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Патент USA US2109235

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FehZÃ 1938.
Filed June 29‘. 1935
-" TU» 4
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Ñeçenefaïeo/ Ce//a/ose
.Haw/WANN KD7-r.
_ BY
Feb. 22, 1938.
Filed June 29. 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
` 1276.'
5?/ Íf/
.40j /427
Patented Felpa-2, 1938
nimm'rlon m'rEn. AND ME'rnon Fon.
U'nuzlNG 'run SAME
Hermann Kott, East Orange, N. J., assigner, by
mesme assignments, -to Ion Corporation, Short
Hills, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey.
Application June 29, 1935, Serial No. 29,095
1' claim. (ci. 25o-s4)
This invention relates to radiation measuring ‘ by means of reiiector 2 through filter element 3
and detecting devices and more particularly to upon radiation sensitive device 4 which regulates
radiation ñlter means for use in connection with the iiow of energy in external electric circuit 5
including meter 6 and source of direct electric
the measuring and detecting o_f radiation.
`One of the objects of the present invention is
to provide a radiation ñlter for use in the de
tection of radiation within certain wavelength
ranges. Another object is to provide means for
current 1.
Radiation sensitive device 4 may be ,
any of the well known types of photo or radia
tion sensitive cells or tubes heretofore proposed
in the art.
Filter element 3 is comprised in accordance
y -another object - is y with the present invention preferably of regen 10
10 tain wavelength ranges. Still
to provide an improved method and means for erated cellulose impregnated with cobalt chloride.
the detection and measurement of radiation. Regenerated cellulose contains a proportion of
Other objects and advantages will be apparent glycerine approximating 14 to 16 per cent and is
characterized by the property of absorbing mois
as the invention is more fully disclosed.
ture from an atmosphere and of giving up mois 15
In accordance` with these objects, I have dis
ture to the atmosphere relatively rapidly in re
covered that Acellulosic material, particularly ra
diation permeable cellulosic material such as re- y sponse to variations in themoisture content of
generated cellulose, can be utilized as a radiation the atmosphere. The ultimate or equilibrium
moisture content of the cellulose bears a substan
iilter by incorporating within the cellulose a pro
0 portion of a'salt such as cobalt chloride which has tially constant ratio to the humidity of the at 20
mosphere with any given cellulosic material
the property of changing its color or color in
tensity with respect to its moisture content. which can be calibrated. The eiîect of tempera
Thereafter by incorporating within the cobalt ture upon this constant ratio also may be cali
impregnated cellulose suñicient water to impart brated.
Accordingly, in the determination of atmos
thereto a desired color intensity the material may
detecting and measuring radiation within cer
be employed as a radiation ñlter.
Upon the projection of radiation through 'the
cobalt and moisture impregnated cellulosic ma
terial upon a radiation sensitive device the said
30 device responds to and measures the amount of
pheric humidity ñlter element 3 may be com
prised for example of a relatively thin sheet
of cobalt chloride impregnated regenerated cel
lulose which is suspended in the atmosphere in
such manner that the atmosphere will -freely
such radiation which is not absorbed ‘by the iilter. contact with both faces. The beam of radiation
This phenomenon may be utilized in a number A from source I may be focused to irradiate a rel
atively large surface area of the filter element of different ways, and in the accompanying draw
ings I have illustrated several adaptations. In and means (not shown) may be employedl to
35 the drawings Fig. 1 _illustrates schematically one focus the filtered beam upon the radiation sensi
specific embodiment of the present invention; tive surface of photo-electric tube or cell 4.
The amount of-cobalt chloride to be impreg
Fig. 2vis a view along plane 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig.
nated in the radiation permeable cellulosic ma
3 illustrates schematically a second speciñc em
terial may vary widely without departing essen
tially from the nature and scope of the present
invention, depending upon the contemplated- use
embodiment of Fig. 3;` Fig. 5 illustrates schemati
thereof. In the adaptation of the filter to the
cally a second modiiication of the specific em
use indicated in the specific embodiment of Fig.
bodiment of Fig. 3; Fig. 6 is an enlarged sche
maticl View of a further modiñcation of the em- -' 1 the intensity of'radiation and kind o'fradiation
45 bodiment of Fig. 3; Fig. '7 `is a view along plane emitted by source i may control the amount of
1-1 of Fig. 6; and Fig. 8 is an enlarged view of cobalt chloride required. So also the humidity
range of the atmosphere may govern the amount
one feature of the device of Fig. 6.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, I have illustrated of cobalt chloride required.
