Патент USA US2109237код для вставки
Feb. 22, 1938. ‘2,109,237 L. LUSTIG POWER PLANT Filed June 25, 1934 ‘5241- 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 8 EXH/Yl/JTEI? P9471? Mot/El? DEM/51V Pun/7P INVENTOR [HOW/6 1057/3. 4o 4! BY 4 ATTO RNEY , Feb. 22, 1938. 2,109,237 L. LUSTIG POWER PLANT Filed June 25, 1934 2_ Sheets-Sheet’ 2 w WW 94 f? CONTROL v Ear/mum”? Ema/NE !-> 2 8 W y INVENTOR 5011.457? , Z??W/G BY , d Aver/(i ' ATTORN EY Patented Feb. 22, 1938 2,109,231 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE, 2,109,237 POWER PLANT ' Ludwig Lustlg,_ Manhasset, N. Y. Application June 25, 1934, Serial No. 732,196 8 Claims. My invention relates to power plants and particularly to power plants including an inter nal combustion engine and a super-charger for supplying air or an explosive mixture to the engine. In using a super-charger with an internal com bustion engine the air or the explosive charge is admitted to the engine cylinder under pres sure. Therefore, after explosion of the charge 10 the quantity, the volume and the temperature of the exhaust gases leaving the cylinder are con siderably greater than when the super-charger is not employed. This increase in volume of the exhaust gases gives rise to considerable back 15 pressure which tends to offset the advantages gained by the use of the super-charger. For ex ample the resistance to the passage of the large volume of exhaust gases from the cylinder pre sented by the valves, exhaust. manifold, etc., causes a substantial portion of the exhaust gases to remain in the cylinder when a new charge is admitted. In ordinary operation with a super charger the back pressure of these gases may amount to as much as 20 or 30 lbs. per square 25 inch above atmospheric pressure. For this rea (ci. 60-11) haust gases as a source of energy for operating the same. Furthermore, this energy may also be used for operating the super-charger thus in creasing the e?iciency of the power plant. In that form of my invention hereinafter de- 5 scribed, heat contained in the exhaust gases is employed in the generation of steam for the op eration of the exhauster for reducing back pres sure of the exhaust gases and for operating the super-charger through the use of a turbine. One of the objects of my invention is to pro vide a power plant including an internal com-' bustion engine and a super-charger together with an exhauster wherein back pressure of the ex-v haustv gases is reduced. > 18 Another object of my invention is to provide mechanical means for reducing back pressure on the engine. , I‘ A further object of my invention is to ‘utilize waste heat from. the engine for reducing the back pressure of the exhaust gases. Another object of my invention is to render the admission of air or an explosive mixture to the engine cylinders and the scavenging of the cylin ders independent. ‘ ~- , son considerable difficulty is experienced in Another object of my invention is to provide a properly scavenging the cylinder preparatory to the introduction of the succeeding explosive charge. The explosive charge which is subse 30 quently introduced into the cylinder is, therefore, diluted' by the remaining exhaust gases and the waste heat boiler utilizing heat in exhaust gases leaving the engine to generate steam for supply amount of the air or explosive mixture actually admitted to the cylinder is reduced. The force required to operate the valves and_ to expel the exhaust gases from the cylinder is also increased when a super-charger is employed due to the increased pressure of the gases in the cylinder at the completion of the piston stroke. Further more, the temperature of the exhaust gases leav 40 ing the engine is higher whenv a super-charger is employed and thus the heat contained in the gases is wasted. ing power to actuate a super-charger for the engine and an exhauster functioning to reduce .back pressure of the exhaust gases. , A further object of my inventionis to provide means for simultaneously effecting thermal and mechanical evacuation of exhaust gases from a super-charged internal combustion engine._ These and other objects of my invention will appear from the following description thereof in which reference is made to the accompanying ?gures of the drawings illustrating typical em bodiments thereof. 