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Патент USA US2109236

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Feb. 22, 1938.‘
D. CJLINDSAY
2,109,236
MINE COOLING SYSTEM
Filed March 21, 1955
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ATTORNEY.
Feb. 22, 1938,
D. c. LINDSAY
. ‘2,109,236
MINE COOLING SYSTEM
Filed March 21, 1935‘
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ATTORNEY.
Feb. 22, 1938.
D. c. LINDSAY
2,109,236
MINE COOLING SYSTEM
Filed March 21, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
A lio-rn e3.
2,109,236
Patented Feb. 22, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,109,236
MINE COOLING SYSTEM
Daniel 0'. Lindsay, Johannesburg, Union of South
Africa, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Car
rier Corporation, Newark, N. J., a corporation
of Delaware
Application March 21, 1935, Serial No. 12,158
13 Claims. (01. 98-50)
This invention relates to the .cooling and con
ditioning of air within deep! mines or similar
chambers, and more particularly to the distribu
tion of conditioned air throughout the working
5 of such a mine.
The operation of mines presents many prob
lems collateral to the main problem of removing
ore.
One of the most troublesome and difficult
of these collateral problems is encountered in
ventilating and cooling the mine; and the dif
?culties increase with each increased increment
of depth. It is well known, for example, that the
rock temperatures increase at the rate of about
one degree F. for each 220 feet of depth on the
15 Witwatersrand, in the Union of South Africa, and
as much as one degree F. for each ?fty-?ve
feet in depth in some other ?elds. Further, the
temperature of any air introduced into the mine
increases at the rate of approximately one degree
F. for each two hundred feet of depth, as a re
20 sult of the increased air (barometric) pressure.
15 U1
In addition to these factors, the air absorbs large
quantities of moisture from the rocks, and other
natural water sources, in the mine.
In shallow mines these factors are of relatively
little importance, and straight ventilation is
usually adequate. However, in mines of several
thousand feet depth, these factors become ex
tremely important; many mines in various ?elds
30 are now at depths where the condition of the air
has become so oppressive that human beings
cannot work effectively therein.
Beyond these
critical depths the hazard increases and the life
of many mines can be prolonged only through
measures to correct these conditions. If the
35
mines are to be driven down to greater depths,
and are to be worked at these low levels, it be
comes imperative that ‘some means for cooling
and dehumidifying the air be provided.
If the conditioning equipment is placed on the
surface level, and air is blown down into the
mine it is readily apparent that there is a de?
nite limit in depth beyond which its cooling ef
fectiveness will be lost. .Hence, although. the
45 di?iculties are great applicant proposes to place
his conditioning equipment down in the mine at
or near the point of usage. In previous arrange
ments of this type, one set of air conditioning
plant has been provided in the mine, and the
50 cooled air distributed from this point throughout
the workings. However, it is not infrequent that
the size of such an apparatus is so ‘great that it
cannot be gotten into the mine.
Further, in
certain types of mines, air distribution from one
55» point is a physical impossibility. Another dis
advantage of such an arrangement resides in its
relative in?exibility, i. e., more equipment can
not readily be added to such a system for the
purpose of cooling new and additional mine
workings.
'
5
The principal object of this invention, then, is
to provide a conditioning system for cooling the
air within the lower reaches of a mine.
Another object of the invention is to utilize
the worked out portions of the mine as air con
duits.
Still another object of the invention is to di
vide the conditioning equipment into a plurality
of units located on a plurality of levels, and to
utilize the equipment on the higher levels for
correcting the condition of the air discharged up
wardly from the lower levels, and simultaneous
ly, for adding to the volume of air from the lower
levels.
A further object of the invention is to provide 20
a ?exible type of air conditioning system to
which additional units may be added for con
ditioning the air of new workings.
According to the present invention a method
for the purpose in view consists in drawing air
from the outside into one of the lower levels of
the mine or chamber, cooling and conditioning
this air, discharging it into or passing it through
working passages at this lower level, and then
passing it through working passages at a higher
level where it‘ is mixed with freshly conditioned
air.
The invention also relates to a system for
carrying out this method‘ according to which
air conditioning units are provided at various
levels of the mine or chamber, the unit at one of 35
the lower levels conditioning the air before dis
charging it into the working passages at this
level, the other units successively conditioning
a‘u‘ which they add to the air from a lower level
and which is passing into working passages at
a higher level.
