Патент USA US2109236код для вставки
Feb. 22, 1938.‘ D. CJLINDSAY 2,109,236 MINE COOLING SYSTEM Filed March 21, 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 3 .lui QM$3.3 0 a M . BY m 05 R. N E.) ATTORNEY. Feb. 22, 1938, D. c. LINDSAY . ‘2,109,236 MINE COOLING SYSTEM Filed March 21, 1935‘ NwH|IlNHl V.wlIH P IHl-_|H.UN! QWIfIlI|l mu‘. 0%“kww‘ H§mw. a».. av ?x: 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 0KkNw9w \w * . SowmmKk‘ LDogEA». .R. Wmv mv, Nm a. Cwvw. V//_ (amv m s. ,a, . ‘ .T 0 ATTORNEY. Feb. 22, 1938. D. c. LINDSAY 2,109,236 MINE COOLING SYSTEM Filed March 21, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 A lio-rn e3. 2,109,236 Patented Feb. 22, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,109,236 MINE COOLING SYSTEM Daniel 0'. Lindsay, Johannesburg, Union of South Africa, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Car rier Corporation, Newark, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Application March 21, 1935, Serial No. 12,158 13 Claims. (01. 98-50) This invention relates to the .cooling and con ditioning of air within deep! mines or similar chambers, and more particularly to the distribu tion of conditioned air throughout the working 5 of such a mine. The operation of mines presents many prob lems collateral to the main problem of removing ore. One of the most troublesome and difficult of these collateral problems is encountered in ventilating and cooling the mine; and the dif ?culties increase with each increased increment of depth. It is well known, for example, that the rock temperatures increase at the rate of about one degree F. for each 220 feet of depth on the 15 Witwatersrand, in the Union of South Africa, and as much as one degree F. for each ?fty-?ve feet in depth in some other ?elds. Further, the temperature of any air introduced into the mine increases at the rate of approximately one degree F. for each two hundred feet of depth, as a re 20 sult of the increased air (barometric) pressure. 15 U1 In addition to these factors, the air absorbs large quantities of moisture from the rocks, and other natural water sources, in the mine. In shallow mines these factors are of relatively little importance, and straight ventilation is usually adequate. However, in mines of several thousand feet depth, these factors become ex tremely important; many mines in various ?elds 30 are now at depths where the condition of the air has become so oppressive that human beings cannot work effectively therein. Beyond these critical depths the hazard increases and the life of many mines can be prolonged only through measures to correct these conditions. If the 35 mines are to be driven down to greater depths, and are to be worked at these low levels, it be comes imperative that ‘some means for cooling and dehumidifying the air be provided. If the conditioning equipment is placed on the surface level, and air is blown down into the mine it is readily apparent that there is a de? nite limit in depth beyond which its cooling ef fectiveness will be lost. .Hence, although. the 45 di?iculties are great applicant proposes to place his conditioning equipment down in the mine at or near the point of usage. In previous arrange ments of this type, one set of air conditioning plant has been provided in the mine, and the 50 cooled air distributed from this point throughout the workings. However, it is not infrequent that the size of such an apparatus is so ‘great that it cannot be gotten into the mine. Further, in certain types of mines, air distribution from one 55» point is a physical impossibility. Another dis advantage of such an arrangement resides in its relative in?exibility, i. e., more equipment can not readily be added to such a system for the purpose of cooling new and additional mine workings. ' 5 The principal object of this invention, then, is to provide a conditioning system for cooling the air within the lower reaches of a mine. Another object of the invention is to utilize the worked out portions of the mine as air con duits. Still another object of the invention is to di vide the conditioning equipment into a plurality of units located on a plurality of levels, and to utilize the equipment on the higher levels for correcting the condition of the air discharged up wardly from the lower levels, and simultaneous ly, for adding to the volume of air from the lower levels. A further object of the invention is to provide 20 a ?exible type of air conditioning system to which additional units may be added for con ditioning the air of new workings. According to the present invention a method for the purpose in view consists in drawing air from the outside into one of the lower levels of the mine or chamber, cooling and conditioning this air, discharging it into or passing it through working passages at this lower level, and then passing it through working passages at a higher level where it‘ is mixed with freshly conditioned