40 In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of one form In accordance with my invention the back pres of power plant embodying my invention; _ sure of exhaust gases leaving the engine cylinder 7 Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view of a portion of‘ the mechanism shown in Fig. 3 taken. on the ‘ 45 45 is reduced and in» fact a suction or subéatmos pheric pressure may be produced so as to aid in the removal of the exhaust gases from the cylin-_ der. scavenging of the cylinder is therefore im proved, the amount of air or explosive mixture 50 introduced into the cylinder is increased and the force required to operate the valves and to expel exhaust gases from the cylinder is reduced. The means employed for reducing the back pressure on the cylinder in accordance with my 55 invention utilizes the heat contained in the ex line 2-2 of Fig. 3; , V . ' Fig. 3 illustrates an alternative construction of certain elements of the combination; ‘ Fig. 4 is a sectional view of a detail of the device shown in Fig. 3 taken on the line 4-,4; and 50 Fig. 5 illustrates a further alternative construc tion adapted for use with the device as shown in Fig. 1. . . 4 . In that form of my invention chosen for illus tration in Fig. 1, the device comprises an internal 55' 2 > . 2,109,287 combustion engine 2 having a cylinder‘ and an intake manifold 6 through which air or an ex plosive charge is passed to the various cylinders of the engine from the conduit 8. An exhaust ow manifold ill connected to the cylinders 4 through which exhaust gases are passed communicates with the exhaust conduit l2. In order to supply the engine with air or an explosive mixture under pressure a super-charger 10 N is employed.‘ As shown, the super-charger comprises an impeller l6 mounted on a shaft I8 which is rotatable at high speed to draw' air in through the opening 20 and to discharge the same 52 which is provided with any desired number of nozzles 48 located at suitable positions adjacent the blades of the turbine. The pressure of the steam generated in the waste heat boiler will depend largely upon the 5 type of boiler employed, the construction and op eration of the turbine and engine and various other factors. However, in order to increase the e?iciency of the turbine and to obtain the maxi mum pressure differential on the opposite sides 10 thereof, I prefer to provide communication be tween the annular'exhaust ‘chamber 54 of the turbine and suitable pressure reducing means to the engine cylinders under the desired pres- ' such as an exhauster-condenser 56. 15 sure through conduit 8. The construction and operation of super-chargers of this, type is well known and may be varied to meet the needs of any particular installation. While the super-charger_may be driven from 20 the engine or any other suitable source of power, I prefer to relieve the engine of this burden in order to increase the poweravailable for useful work. For this reason I utilize heat in the ex haust gases as a source of energy for the opera Su?icient cool water is introduced into the exhauster to 15 effectively condense the steam from the turbine so that the exhauster functions also as a con denser producing a maximum pressure diiferen tial on the opposite sides of the turbine and in creasing the amount of power derived therefrom. go In order to reduce back pressure of exhaust gases passing from the engine cylinder the ex hauster-condenser “associated with the turbine is provided with communication with the upper 25 tion of the super-charger. This is e?ected 'by chamber '30 of the boiler through the passage 58.‘ as passing the hot exhaust gases from the engine With this construction the exhaust gases after cylinders to a waste heat boiler 22 through the through the waste heat boiler wherein exhaust conduit H. The boiler, which may be they are considerably reduced in temperature of any suitable construction, is shown to com 30 prise a lower chamber II to which the exhaust gases are admitted and with heating tubes 26 through which the hot exhaust gases pass in heat exchanging relation with water in the cas ing 28. The upper ends of the tubes communicate 35 withanupperchamberlllfromwhich thegases are withdrawn by an cxhauster as hereinafter described. ' pass to the upper chamber 30 of the boiler and . thence to the exhauster It through the e an I! to the annular chamber ‘II and 62. As shown the exhauster comprises a rotatable impeller 64 on shaft l8 by memo! which the exhaust gases are forcibly withdrawn from‘ the waste heat boiler and from the engine cylinders. 36 The gases enter the exhauster tangentially and in the direction of rotation thereof near the cen In order to pre-heat water supplied to the waste heat boiler for producing steam, I prefer to pro 40 vide suitable circulating means for heated water from the engine cooling system to the cas ter and are cooled by water introduced through inlets '6 supplied through pipes 61 shown in Fig. latedinthiswayispreheatedsothat heatcon .tainedinthe exhaustgasespassingtothe waste 50 heat boiler is used primarily-in the generation of’ effective cooling and condensing thereof. With this construction the temperature of the exhaust gases is reduced by the introduction of cold water 59 2. These inlets are positioned and directed so as 49 to bring the cold water into intimate contact with ing 2. as needed to