Патент USA US2109103код для вставки
2,10%3 Patented Feb. 22, 1938 UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,109,103 IGNITION TIMING CONTROL Don Cole, Evanston, Ill., assignor to Bendix Prod ucts Corporation, South Bend, Ind., a corpora tion of Indiana Application September 10, 1934, Serial No. 743,375 10 Claims. (Cl. 123-117) This invention relates to means for controlling the load if the same speed is to be maintained, the ignition of internal combustion engines, and or the same load may be carried at a reduced more particularly to a method of and means for speed. automatically regulating the time of ?ring the 5 spark in the combustion chamber of the engine in To obtain the greatest el?ciency from the en gine it is necessary to vary the time of igniting accordance with variables such as manifold vac-‘ the charge so that the maximum power will be exerted upon the piston near the beginning of the power stroke. The rate of flame ‘propaga uum, throttle opening, and speed of the engine. It is known that the combustible mixture, in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine does not 10 explode instantaneously, but that an interval of time is required for the entire charge to become ignited. This time lag depends upon the rate of ?ame propagation, which is a variable dependent upon the density of the charge and the pressure 1 to which the charge is subjected, as well as other factors. The rate of ?ame propagation becomes more rapid as the density of the charge increases, and also more rapid as the pressure of the charge is increased. 20 To secure maximum efficiency from the engine and also to obtain the greatest amount of power from a given quantity of fuel it is necessary that the spark which ignites the charge should occur before the piston reaches the top dead center 25 position. The degree of advance should be suffi cient to permit the entire charge to become fully ignited shortly after the instant when the piston reaches the top dead center position, on the com pression stroke. In this manner the force of the expanding gases will be exerted upon the face of the piston in the most eifective manner. The degree of spark advance to secure best results is thus necessarily dependent upon the rate of flame propagation. 35 If the spark occurs too early the charge will be fully ignited before the piston reaches the top of its stroke and the expanding gases will resist the movement of the piston, resulting in loss of power and rough running. If the spark occurs too late the full force of the expanding gases will not be exerted upon the piston at the beginning of the power stroke and a decreased ef?ciency will result. Since the time required for the propagation of the ?ame in a charge of a given density remains ' practically constant, it follows that as the engine is speeded up the degree of spark advance, meas ured in degrees, must be increased vif the full power of the expanding gases is to be exerted upon the piston at the beginning of the power stroke. In present-day automobiles, this is com monly done automatically by a speed-responsive mechanism known as the automatic spark ad vance. The power developed by the engine is a function of the density of the charge admitted and also of the speed of the engine. Thus with an increase in the charge admitted to the cylinders the en gine may carry a greater load at the same speed or the same load at a higher speed. Likewise, reducing the charge necessitates a reduction in tion must therefore be taken into account, and since this depends primarily upon the density of the charge it is necessary to make suitable ad justments for throttle setting, which is one of the factors determining the density of the charge. According to a preferred embodiment of this invention I have therefore provided a novel con- ‘ nection between the throttle valve actuating mechanism and the ignition timing system where by the spark is advanced as the throttle valve is moved toward the open position. When the engine is running at idling speed or 20 comparatively slowly with the throttle valve closed or nearly closed the pumping action of the cylinders exerted on the carburetor will result in a high vacuum in the intake manifold. If now the throttle is opened, either to increase the speed 25 of the engine or to enable the engine to carry an increased load at the same speed, a greater charge of air and fuel vapor will be supplied to each cylinder per intake stroke and the negative pres sure or vacuum existing in the intake-,manifold 30 will be destroyed. Under such conditions, it is necessary to retard the spark to prevent back ?ring or pounding which would be detrimental to the engine. One of the important objects of this invention is the provision of novel means whereby the spark is automatically retarded when the negative pres Cl sure or vacuum in the induction passage posterior to the throttle valve is destroyed. Another object of this invention is to so control 40 the ignition of the charge in the combustion chambers that the maximum power is obtained from the fuel. Having these and other objects in mind, one embodiment of the invention comprises a novel connecting linkage between the throttle valve and the ignition system of an internal combustion engine. In the embodiment shown, the spark is advanced as the throttle valve moves from closed to partially open position and is retarded as the 50 throttle valve is moved from a partially open to a still greater open position. In the illustrative accompanying drawing this linkage is shown as a ?oating cylinder operably connected with the timer of the ignition system, with a piston therein operably connected with the throttle valve. The cylinder is yieldingly urged in one direction by a spring and is adapted to be urged in the other direction by suction transmitted to the cylinder through a duct com 2 2,109,103 municating with the intake manifold of the en gine. A further object of this invention is to produce an automatic ignition regulating system of the type described which is simple in operation and which can be manufactured very inexpensively. Other objects and advantages of the present in vention will be more apparent from the following detailed description and from the illustrative em 38, such movement being limited by a stop 52 carried by the cylinder. The operation of the device, when the engine is running at idling speed, is as follows. The throttle valve I4 will be closed and the lever 42 will be in engagement with a stop member 50, so that the piston 38 will be in the extreme right hand position (as shown). A comparatively high suction will exist in the manifold riser I0 and will 10 bodiments of the invention in the accompanying 1 be transmitted to the cylinder 28 through the duct 10 drawing which are intended merely for illustrative 48, holding the cylinder 28 to the left, maintaining purposes and are not intended to de?ne the scope the stop member 52 against the piston 38 by com pressing the spring 46, and rotating the arm 32 in the counterclockwise direction from its extreme of the invention, reference being had for that purpose to the subjoined claims. 