air. The invention also relates to a system for carrying out this method‘ according to which air conditioning units are provided at various levels of the mine or chamber, the unit at one of 35 the lower levels conditioning the air before dis charging it into the working passages at this level, the other units successively conditioning a‘u‘ which they add to the air from a lower level and which is passing into working passages at a higher level. , The invention will now be described with ref erence to the drawings accompanying the speci— ?cation wherein: Fig. 1 is an isometric View of a foot wall type 45 mine; . Fig. 2 is an elevational view of the mine of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a sectional View taken on the line III-III of Fig 2; and 50 ' Fig. 4 is an isometric View on an, enlarged. scale of a portion of Fig. 1 showing a conditioning chamber and air passageways associated there with. ‘ . r . Referring to Fig. 3 it will be seen that the ore 2 2,109,236 which is being mined is shown as lying in an in clined plane, the main access shafts, galleries and cross cuts being on the underside of the ore, and the plane containing the ore is usually referred to as the reef or lode, while the country rock on the underside of the ore is described as the footwall and the country rock von the upper side is frequently referred to'as the hanging wall; A foot 'wall'type mine referred to in the present 10 description is one in which the main access shafts or‘ inclines, levels, cross cuts and so forth are all driven in the footwall side of the reef; _ _ In the drawings, similar designations referring to similar parts, numeral 5 designates the main, or downcast shaft of the mine. As can be seen, 7 this shaft passes downwardly at an angle to the plane'of the earth’s surface, and approximately parallel to, but beneath, the plane of the gold '20 bearing reef 6. ‘ _ chamber I2a. A portion of this air is passed through unit Ila and another portion may by pass the unit under the control of dampers I3a. In this way, the condition of the air may be con trolled. The factors upon which the rate of ,heat dissipation from the human body depends are: temperature, humidity and air motion.‘ The var ious combinations of these three factors which“ produce an equal heat dissipation from the body, _ i. e., equal cooling effect as measured by ‘a kata thermometer, are termed conditions of equal comfort. 10 It’ will be assumed, for purposes of illustration, that the air discharged by vfan May will have a dewpoint temperature of 75 degrees . and a vdry bulb temperature and movement 15 suitable for comfort. From the fan the air passes into reef drive, 9a,‘ and from there up; wardly through stopes IOa. 7 As canbe seen, the space to be cooled increases Various footwall drives ‘Ia, 1b,.‘Ic, etc., extend with veach succeeding level. 7 To take care of the ‘horizontally from the shaft 5, in such directions, ' increased cooling requirements, a unit II b is 20 that all parts of the various footwall drives are placed in chamber .I2b’ of the outside'cross cut approximately equidistant from the 'gold bearing, '81), the‘ inner'cross cuts being closed by doors I'Ib. reef and at depths ‘of about 200 feet. Since the 25 downcast shaft 5 is approximately parallel to the gold bearing reef '6, it is "apparent that‘these footwall drives ‘Iw,i'Ib, etc. do'not enter the reef 6. Cross cuts'8a,.8b, 80, ‘etc., are driven at right angles from the footwall drives 1a, 1b, 10, etc. and at ‘intervals of 500 feet apart into the gold bearing reef 6. The reef drives 9a, 9b, 90, etc., . are in'the s'a‘meplane, andfgen'erally parallel to the footwall drives (Figs. 2 and 3) and about 350 feet therefrom. ' . .35, ‘As 'is particularly clear in ‘Fig.3, one footwall drive, one reef drive'and ‘connecting ‘cross-cut 40 Fan Mb draws air fromshaft 5 through footwall drive ‘Ib, through crosscut 8b and into chamber I2b. The air is cooled and dehumidi?ed to such I ' an extent that when ,it is discharged from the chamber I2b into the. reef drive 9b and is there‘ ‘ mixed with the air from the stopes Illa, the mix ture will have a dewpoint temperature of '75v .de 30 grees F. Further, the volume of air handled by‘ fan I 4b is just sui?cient when added ‘to the vol ume of air from'stopes IOa, to maintain the'de sired air, circulation through reef .drive '9b- and stopes IIIb. Similarly, fan I 40, located in ‘cham her I 20 of the outside'cross cut 80, the ‘innerrcross 7 drives form V ‘one level. In order to work the reef‘ outs being-closed by doors I 10, draws airfrom to "the greatest possible ‘extent, various stopes shaft 5 through footwall drive "I0, cross cut 8c; '7 Inc, I 0b, IIJc, etc., are driven into the reef. These and into conditioner I-Ic. This volume ofair is ~ stopes ‘follow the reef ‘from one reef drive to likewise cooled and dehumidi?ed to such an 'ex-. another, ‘for example, stopes 'lllarexten'd ffrom reef drive 9a to ‘reel’ drive 91). ' In other words, the entire reef is honeycombed withpstopes. In this manner, the greatest amount of ore can be removed with the least danger of cave-ins. ' As can be seen from Fig. 2, the 'mine is in the form of an arrowhead. The point'of the arrow is constantly driven ‘downwards, and the rear part ,of the arrow is constantly being widened. On the 50 lower levels of the mine, the stopes are very nar row, and few ‘in number, while on the'upper lev ' els, the stopes are wider and more ‘numerous. Hence, the space to be cooled constantly in vcreases as the air ‘?ows upwardly through the. workings. I r u 7 > Considering ‘now theractual air iconditlonin'g‘o'f' such ‘amine as has been herelnbefore described, applicant proposes, inl'general, to draw' air from the surfacewthrough the downcast shaft '5 into 60 ‘the lowermost footwall drive ‘Ia. On this lower most level, either in the footwall’ drive "la, in the cross cut'8a, or in reef drives 8a, this air 'will be, conditioned. Since-Tit maylater be} desirable ‘to’ extend both thefootwall and thelre'ef drives, ap- " plicant proposes’ toplace his conditioning unit 40 tent that when mixed, with the air from stopes- ‘ IOb (a mixture of air from stopes Illa and con-' ' ditioner unit Ilb) the mixture will have‘ a dew point temperaturefof 75 degrees F; and be ‘suf ?cient in volume to ‘create'adequate vcirculation ‘ _ through reef drive 90 and'stopes I00. In a like ’ manner, various: other conditioning units may be ' placed upon the succeeding levelsof the mine, and the volume of air handled ‘thereby may be mixed with the airfromjthe stopes‘ of the levels 50 therebeneath. 'It-is, of-course, apparentthat the' temperature of the air leavingiunit I Ib is not the same as the temperature. of ‘air leaving'unit I Ia; and likewisejthe temperature of air leaving'unlt IIc may be different from the air temperatures at Ma and Nb. In general, the ai'r'temperature at thevarious units I'Ia,,IIb and H0 will all differ-one'from the other. Thermostats I5a, I51) 57a and I5cvlocated invrstopjes Illa; Illband .I0c may 7 be utilized to control the temperature of air dis co ' charged from conditioning units Ila, .IIb and . IIc respectively thus to controlthe temperature‘ of air in- the respective stopes. In any ‘event, theiair will proceed upwardly’ ' through the stopes and will ?nally bedischarged IIaVin chamber IZaformed in cross cut 80,} The. into the'atmosphere at the earth’s surface. either ofthe spray type or .the'surface type. In any‘ event, a coldliquid, either water, or brine, conditioning of air from the main shaft,'and;the; " > ’ from any available source,'isfcirculated through from'theilower levelsQitisequally possible to ‘ac-7 unit “Ila may b'ef'of any well’ known design, While'applica'nt has described hereinbeforethe ' addition of this ;.air to ‘the airpassingupward the‘unit to’cool air passing. therethrough. ' The" . complish substantially the , same results Iln'a J ' chamberiis. closed off, by- means ,jof dampers 13a at the'entz‘ance‘endof'unlt VI Ia. Aufan 14a draws air from the downcast shaft 5, through footwall slightly different manner, For'example, apart, of the? air from the stopes Ina’ maybe led'itlirough tunnel l?afintoichamber I2b, whereiniit will?b‘e drive 1a, and‘through'fthe"cross1cut§drivestBa, ito conditioned, Jmixedwith untreated airi front shaft 2,109,286 5 to augment the volume and discharged into reef drive 91) and stopes 10b. The air not drawn into the tunnel 16a. continues through stopes Illa to reef drive 9b, as formerly. If desired, a mix ture of air from the stopes and air from shaft 5 may be conditioned and then discharged into the reef drives. The particular arrangement em ployed will in general depend upon the conditions encountered in individual mines. 10 In general, then, applicant has provided what may be termed a regenerative, or corrective type of cooling system. Thus, a small volume of air is conditioned to cool the lowermost levels of the mine. After this air has served its primary 15 purpose it passes upwardly into the succeeding levels of the mine, where its volume is aug mented and its condition is corrected so that the mixture may be used for cooling this level. In other words, a volume of air is passed from 20 one working level to another,rand successive cor rections and augmentations are made to it at successively higher levels. By correcting the temperature and humidity condition of the air at each succeeding level, and by augmenting the 25 volumes to maintain a desired circulation, con ditions of approximately equal comfort are main tained throughout the working of the mine. 3 of the lower levels of said mine, conditioning said air on said lower level, discharging the condi tioned air through a cross cut into the reef drive of said lower level, passing the air through said - reef drive and through the stopes into the reef drive of a higher level of said mine, augmenting this air with a