An ordinary incandescent ñlament lamp demits
schematically as one speciiic embodiment of the
50 present invention an arrangement of elements radiation of a wide range of wavelengths.` The.
color range in ñlter element 3 may be made to
whereby the humidity or moisture content of at
vary with variation in cobalt chloride content
mospheres may be measured by utilizing the ñl
and moisture content in the ñlter from very light
ter element of the present invention. Radia
rose to very dark purple thereby cutting oir or '
tion from source I, which may be an incandes
55 cent filament lamp as indicated. is projected as filtering out radiation having wavelengths with
‘ bodiment of the present invention; Fig. 4 illus
40 trates schematically a modiiication of the speciñc
in this color band. For the purpose of measur
plate circuit to permit the adjustment of the cir
ing the,l variations in the humidity of the at
cuit resistances in each plate circuit so that with
mosphere. the degree of accuracy sought may . any given grid voltage on grid I1 the current
also control the color range employed. For ex
drawn through tube I3 by both plate circuits
ample, it may be desirable to obtain but three is substantially equal and potentiometer 22 there
measurements such as low, medium and high
humidity. In such case, the amount of cobalt
chloride employed may be adjusted such` that
Vwith high humidity the filter remains substan
tially unchanged in color; with medium humidity
the filter assumes color; and with low humidity
the illter takes on a very dark color.
For accurate measurement of the humidity. it
is preferable to employ as a light source I a
special lamp which emits radiation relatively high
in radiation oi' wavelengths within the color band
of the filter 3. such as a. mercury arc, glow dis
charge, or ultra-violet lamp. Such devices are
readily available on the market today. With this
kind of radiation passing through filter 3 the
variations incident to absorption by the ñlter
through changes in color due to moisture ab
sorption from the atmosphere may be readily de
tected and measured.
In the modiiication illustrated in Fig. 3 filter
element 3 is enclosed within a housing 3 pro
vided with radiation permeable windows 3 and
I0 within which housing means II is provided
whereby an atmosphere at a substantially con
30 stant humidity may be maintained. In this ar
rangement, ñlter 3 thereby is given a determined
color and is permeable to radiation oi' wave
lengths below this color range. By projecting
radiation emitted from source I through an
35 auxiliary filter 3' before passing the radiation
through filter 3 a narrowedI band oi' radiation
wavelengths thereby may be detected and meas
ured by the external circuit 5 including means
6 and 1. Auxiliary filter 3', for example. may
40 exclude red and infra-red radiation and filter 3
may be colored by the humidity of the atmos
phere enclosed within housing 8 to exclude all
radiation above about 3100 Angstrom. Light
source I, for example, may be an incandescent
45 filament lamp as shown or may be a tungsten
mercury arc lamp emitting relatively large quan
tities of radiation in the violet and ultra-violet
range of wave-lengths. By the arrangement in
dicated in Fig. 3 relatively accurate measure
50 ment of the amount of radiation below a certain
wavelength (limited by the color imparted to fll
ter 3) emitted during any given unit or period
of time by light source I may be determined.
In the modification illustrated in Fig. 4, the
55 detection and measurement of the radiation is
obtained by the use of a radiation sensitive de
vice I I and circuit means |2.
Device || is substantially a gaseous conduc
tion device and comprises an enclosing radiation
permeable envelop II, a pair of spaced electrodes
I3 and I4 and a pressure of ionizable gas. The
electric circuit I2 includes means I5 to impress
a potential upon electrodes I3 an'd I4 which is
substantially less than the breakdown poten
65 tial therebetween; and means I6 to balance the
external circuit resistance with the internal re
sistance of the device I| to permit the ñow of
a leakage current between the electrodes across
the intervening gas path. 'I'his current flow is
70 impressed upon grid I1 of thermionic amplifier
device I3 containing an indirectly heated cath
ode rI3 and a. pair of anodes 20 and 2| which are
electrically connected in parallely across poten
tiometer 22 to a source of plate voltage 23. Var
75 iable resistances 24 and 25 are provided in each
upon registers gere.