,
The invention will now be described with ref
erence to the drawings accompanying the speci—
?cation wherein:
Fig. 1 is an isometric View of a foot wall type 45
mine;
.
Fig. 2 is an elevational view of the mine of
Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a sectional View taken on the line
III-III of Fig 2; and
50
' Fig. 4 is an isometric View on an, enlarged. scale
of a portion of Fig. 1 showing a conditioning
chamber and air passageways associated there
with.
‘
.
r
.
Referring to Fig. 3 it will be seen that the ore
2
2,109,236
which is being mined is shown as lying in an in
clined plane, the main access shafts, galleries
and cross cuts being on the underside of the
ore, and the plane containing the ore is usually
referred to as the reef or lode, while the country
rock on the underside of the ore is described as
the footwall and the country rock von the upper
side is frequently referred to'as the hanging wall;
A foot 'wall'type mine referred to in the present
10 description is one in which the main access shafts
or‘ inclines, levels, cross cuts and so forth are
all driven in the footwall side of the reef; _ _
In the drawings, similar designations referring
to similar parts, numeral 5 designates the main,
or downcast shaft of the mine.
As can be seen,
7 this shaft passes downwardly at an angle to the
plane'of the earth’s surface, and approximately
parallel to, but beneath, the plane of the gold
'20
bearing reef 6.
‘
_
chamber I2a. A portion of this air is passed
through unit Ila and another portion may by
pass the unit under the control of dampers I3a.
In this way, the condition of the air may be con
trolled. The factors upon which the rate of ,heat
dissipation from the human body depends are:
temperature, humidity and air motion.‘ The var
ious combinations of these three factors which“
produce an equal heat dissipation from the body,
_ i. e., equal cooling effect as measured by ‘a kata
thermometer, are termed conditions of equal
comfort.
10
It’ will be assumed, for purposes of
illustration, that the air discharged by vfan May
will have a dewpoint temperature of 75 degrees .
and a vdry bulb temperature and movement 15
suitable for comfort. From the fan the air
passes into reef drive, 9a,‘ and from there up;
wardly through stopes IOa.
7
As canbe seen, the space to be cooled increases
Various footwall drives ‘Ia, 1b,.‘Ic, etc., extend with veach succeeding level. 7 To take care of the
‘horizontally from the shaft 5, in such directions, ' increased cooling requirements, a unit II b is 20
that all parts of the various footwall drives are placed in chamber .I2b’ of the outside'cross cut
approximately equidistant from the 'gold bearing, '81), the‘ inner'cross cuts being closed by doors I'Ib.
reef and at depths ‘of about 200 feet. Since the
25 downcast shaft 5 is approximately parallel to
the gold bearing reef '6, it is "apparent that‘these
footwall drives ‘Iw,i'Ib, etc. do'not enter the reef
6. Cross cuts'8a,.8b, 80, ‘etc., are driven at right
angles from the footwall drives 1a, 1b, 10, etc.
and at ‘intervals of 500 feet apart into the gold
bearing reef 6. The reef drives 9a, 9b, 90, etc.,
. are in'the s'a‘meplane, andfgen'erally parallel to
the footwall drives (Figs. 2 and 3) and about 350
feet therefrom.
'
.
.35, ‘As 'is particularly clear in ‘Fig.3, one footwall
drive, one reef drive'and ‘connecting ‘cross-cut
40
Fan Mb draws air fromshaft 5 through footwall
drive ‘Ib, through crosscut 8b and into chamber
I2b.
The air is cooled and dehumidi?ed to such I '
an extent that when ,it is discharged from the
chamber I2b into the. reef drive 9b and is there‘ ‘
mixed with the air from the stopes Illa, the mix
ture will have a dewpoint temperature of '75v .de 30
grees F. Further, the volume of air handled by‘
fan I 4b is just sui?cient when added ‘to the vol
ume of air from'stopes IOa, to maintain the'de
sired air, circulation through reef .drive '9b- and
stopes IIIb. Similarly, fan I 40, located in ‘cham
her I 20 of the outside'cross cut 80, the ‘innerrcross 7
drives form
V ‘one level. In order to work the reef‘ outs being-closed by doors I 10, draws airfrom
to "the greatest possible ‘extent, various stopes shaft 5 through footwall drive "I0, cross cut 8c; '7
Inc, I 0b, IIJc, etc., are driven into the reef. These and into conditioner I-Ic. This volume ofair is ~
stopes ‘follow the reef ‘from one reef drive to likewise cooled and dehumidi?ed to such an 'ex-.
