, particularly the nuts 88,- ‘ sages, a nut screwed 'upon said piston rod adja
and of the cap screws I08.for securing the block cent and spaced from the upper end of said cross
I 05, may be-"provided, as is well known in the art.
head, a clamping member seating upon ‘said nut,
bolts securing said clamping member to and forc
1. In a double acting internal combustion en
ing it toward-said cross-head effective for main
gine, a cylinder, a piston operating therein and" taining the lower end of said piston rod in sealing
provided with passages for circulation of cooling contact with the bottom of said socket, said across
?uid, a cross-head having a socket in its upper' ~head having inlet and outlet passages opening
end, a piston rod operatively connecting said‘ through the bottom of said socket respectively in 35
piston and said cross-head and seating in said register with said‘piston rod inlet and outlet pas-.
.WhatIclaimis:
.
'
_
3’
I
socket with its lower end in sealing contact with sages, means holding said piston rod against
the bottom of said socket, said piston rod'being ‘ turning in said socket and also holding said nut
provided with lengthwise inlet and outlet passages against turning on said piston rod, means for
conducting cooling ?uid to and'from' said inlet
opening through its lower end and communicat
ing with said piston passages, a securing member and outlet passages of said cross-head, and a con
secured upon said piston rod adjacent and spaced .necting rod operatively connected to‘ said cross
from the upper end of said cross-head, said mem
_ head.
ber being provided with an outwardly projecting
‘
_ 4. In a double acting internal combustion en-'
gine, a cylinder and a piston operating therein,
a, cross-head having a_socket in its upper end, a
ing. its lower face curved conformably to and piston rod operatively connected to said'piston
seating upon the upper face of said ?ange, said and‘ seating in said socket, a securing member
clamping member beingmovable'relative to said secured upon said‘ piston rod adjacent and spaced
securing member about the common center of from the ‘upper end of said cross-head,‘ and-a
curvature of said surfaces, means securing said clamping ‘member seating upon said securing
clamping member to and forcing it toward said , member and bolted to said cross-head, said mem
cross-head e?ective for‘ maintaining the lower' bers cooperating for securing ‘said piston rod to
end of said piston rod in sealing contact with the said cross-head with its lower end in contact with
?ange having its upper face convex and of a
spherical curvature, a clamping member hav
55 bottom of said socket, said cross-head having in
the bottom‘of said socket.
let‘ and outlet passages opening through the bot~
' tom of said socket respectively in register with
said piston'rod inlet and outletpassag'es, means
for conducting cooling ?uid to-and from said in
60 let and outlet passages of said cross-head, and a
connecting rod operatively connected to said
cross-head.‘
'
_
7
‘
r
‘
'
‘
5. In a double acting internalcombustion en
gine, a cylinder and a piston operating therein, a
cross-head having a socket in its upper-end, av
piston rod operatively connected to said' piston‘
and seating in said socket, a securing member>o0
secured upon said piston rod adjacent and spaced
R
from the upper end of vsaid cross-head, and a .
clamping member seating upon‘ said securing
member and bolted to- said cross-head, said
clamping member being capable of movement 65
2. In a double acting internal combustion en
gine, a cylinder, a piston operating therein and
65 provided with passages for circulation of cooling
?uid,‘ a cross-head having a socket in its upper
end, a piston rod operatively connecting said
piston and said cross-head and seatingin said
memberscooperating for securing said piston rod
socket, said piston rod having lengthwise inlet
70 and outlet passages opening through its lower
with the bottom of said socket.
end and communicating with said piston pas
sages, a nut' screwed upon said piston rod adja
cent and spaced from the upper end of said cross
head, said nut comprising an upwardly tapering
relative to said securing member about‘ a center
on the axis of and below said piston rod, said
to said cross-head with its lowerend in contact
_
‘I
70
6. In a double acting internal combustion ‘en
gine, a cylinder and a piston operating therein, a
cross-head having a socket in its upper end, a
piston rod operatively connected to said piston
75 body and an outwardly projecting ?ange having .and seating in said socket, a nut screwed upon 75‘
6
2,100,000
said piston rod adjacent and spaced from the
upper end of said cross-head, said nut comprising
a body and an outwardly projecting ?ange having
an outwardiv extending ?ange at its upper end,
said piston comprising upper and lower heads and
a spacer secured together and to said ?ange, said
its upper face of spherical curvature about a upper head de?ning a, central‘ chamber and a
center on the axis of and below said piston rod, ' channel extending about said chamber and sep
a clamping member having a face curved con
arated therefrom by a wall depending from the
formably to and seating upon the upper face of top wall of said upper head, said depending wall
said ?ange, said member being spaced from the having passages therethrough from said chamber
body of said nut, and means securing said mem
to said channel, de?ector means for directing
ber to and forcing it toward said cross-head while cooling ?uid entering said channel from said 10
permitting movement of said member relative to chamber upward along said depending wall, then
said nut about said center.
along the roof of the channel and thence down
'7. In a piston and piston-rod assembly for ward, a spool member in said chamber secured to
double acting internal combustion engines, a pis
said ?ange ?tting about the upper end of said tube
ton, a tubular piston rod secured in said piston, and closing the upper end of said outlet passage, 15
an inlet tube secured in said rod in spaced rela
tion to the inner face thereof and de?ning there
with an annular outlet passage, and a spool mem
ber ?tting about the upper end of said tube and
20 closing the upper end of said outlet passage, said
spool member having at its upper end a ?ange in
proximity to the under face of the top wall of
the piston head, said piston being provided with
interior intercommunicating spaces and passages
leading from the upper end of said spool member
to said outlet passage, the latter. and said tube
being respectively provided with outlet and in
let openings exterior of_ said piston.