Thereafter//upon changing the internal re
sistance by tube | I by projecting radiation there
through in the manner indicated, the increase or
decrease in current flow through device II var
ies the potential upon grid I'I which in turn a1
ters the plate current drawn by the closer spaced
plate electrode 2|. This is indicated by the de
ilection in potentiometer 22 substantially as in
In the modification indicated in Fig. 5, the ex
ternal circuit I2 has been changed to provide
for operation directly from an alternating cur
rent source instead of a direct current source as
indicated in Fig. 4. Rectiiler 23 energized by al
ternating current from source 21 supplies a po- l
tential of rectified current to resistance 28 pro
vided with tap connections 29 and 30 from which
potentials suitable to replace direct current
sources I5 and 23 respectively may be drawn. 25
The remaining elements are substantially the
same as those heretofore described in Flg.-4.
In adapting the modifications of Figs. 4 and 5
to the detection and measurement of ultra-violet
radiation, the structure indicated in Figs. 6, 7 30
and 8 has been devised. In Fig. 6 the radiation
sensitive device II is shown totally enclosed by
the filter heretofore identified by numeral 3,
and hence is responsive to such radiation as may
pass through the said filter.
To obtain this result, I_comprise illter 3 of cup
or closed end tubular shaped regenerated cellu
lose material 3|, which is enclosed in a similarly
shaped double walled radiation permeable hous
ing 32 having an opening 33 in the base of the 40
outer wall which opens into a chamber 34 enclos
ing a perforated container 35` which is filled with
pieces or chips of regenerated cellulose. Filter
3| is impregnated with cobalt chloride as hereto
fore described. Chamber 34 and the double 45
walled container 32 are sealed from the atmos
phere but communicate with each other through
opening 33.
'I'he open end oi' the double wall container 32
is inserted in groove 36 of base element 31 L50
wherein is concentrically located device II. 'I'hus
assembled all radiation acting upon device II
must pass through ñlter 3|. The color intensity
of the ñlter 3| is adjusted by introducing within
container 32 in any convenient manner an at
mosphere having a humidity which with the co
balt chloride content of the filter employed will
color the ñlter 3| to pass radiation below about
2950 Angstrom. This atmosphere is retained
therein until the illter 3| and regenerated cellu 60
lose particles in container 35 each have reached
equilibrium as to water content by absorption
from the atmosphere. The device then may be
sealed from the atmosphere and within relatively
large variations in temperature the color char 65
acteristic oi’ the filter 3| will remain substan
tially constant'. The particles of cellulose in con
tainer 35 act as a stabilirer as with variation in
temperature they give up and absorb moisture
from the atmosphere at a more rapid rate than 70
does the cobalt impregnated illter 3 I.
'I'his entire assembly of elements may be en
closed in a radiation impermeable housing 38
provided with radiation permeable window 33
preferably of quartz, and the radiation to be 75
measured projected through the window 3l upon
` and through filter 3| to device ll. The current
flow in device Il is carried through terminals Il
an 4I to any of the external circuits heretofore
ilcations and departures may be made therein
without departing essentially from the nature
and scope thereof. and all such modifications are
contemplated as may fall within the scope or the
following claim.
What I claim is:
¿radiation illter comprising a double walled
and domed cylindrical container having an open
radiationin the violet and ultra-violet range and ' ing in the domed outer wall thereof, a cylindrical
and domed sheet of regenerated cellulose impreg 10
10 hence is of special service andutility in therapeu
tic fields -wherein the application of ultra-violet nated with cobalt chloride enclosed thereby. a
radiation inthe irradiation of food and milk hermetically sealed chamber closing said open
products, the curative treating of persons and ing from the atmosphere said chamber` enclosing
a perforated'container, a quantity of regenerated
the like applications often require that the quan
1-6 tity and kind voi' radiation employed be known and cellulose within said container and a gaseous at
mosphere having a determined humidity en
'I'he device oi’ Figs. 6, 7 and 8 may be widely
adapted to a variety oiuses. It is particularly
adapted to the detection and measurement of
Having broadly and speciñcally described the
present invention it is apparent that many modi
closed 'within said chamber and container.
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