volume of other air freshly con ditioned at the higher level, and circulating this mixture through the reef drive and stopes of the higher level, whereby said higher level is 10 supplied with a greater quantity of air than said lower level to meet the greater ventilation re quirements of said higher level, and whereby said higher level and said lower level are each desirably conditioned. mine having a plurality of levels, the lower levels having less volumetric air capacity than the higher levels which comprises conditioning a vol ume of air on one of the lower levels of said 20 mine, passing said conditioned air through the working passages of said lower level, discharging the air into the working passages of the upper levels of said mine, and successively adding vol umes of freshly conditioned air conditioned at 25 higher levels of the mine to the air from the lower levels at successively higher levels, whereby all levels of the mine are adequately ventilated Since certain changes may be made in the method without departing from the scope of the invention and since various changes may be made in the type and arrangement of the conditioning apparatus shown and described, it is intended that the drawings and description shall be con 4. The method of cooling and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as the depth of the mine increases which comprises strued in an illustrative and not a limiting sense. conditioning a ?rst volume of air on one of the Further, where the terms “stopes”, “cross cuts”, “reef drives” and “footwall drives” are used, it is intended that these terms shall be construed in a descriptive and not a limiting sense. In the accompanying claims, the term “freshly 40 conditioned air” shall be understood to refer to air of any nature and from any source or sources which has been conditioned in an air condi tioning unit or apparatus, and whose condition since leaving said unit or apparatus has not 45 been materially changed. This air may be fresh air from the air supply shaft, air which has already circulated through one or more levels of the mine and which may or may not have been previously conditioned, or a mixture of 50 fresh air and such previously circulated air. I claim: 1. The method of conditioning and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, a lower level having less volumetric air capacity than a higher 55 level which comprises drawing air into said lower level of said mine, conditioning said air, dis charging the conditioned air into the working passages of said lower level, drawing a second volume of air into said higher level of said mine, conditioning said second volume of air on said higher level, mixing said second volume of air with the volume of air from the working pas sages of the lower level, and circulating said mix ture throughout the working passages of said 65 higher level, whereby said higher level is supplied with a greater quantity of air than said lower level to meet the greater ventilation require ments of said higher level, and whereby said higher level and said lower level are each de~ 70 sirably conditioned. 2. The method of conditioning and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the lower levels having less volumetric air capacity than the higher levels which comprises drawing air 75 from a main shaft into the footwall drive of one 15 3. The method of cooling and ventilating a and desirably conditioned. lower levels of said mine, passing said conditioned 35 air through the working passages of said mine, and successively adding volumes of air condi tioned at higher levels of the mine to said ?rst volume of air at successively higher levels of said mine, whereby each of the levels of the mine is provided with an adequate quantity of air for ventilating purposes, and whereby desired at mospheric conditions are maintained in each of said levels. 5. In a system for cooling and ventilating a 45 mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as the depth of the mine increases, a shaft for in taking air from the surface level, an air condi tioning unit on one of the lower levels of said 50' mine, a passageway for intaking air from said shaft to said unit, means for discharging condi tioned air from said unit throughout the work ings of said level, and a plurality of other condi tioning units located on a plurality of succes 55 sively higher levels for successively adding vol umes of conditioned air to the conditioned air from said ?rst mentioned unit. 6. In a system for cooling and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the. volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as the depth of the mine increases, a shaft for in taking air from the surface level, a plurality of conditioning units located on a plurality of levels of said mine, means including the lowermost unit 65 for conditioning the lowermost level and for dis charging the used air upwardly into successively