8. In a piston and piston-rod assembly for
30 double‘ acting intemalcombustion engines, a pis
ton, a tubular piston rod secured in said piston,
an inlet tube secured in said rod in spaced rela
tion to the inner face thereof and de?ning there
with an annular outlet passage, said piston com
35 prising upper and lower heads and ‘an inter
mediate member secured together and to said pis
ton rod, said upper head de?ning a central cham
ber and ‘a channel extending about said cham
ber and separated therefrom by a wall depending
40 from the top wall of said upper head, a de?ector
closing the lower end of said channel ?tting snug
said spool member having at its upper end a '
?ange disposed in proximity to the roof of said
chamber, said lower head de?ning a hub and a
channel extending therearound, said heads,
?ange, rod, and spacer having passages estab 20'
lishing communication between ~the channels of
said heads and between the channel of said lower
head and said outlet passage, and de?ector
means fordirecting cooling ?uid outward and
downward in the channel of said lower head and 25
then inward along the upper face of the bottom
wall of said lower head to said hub.
.
10. In a piston and piston rod assembly for
double acting internal combustion engines, a pis
ton, a piston-rod secured in said piston and pro 30
vided with. inlet and outlet passages for cooling
?uid, said piston comprising upper and lower
heads, said upper head de?ning a central cham
ber and a channel extending around said cham
ber separated therefrom by a wall depending from 85
the top wall of said head and provided with open
ings from the lower portion of said chamber into
said channel, said lower head de?ning a hub and
a channel extending therearound, said piston and
rod having passages establishing communication 40
between said channels and between said lower
’ ly about the lower portion of the outer face of v channel and said outlet passage, said inlet pas
said depending'wall and extending upward there
along and along said top wall, said de?ector hav
45 ing its upper portion spaced from said top wall
and dependingwall and the latter having pas
sages therethrough from said chamber to the
space between said de?ector and said depending
wall, a spool member in saidochamber secured to
the upper end of said piston rod ?tting about the
upper end of said tube and closing the upper end
of said outlet passage, said spool member having
at its upper end a ?ange in proximity to the
underface of the top wall of said upper head,
said lower head de?ning a hub and a channel ex
tending thereabout, and a de?ector closing the
upper end of said channel ?tting snugly about
said hub and extending downward into the chan
nel in spaced relation to the sides thereof with
its lower portion extending along and spaced 9.
short distance from the upper face of the bottom
wall of said lower head, said heads and de?ectors
and said piston rod and intermediate member be
ing provided with passages establishing com-.
munication between the channel of said upper
head and the channel of said lower head at the
outer side of said lower de?ector and between the
channel of said lower head at the inner side of
said lower de?ector and said outlet passage.
9. In a piston and piston-rod assembly 'for
double acting internal combustion engines, a pis
ton, a tubular piston rod secured in said piston,
an inlet tube secured in said rod in spaced relation
to the inner face thereof and de?ning therewith
75 an annular outlet passage, said piston rod having
sage opening into said chamber, de?ector means
for directing cooling ?uid along the roof of said
chamber downward along said depending wall, 45
then upward along the outer face of said depend
ing wall, and thence along the roof and down
ward along the outer wall of the channel of said
upper head,- and de?ector means for directing
cooling ?uid downward along the outer wall of 50
the channel of said lower head and then along
the bottom wall of said lower head to said hub.
11. In a piston and piston rod assembly for
double acting internal combustion engines, a pis
ton,‘a piston rod secured in said piston and pro 55
vided with inlet and outlet passages for coolingv
?uid, said piston comprising upper and lower
heads each having an interior concentric chan
nel, said upper head also having a central cham
ber communicating atits lower portion with the 60
channel of said upper head, said piston rod hav
ing an inlet passage opening into said chamber
and an outlet passage, said piston and rod hav-m
ing passages establishing communication between 65
said channels and between the channel of said
lower head and said outlet passage, de?ector
means for directing cooling ?uid along the roof
and downward along the surrounding wall of said
chamber, then along the surrounding walls and
the roof of the channel of said upper head, and
de?ector means for directing cooling ?uid along
the outer and the bottom walls of the channel of
said lower head.
12. In a piston and piston rod assembly for
70
2,109,080
7
?uid along the outer and the bottom walls of the
channel of said lower head._ ' .
'
t'on, a, piston rod secured in said piston and pro
13. In a double-acting internal combustion en
vided with inlet and outlet passages for cooling
?uid, said piston comprising upper and lower glue, 9. cylinder and a piston operating therein, a
cross-head having a socket in its upper end, a
heads each having an interior concentric chan
piston rod operatively connected to said piston
nel, said piston rod having an inlet passage com
and seating in said socket; a seeming member
municating with the channel of said upper head secured upon said piston rod adjacent and spaced
and an outlet passage, said piston and rod having from the upper end of 7 said cross-head, and bolt
passages establishing communication between said , ing means attaching said securing member to‘ ll)
10 channels and between the channel of said lower
said cross-head, said members cooperating for
head and said outlet passage. de?ector means for securing said piston rod to said cross-head with
directing cooling ?uid along the surrounding its lower end in contact with the bottom of said
walls and the roof of the channel of said upper socket. '
15
EDWARD S. DENNISON.
head, and de?ector means for directing cooling
double acting internal combustion engines, a pis
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