15 In the drawing: Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view showing an apparatus embodying the invention; and Figure 2 is a chart showing the relation of en gine speed to spark advance in an engine equipped with the apparatus of the present invention. Referring to the embodiment of the invention disclosedin Figure 1 there is shown diagrammat ically a portion of an internal combustion engine equipped with a manifold riser I 0 connected with a carbureting passage I2. A throttle valve I4 is mounted on a throttle shaft I6 journalled in the walls of the cabureting passage I2. A conventional ignition timing unit is shown at l8 and comprises the usual rotatable arm 28 driven by a system of gears connected with the cam shaft of the engine and provided with a contact point 24 which successively contacts with the relatively stationary contacts 26 set in the base member 22. Any suitable type of auto matic spark advance such as the one illustrated may'be employed, whereby the arm 28 is rotated relative to its shaft 23 in accordance with engine speed. left-hand position, indicated at A in Figure 1, 15 to the position indicated at B, thereby advancing the spark. The operation when the throttle is approxi mately one-fourth open is as follows. The cam 44 has rotated the lever 42 in the counterclock wise direction about the pivot 43 to the position indicated in dotted lines in Figure 1, moving piston 38 to the left by means of the rod 40 connected with the lever 42. The partial vacuum existing in the manifold riser I0 is transmitted to the cylinder 28 by the duct 48 and moves the cylinder 28 to the left, rotating the arm 32 in the counter clockwise direction to the position indicated at C in Figure 1. The spark is then fully advanced. The operation when the throttle is wide open 30 is as follows. The vacuum in the manifold riser is substantially at atmospheric, and the spring 46 has moved the cylinder 28 to the right, thereby rotating the arm 32 in the clockwise direction to retard the spark to the position indicated at B in Figure 1. It will be noted that when the engine. is not running and the throttle valve I4 is closed, the In the present invention, the spark, in addition . arm 32 is at the position indicated at A in Fig to ‘being advanced and retarded by the automatic ure 1, wherein it abuts the stop member 36. The 40 spark is then fully retarded, which is desirable spark advance, is advanced and retarded by ro tating the base member 22 in a manner now to be described. A floating cylinder 28 is slidably mounted upon any suitable support 28 and is 45 operatively connected with the base member 22 by means of a rod 39 and an arm 32 which is ?xed to the base member .22 and yieldingly urged toward the retarded position by a spring 34 which holds the arm 32 against a stop member 36 under certain operating conditions. A piston 38 within the cylinder 28 is operably connected with the throttle valve I4 through a rod 451 which is pivoted to the free end of a lever 42 the other end being pivoted to a ?xed point 43 on the carburetor. The lever 42 is operated by means of a cam 44 ?xed to the throttle shaft i5 and actuated in consonance with throttle move ments by means of the usual throttle lever 45. 60 The cam 44 is so proportioned that it moves the lever 42 rapidly when the throttle‘ valve I5 starts to open, so that the full extent of travel is im parted to the lever 42 by the time the throttle valve I4 is about one-fourth open, after which 65 no further movement is imparted to the lever. A spring 4'! connected to the lever 42 holds the edge of the lever in contact with the surface of the cam 44. The piston 38 is yieldingly urged toward one end of the cylinder 28 by a spring 46, and the cylinder 28 is subjected to the subatmospheric pressure or vacuum existing in the manifold riser I8 by means of a ?exible duct 43 communicating therewith. The effect of the vacuum in the cylinder 23 is to 75 draw the cylinder to the left relative to the piston when the engine is to be cranked. As soon as the engine has started and is operating at idling speed with the throttle valve I4 closed, the vacuum in the manifold riser Iii will urge the cylinder 28 to 45 the left, advancing the spark to the position B to give satisfactory operation of the engine at idling speed. When the throttle valve is progressively opened and the engine is speeded up, the spark is automatically advanced to the position repre sented at C. As the engine is forced to carry an increased load, the spark is automatically re tarded back to the position B to prevent the en gine from knocking. In Figure 2, the curve A shows the relation be 55 tween the time of ignition and the speed of the engine where only the conventional spark advance device is employed. In this curve it will be noted that the spark is advanced as the speed of the engine is increased until a certain point, repre 60 sented by the numeral 54, is reached. From this point an increase in speed of the engine will not effect any change in the degree of spark advance. The curve 13 represents the variation in the spark advance where the instant invention is em ployed as above described. It will be noted that when the engine is being operated at extremely low speeds, such as would be produced in crank ing, the spark is retarded more than in the con ventional device, as is indicated at 56 on curve B. 70 As the speed of the engine is increased, the spark advances rapidly until a maximum point 58 is reached, from which point the spark is retarded slowly as the vacuum in the manifold drops due to the opening of the throttle valve beyond a pre 3 2,109,103 determined point or approximately one-fourth full open position and at high speeds the curve B will meet the curve A. The instant invention thus provides a greater effective range