maintain the. desired amount . the exhaust gases and with the steam entering, of waterintheboilen, For this purposethe cool the exhauster-condenser through the es ing system includes es II extending about II and a respectively. Furthermore the turbu 45 thecylinderwallstowhichcoolwaterisadmitted lence-of the gases and steam in their e ‘5 through an inlet 32 and from which heated water from their points of introduction to the periphery _ is withdrawn through an outlet 8|. Water circu of the exhauster and outlet ‘ll serves to insure steam and only a relatively small amount of such heat is required for raising the temperature of the boiler water. Ordinarily the boiler is not capable of converting‘all of the cooling water circulating ‘s5 cooling system into steam and I therefore provide the outlet 34 with a by-pass 36 for returning a portion of the cooling wa'terto the cooling system. The‘remaining water is used as feed-water for the boiler and is intro 'oo duced into the same by means of a pump II or other means, driven by a suitable controllable prime mover. The additional cold water nec essary to maintain the supply of cooling water passing to the engine is supplied through a con as duit 40 provided with suitable valves ll. Steam produced by the absorption of heat from theexhaustgasesthroughthewasteheat boiler is utilized in the form of my invention il lustrated for driving a turbine 42. Any suitable 70 type ofturbinemaybeemployedforthispurpose such as the single stage turbine illustrated. Tim comprises a rotorv 44' having blades 46 against which steam is projected through the nozzles 48. Thesteamfromtbecasing 2| ottheboiler 75 through the passage II to the annular chamber into the exhauster-condenser as well as by the action of the waste heat boiler‘ so that the tem perature and volume of the exhaust gases is decreased as much as possible. This reduction in volume in the exhaust gases increases the 5; density thereof so that the exhauster operates more effectively to reduce the back pressure on the engine. The condensate and cooled exhaust gases pass from the exhauster through the outlet ‘II to a trap ‘II, where liquids are separated from so the gases. In the operation of the power plant shown in Pig. 1 and described above the super-charger supplies air or an explosive mixture to the engine . under pressure to the cylinder of the engine as where it is'utilized on explosion for producing power. The resulting hot gases are withdrawn and forced from the engine cylinder upon com pletion of the expansion cycle by means of the exhauster I6 and the cooling and contraction of 70 tbegasesin'their w w e throughthewaste heat boiler. The action of the exhauster in withdraw ing the exhaust gases from the engine cylinder renders it possible to delay the opening of the intake valve somewhat since it is unn 1‘: = ' to 75 3. 2,109,287 rely upon the admission of the succeeding air,or explosive charge to assist in the scavenging of the cylinder. In other words the intake and ex haust cycles need not overlap as in present op eration so that there need be no loss in the ad mission of unused air or explosive mixture to the cylinder. with the arrangement described the exhauster able -longitudinally thereof by means of a piv oted lever 94 having a yoke 95 engaging the collar 92. Movement of the lever 94 to the left serves to disconnect clutch 88 from the motor 99 and to move clutch member 19 into engage ment to connect the turbine to shaft 88 for driv ing the impellers of the super-charger and ex hauster. The selection of the source of power and super-charger are carried by the same shaft employed is preferably effected automatically in 10 and driven directly from the turbine. While this response to a condition of an element‘of the construction is not essential to my invention it insures'corresponding and uniform operation of means of a pressure operated device, such as the the exhauster, and. super-charger. ' Thus any change in the pressure or volume of the air sup 15 plied to the engine by the supercharger is met by a corresponding change in the action of the exhauster. Furthermore, the supply of heat to the boiler from the exhaust gases is dependent in part at least on the velocity of flow of the 20 gases so that the supply of steam to the turbine power plant. As shown lever 94 is actuated by sylphon bellows 98 communicating with the up per portion of the. waste heat boiler. In order to .prevent free escape of steam from the boiler 15 during the starting period and to build up sufli cient steam pressure in the boiler to supply the necessary power to the turbine, the bellows 96 may also serve to actuate valve 91 to admit steam to the turbine when lever. 94 is moved to disen 20 is varied by the action of the other elements of ' gage the clutch ‘for the motor 90 and connect the turbine to the shaft. 