another, ‘for example, stopes 'lllarexten'd ffrom
reef drive 9a to ‘reel’ drive 91). ' In other words,
the entire reef is honeycombed withpstopes. In
this manner, the greatest amount of ore can be
removed with the least danger of cave-ins. '
As can be seen from Fig. 2, the 'mine is in the
form of an arrowhead. The point'of the arrow is
constantly driven ‘downwards, and the rear part
,of the arrow is constantly being widened. On the
50 lower levels of the mine, the stopes are very nar
row, and few ‘in number, while on the'upper lev
' els, the stopes are wider and more ‘numerous.
Hence, the space to be cooled constantly in
vcreases as the air ‘?ows upwardly through the.
workings.
I
r
u
7
>
Considering ‘now theractual air iconditlonin'g‘o'f'
such ‘amine as has been herelnbefore described,
applicant proposes, inl'general, to draw' air from
the surfacewthrough the downcast shaft '5 into
60 ‘the
lowermost footwall drive ‘Ia. On this lower
most level, either in the footwall’ drive "la, in the
cross cut'8a, or in reef drives 8a, this air 'will be,
conditioned. Since-Tit maylater be} desirable ‘to’
extend both thefootwall and thelre'ef drives, ap- "
plicant proposes’ toplace his conditioning unit
40
tent that when mixed, with the air from stopes- ‘
IOb (a mixture of air from stopes Illa and con-' '
ditioner unit Ilb) the mixture will have‘ a dew
point temperaturefof 75 degrees F; and be ‘suf
?cient in volume to ‘create'adequate vcirculation ‘ _
through reef drive 90 and'stopes I00.
In a like ’
manner, various: other conditioning units may be '
placed upon the succeeding levelsof the mine,
and the volume of air handled ‘thereby may be
mixed with the airfromjthe stopes‘ of the levels
50
therebeneath. 'It-is, of-course, apparentthat the'
temperature of the air leavingiunit I Ib is not the
same as the temperature. of ‘air leaving'unit I Ia;
and likewisejthe temperature of air leaving'unlt
IIc may be different from the air temperatures
at Ma and Nb. In general, the ai'r'temperature
at thevarious units I'Ia,,IIb and H0 will all
differ-one'from the other. Thermostats I5a, I51)
57a
and I5cvlocated invrstopjes Illa; Illband .I0c may 7
be utilized to control the temperature of air dis co '
charged from conditioning units Ila, .IIb and .
IIc respectively thus to controlthe temperature‘
of air in- the respective stopes.
In any ‘event, theiair will proceed upwardly’ '
through the stopes and will ?nally bedischarged
IIaVin chamber IZaformed in cross cut 80,} The.
into the'atmosphere at the earth’s surface.
either ofthe spray type or .the'surface type. In
any‘ event, a coldliquid, either water, or brine,
conditioning of air from the main shaft,'and;the; " > ’
from any available source,'isfcirculated through
from'theilower levelsQitisequally possible to ‘ac-7
unit “Ila may b'ef'of any well’ known design,
While'applica'nt has described hereinbeforethe '
addition of this ;.air to ‘the airpassingupward
the‘unit to’cool air passing. therethrough. ' The" . complish substantially the , same results Iln'a J
' chamberiis. closed off, by- means ,jof dampers 13a
at the'entz‘ance‘endof'unlt VI Ia. Aufan 14a draws
air from the downcast shaft 5, through footwall
slightly different manner, For'example, apart,
of the? air from the stopes Ina’ maybe led'itlirough
tunnel l?afintoichamber I2b, whereiniit will?b‘e
drive 1a, and‘through'fthe"cross1cut§drivestBa, ito conditioned,
Jmixedwith untreated airi front shaft
2,109,286
5 to augment the volume and discharged into
reef drive 91) and stopes 10b. The air not drawn
into the tunnel 16a. continues through stopes Illa
to reef drive 9b, as formerly. If desired, a mix
ture of air from the stopes and air from shaft 5
may be conditioned and then discharged into the
reef drives. The particular arrangement em
ployed will in general depend upon the conditions
encountered in individual mines.