higher levels, ‘and means including other units for adding freshly conditioned air at higher levels to the mixture of air received from the levels 70 therebeneath. '7. In a system for cooling and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as the depth of the mine increases, a plurality of 75 4, 2,10%2 38 air conditioning unitsv located on a plurality of ditioned air through the working passages of the levels of said mine, a shaft for intaking air from the surface to each vof the units, means including the lowermost unit for dischargingconditioned air into the lowermost working passages of the mine and then upwardly into» the higher working passages; and means including the remaining units on successively higher levels for discharging freshly conditioned volumes of air into the air 10 received from the working levels therebeneath. , 8.'In a system for, cooling and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as the depth of the mine'increases, a shaft for in 15 taking air‘ from the surface to thevarious levels of said mine, a plurality of air conditioning units located on a plurality of levels of said mine, the lowermost of said units being adapted to condi tion air from said shaft and to discharge the conditioned air through the working passages of said level and then upwardly to the higher levels of the mine, the remainingunits being adapted to recondition the'air ‘received from'the levels therebeneath and to discharge the'conditioned 25 air into, the workingpassages and upwardly into , the higher levels, andgmeans for introducing un~ treated air from said shaft into the mine work ings on a'plurality of levels. , 30 ' 9;. In a system of cooling and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as lowermost level and then upwardly to higher levels of the mine, and means including other of said units at higher'levels of the mine for C011‘! ditioning air received from the levels therebe neath and also air received from said shaft, and for discharging the air conditioned by said other units into the working passages of the mine. 11. In a system for cooling and ventilating a ' mine having a plurality of levels, .the volumetric 10 air capacity of the different levels decreasing as the depth of the mine increases, a plurality of air, conditioning units located at a plurality of levels in the mine, a shaft for introducing air from the surface into a plurality of levels of the mine, 15 means including the lowermost unit for condi tioning air from the shaft and discharging it through the workings of thelowermost level, the conditioned air then ?owing upwardly into work--, ing passages at higher levels,‘ and means includ-‘ ing other of said units for conditioning a mixture of air from the shaft in combination with air received from the levels therebeneath. , g 12. In a system for cooling and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levelsdecreasing as the depth 'of the mine increases, a shaft for in taking air from the surface level, means for con-V ditioning air from the shaft at a lower level of the mine, means for passing said conditioned air 30 through the working passages at said lower level, a ‘ the'depth of the mine increases, a shaft'forintro the air then being discharged upwardly through ducing air from the surface into a plurality of levels of said mine, means for conditioning air 35 from the shaft and for discharging it through the workings of the lowermo'stleveland "then up the mine, and means for conditioning at a higher wardly through the higher working passages, and leveljof the mine otherlair from the shaft ‘and for adding, at a higher level of, the mine, said 35 other air to the air from'said lower vlevel. 13. The method of cooling-and ventilating a means for reconditioning at higher levels air re ceived from the levels 'therebeneath and for mix mine having a plurality ‘of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as, ing therewith untreated air intaken from ‘said the depth of the mine increases, which comprises shaft. ' ' r ' ’ 10. In a system for cooling and ventilating a mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric air capacity of the different levels decreasing as 45 the depth of the mine increases, a shaft for in taking air from the surface to the various levels of said mine, a plurality of 'air conditioning units located at different levels of the mine, means in cluding the lowermost of said units for’ condition-V 50 ing air from said shaft and discharging said con- ' conditioning air at a'lower level of the mine, cir culating said air through the workings of said: ‘ lower level, then supplying said air to a higher‘ level of the mine, supplying to said higher level other air drawn from the outdoor atmosphere, 45 conditioning at said higher level air supplied thereto, and circulating all of the air supplied to said higher level through the Workings of said‘ 7 higher level. » DANIEL C. LINDSAY; 50'