of operation, together with greater ?exibility and e?iciency than can be obtained by the conventional devices. While a preferred embodiment of thisinven tion has been shown and described in detail, it is 10 not my intention to limit the scope of the inven tion to the arrangement shown nor otherwise than by the terms of the appended claims. I claim: 1. An internal combustion engine having an 15 ignition system including a distributor, a car buretor having a throttle valve, a source of suc tion posterior to said throttle valve, means con~ necting said distributor and carburetor and com prising a cylinder operably connected with said and retard the time of ignition, means including a ?oating cylinder operably connected to one of said relatively movable members and a piston slidably mounted in the ?oating cylinder oper ably connected to the throttle valve to advance and retard the time of ignition, yielding means urging the cylinder in the direction to retard the time of ignition, and connecting means be tween the source of suction and the cylinder. 6. An internal combustion engine having a 10 carburetor including a source of differential ?uid pressure and a throttle valve, an ignition system including a, distributor to advance and retard the spark, centrifugally actuated means to ad vance and retard the spark, auxiliary means in 15 cluding a floating cylinder operably connected to the distributor and a piston operably con nected to the throttle valve and slidable in the cylinder to advance and retard the spark, and 20 distributor, a piston slidably mounted within the connecting means between the source of suction 20 40 toward one extreme position. tard the time of ignition, means including a 40 and the cylinder. cylinder, yielding means urging the cylinder to 7. In an internal combustion engine a carbu ward one extreme position, connecting means be tween the cylinder and the source of suction, and retor including a source of differential ?uid pres connecting means including a throttle actuated sure and a throttle valve, a cam ?xed to the 25 25 cam between said piston and said throttle valve. . throttle valve, an ignition system including a 2. An internal combustion engine having an distributor to advance and retard the spark, ignition system including a distributor having means including a ?oating cylinder operably con two members movable relative to each other to nected to the distributor and a piston slidable in the cylinder and operate-d by said cam to ad advance and retard the spark, a carburetor hav vance and retard the spark, connecting means 30 30 ing a throttle valve, a source of suction posterior between the source of suction and the cylinder, to said throttle valve, means connecting said dis and yielding means urging the cylinder to one tributor and carburetor and comprising a cyl extreme position to retard the spark. inder operably connected with one of said mem 8. In an ignition control system for an internal bers, a piston slidably mounted within the cyl combustion engine having a carburetor forming a 35 inder, yielding means urging the piston toward 35 one extreme position, connecting means between source of suction and equipped with a throttle valve, a cam ?xed to the throttle valve, an igni the cylinder and the source of suction, connect ing means between said piston and said throttle tion system including a plurality of relatively valve, and yielding means urging said cylinder movable members operable to advance and re - 3. An internal combustion engine having an ignition system including a distributor having two members movable relative to each other to advance and retard the spark, a carburetor hav 45 ing a throttle valve, a source of suction posterior to said throttle valve, means connecting said dis tributor and carburetor and comprising a cyl inder operably connected with one of said mem bers, a piston slidably mounted within the cyl inder, connecting means between the cylinder and 50 the source of suction, connecting means between the piston and the throttle valve, and yielding means urging the cylinder toward one extreme position, said connecting means being operable 55 to regulate the time of ignition in accordance with the speed of the engine and pressure exist ing in the source of suction. 4. In an ignition control system for an internal combustion engine having a carburetor forming 60 a source of suction and equipped with a throttle valve, an ignition system including a plurality of relatively movable members operable to advance and retard the time of ignition, means including a ?oating cylinder and a piston operably con 65 nected to the throttle valve to control one of said relatively movable members, and connecting means between the source of suction and the cyl inder. 5. An ignition control system for an internal combustion engine having a carburetor forming a 70 source of suction and equipped with a throttle valve, an ignition system including a plurality of relatively movable members operable to advance ?oating cylinder operably connected to one of said relatively movable members and a piston slidably mounted in the ?oating cylinder and as sociated with the throttle valve and actuated by said cam to advance and retard the time of igni 45 tion, yielding means urging the cylinder in the direction to retard the time of ignition, and con necting means between the source of suction and the cylinder. 9. An internal combustion engine having an 50 ignition system, a carbureting system, a throttle valve controlling the carburetor, a member mov able in accordance with throttle position, a source of suction associated with the carburetion sys tem, and means including a movable cylinder 55 and a piston operably connected to said mem ber and controlled jointly by throttle position and suction interconnecting the ignition and carburet- ' ing systems for automatically advancing the time of ignition as the engine is speeded up and re 60 tarding the ignition as the pressure in said source of suction rises to atmospheric. 10. In an internal combustion engine, an igni tion system including a control member movable to advance and retard the spark, a carburetor 65 comprising a throttle, a member movable in ac cordance with movements of the throttle, and a connection between said movable member and said control member comprising a movable cyl inder and piston the relative positions of which 70 are variable in accordance with the degree of suction posterior to the throttle. DON COLE.