10
In general, then, applicant has provided what
may be termed a regenerative, or corrective type
of cooling system. Thus, a small volume of air
is conditioned to cool the lowermost levels of
the mine. After this air has served its primary
15 purpose it passes upwardly into the succeeding
levels of the mine, where its volume is aug
mented and its condition is corrected so that
the mixture may be used for cooling this level.
In other words, a volume of air is passed from
20 one working level to another,rand successive cor
rections and augmentations are made to it at
successively higher levels.
By correcting the
temperature and humidity condition of the air
at each succeeding level, and by augmenting the
25 volumes to maintain a desired circulation, con
ditions of approximately equal comfort are main
tained throughout the working of the mine.
3
of the lower levels of said mine, conditioning said
air on said lower level, discharging the condi
tioned air through a cross cut into the reef drive
of said lower level, passing the air through said -
reef drive and through the stopes into the reef
drive of a higher level of said mine, augmenting
this air with a volume of other air freshly con
ditioned at the higher level, and circulating this
mixture through the reef drive and stopes of
the higher level, whereby said higher level is 10
supplied with a greater quantity of air than said
lower level to meet the greater ventilation re
quirements of said higher level, and whereby
said higher level and said lower level are each
desirably conditioned.
mine having a plurality of levels, the lower levels
having less volumetric air capacity than the
higher levels which comprises conditioning a vol
ume of air on one of the lower levels of said 20
mine, passing said conditioned air through the
working passages of said lower level, discharging
the air into the working passages of the upper
levels of said mine, and successively adding vol
umes of freshly conditioned air conditioned at 25
higher levels of the mine to the air from the
lower levels at successively higher levels, whereby
all levels of the mine are adequately ventilated
Since certain changes may be made in the
method without departing from the scope of the
invention and since various changes may be made
in the type and arrangement of the conditioning
apparatus shown and described, it is intended
that the drawings and description shall be con
4. The method of cooling and ventilating a
mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
the depth of the mine increases which comprises
strued in an illustrative and not a limiting sense.
conditioning a ?rst volume of air on one of the
Further, where the terms “stopes”, “cross cuts”,
“reef drives” and “footwall drives” are used,
it is intended that these terms shall be construed
in a descriptive and not a limiting sense.
In the accompanying claims, the term “freshly
40 conditioned air” shall be understood to refer to
air of any nature and from any source or sources
which has been conditioned in an air condi
tioning unit or apparatus, and whose condition
since leaving said unit or apparatus has not
45 been materially changed. This air may be fresh
air from the air supply shaft, air which has
already circulated through one or more levels
of the mine and which may or may not have
been previously conditioned, or a mixture of
50 fresh air and such previously circulated air.
I claim:
1. The method of conditioning and ventilating
a mine having a plurality of levels, a lower level
having less volumetric air capacity than a higher
55 level which comprises drawing air into said lower
level of said mine, conditioning said air, dis
charging the conditioned air into the working
passages of said lower level, drawing a second
volume of air into said higher level of said mine,
conditioning said second volume of air on said
higher level, mixing said second volume of air
with the volume of air from the working pas
sages of the lower level, and circulating said mix
ture throughout the working passages of said
65 higher level, whereby said higher level is supplied
with a greater quantity of air than said lower
level to meet the greater ventilation require
ments of said higher level, and whereby said
higher level and said lower level are each de~
70 sirably conditioned.
2. The method of conditioning and ventilating
a mine having a plurality of levels, the lower
levels having less volumetric air capacity than
the higher levels which comprises drawing air
75 from a main shaft into the footwall drive of one
15
3. The method of cooling and ventilating a
and desirably conditioned.
lower levels of said mine, passing said conditioned 35
air through the working passages of said mine,
and successively adding volumes of air condi
tioned at higher levels of the mine to said ?rst
volume of air at successively higher levels of said
mine, whereby each of the levels of the mine is
provided with an adequate quantity of air for
ventilating purposes, and whereby desired at
mospheric conditions are maintained in each of
said levels.
5. In a system for cooling and ventilating a 45
mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
the depth of the mine increases, a shaft for in
taking air from the surface level, an air condi
tioning unit on one of the lower levels of said 50'
mine, a passageway for intaking air from said
shaft to said unit, means for discharging condi
tioned air from said unit throughout the work
ings of said level, and a plurality of other condi
tioning units located on a plurality of succes 55
sively higher levels for successively adding vol
umes of conditioned air to the conditioned air
from said ?rst mentioned unit.
6. In a system for cooling and ventilating a
mine having a plurality of levels, the. volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
the depth of the mine increases, a shaft for in
taking air from the surface level, a plurality of
conditioning units located on a plurality of levels
of said mine, means including the lowermost unit 65
for conditioning the lowermost level and for dis
charging the used air upwardly into successively
higher levels, ‘and means including other units
for adding freshly conditioned air at higher levels
to the mixture of air received from the levels 70
therebeneath.
'7. In a system for cooling and ventilating a
mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
the depth of the mine increases, a plurality of 75
4,
2,10%2 38
air conditioning unitsv located on a plurality of ditioned air through the working passages of the
levels of said mine, a shaft for intaking air from
the surface to each vof the units, means including
the lowermost unit for dischargingconditioned
air into the lowermost working passages of the
mine and then upwardly into» the higher working
passages; and means including the remaining
units on successively higher levels for discharging
freshly conditioned volumes of air into the air
10 received from the working levels therebeneath.
, 8.'In a system for, cooling and ventilating a
mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
the depth of the mine'increases, a shaft for in
15 taking air‘ from the surface to thevarious levels
of said mine, a plurality of air conditioning units
located on a plurality of levels of said mine, the
lowermost of said units being adapted to condi
tion air from said shaft and to discharge the
conditioned air through the working passages of
said level and then upwardly to the higher levels
of the mine, the remainingunits being adapted
to recondition the'air ‘received from'the levels
therebeneath and to discharge the'conditioned
25 air into, the workingpassages and upwardly into ,
the higher levels, andgmeans for introducing un~
treated air from said shaft into the mine work
ings on a'plurality of levels. ,
30
'
9;. In a system of cooling and ventilating a
mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
lowermost level and then upwardly to higher
levels of the mine, and means including other of
said units at higher'levels of the mine for C011‘!
ditioning air received from the levels therebe
neath and also air received from said shaft, and
for discharging the air conditioned by said other
units into the working passages of the mine.
11. In a system for cooling and ventilating a '
mine having a plurality of levels, .the volumetric 10
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
the depth of the mine increases, a plurality of air,
conditioning units located at a plurality of levels
in the mine, a shaft for introducing air from the
surface into a plurality of levels of the mine, 15
means including the lowermost unit for condi
tioning air from the shaft and discharging it
through the workings of thelowermost level, the
conditioned air then ?owing upwardly into work--,
ing passages at higher levels,‘ and means includ-‘
ing other of said units for conditioning a mixture
of air from the shaft in combination with air
received from the levels therebeneath.
,
g
12. In a system for cooling and ventilating a
mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levelsdecreasing as
the depth 'of the mine increases, a shaft for in
taking air from the surface level, means for con-V
ditioning air from the shaft at a lower level of
the mine, means for passing said conditioned air 30
through the working passages at said lower level, a
‘ the'depth of the mine increases, a shaft'forintro
the air then being discharged upwardly through
ducing air from the surface into a plurality of
levels of said mine, means for conditioning air
35 from the shaft and for discharging it through the
workings of the lowermo'stleveland "then up
the mine, and means for conditioning at a higher
wardly through the higher working passages, and
leveljof the mine otherlair from the shaft ‘and
for adding, at a higher level of, the mine, said 35
other air to the air from'said lower vlevel.
13. The method of cooling-and ventilating a
means for reconditioning at higher levels air re
ceived from the levels 'therebeneath and for mix
mine having a plurality ‘of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as,
ing therewith untreated air intaken from ‘said
the depth of the mine increases, which comprises
shaft.
'
'
r
'
’
10. In a system for cooling and ventilating a
mine having a plurality of levels, the volumetric
air capacity of the different levels decreasing as
45 the depth of the mine increases, a shaft for in
taking air from the surface to the various levels
of said mine, a plurality of 'air conditioning units
located at different levels of the mine, means in
cluding the lowermost of said units for’ condition-V
50 ing air from said shaft and discharging said con- '
conditioning air at a'lower level of the mine, cir
culating said air through the workings of said: ‘
lower level, then supplying said air to a higher‘
level of the mine, supplying to said higher level
other air drawn from the outdoor atmosphere, 45
conditioning at said higher level air supplied
thereto, and circulating all of the air supplied
to said higher level through the Workings of said‘ 7
higher level.
»
DANIEL C. LINDSAY;
50'
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