89. Throttle 99 may ‘ Ordinarily it will be found on starting the also be provided to control the operation of the engine that the temperature of the boiler water turbine if desired. The lever 96 is also provided with means for 25 25 is low and the water from the'engine cooling the combination. system is comparatively cool. The piston and completing and breaking the electric circuit forv energizing the motor 99 so as to maintain the motor in operation until the pressure within the waste heat boiler has reached a predetermined 30 lower when the engine is started than will be the‘ . point, say 80 lbs. per square inch. Thereafter 30 case after the engine has been operated for some upon the operation of the sylphon bellows, or time. On the other hand the demand for power pressure responsive means, the lever 94 is actu from the engine is frequently at a maximum on ated'and the motor energizing circuit is broken starting so that it may be important at such so that the turbine is substituted for the motor as a source of power for driving the super 35 35 times for the super-charger to be operated and for the back pressure of the exhaust gases to be charger and exhauster‘ and the motor is allowed cylinder walls may also be cool or cold. For this reason the temperature of the exhaust gases passing to the waste heat boiler is often much reduced. However, although the demands for to remain idle. . ' ' In the operation of the mechanism shown in Fig.- 3 the lever 94 on starting'the engine is in position to complete the motor circuit by engage 40 ment of the segment 98 with the contacts I90. In this position the ‘clutch operating shaft 80 is withdrawn to, the right holding clutch 88 in con nected position for driving the super-charger and the boiler has become high enough to drive the exhauster from the motor. The clutch member 45 turbine and operate the super-charger and ex- ‘I9 is then held out of engagement with the coop hauster satisfactorily. In this construction‘ the \ crating element carried by shaft 14 of the turbine shaft 14 of the turbine 42' is provided with a so that the turbine may remain idle. The engine clutch ‘I6 of suitable construction normally urged ' is thus operated supplying air vor an explosive mixture to the engine under pressure and reliev 50 into disengaged position by a spring 18 to per mit the super-charger l4’ and exhauster 56' to ing back pressure of the exhaust gases by the action of the exhauster. Heat contained in the be freely rotated while the turbine remains sta tionary. The right hand member of the clutch exhaust gases is taken up by water in the waste in Fig. 3 is carried by a shaft 80 to which the heat boiler 22' raising the temperature thereof rotor 64' of the exhauster is keyed. The rotor and converting it into steam. When the pressure 55 l6’ of the super-charger may be secured in any of the steam has reached a suitable point the pressure responsive means or sylphon bellows is suitable way to a hollow shaft 84 which prefer ably is formed integral with the‘rotor for the actuated to open valve 91 to admit steam to the exhauster. The means shown comprises a nut turbine and to force the lower end of the lever 86 cooperating with a shoulder 81 on shaft 84. 94 outwardly to move the collar 92 and clutch The outer extremity of the tubular shaft 84 is operating shaft 89'to the left disengaging the provided with a separable coupling 88 which is . motor clutch 88 and bringing the clutch element connected with the shaft of an electric motor 16 into engagement connecting the turbine to the 90 for driving the supercharger and exhauster rotors of the super-charger and exhauster for independently of the turbine when the engine driving the same. At the same time the circuit 65 is being started. The coupling means employed for energizing the motor is broken by movement steam from the waste heat boiler are high steam is not available for proper operation of the tur 40 blue to drive the supercharger and exhauster. In order to overcome this di?lculty I have shown in Fig. 3 a construction for driving the super charger and exhauster independently of the tur bine until such time as the pressure ofv steam in 45 50 ' 60 65 is preferably in the form of a friction clutch of the segment 98 on the lever 94 out of engage ment with the contacts I88 which form a part of the motor circuit. Thus the motor remains idle when the turbine drives the super-charger and The clutch operating shaft 84 is axially mov 70 able within the tubular shaft alternatively to ‘exhauster whereas the turbine is disconnected when the motor is used for driving the super connect and disconnect the turbine and the mo charger and exhauster. The transfer from one tor to the impellers for the exhauster and super adapted to provide a driving connection with . the motor. charger. The shaft 80 is movable by means‘ of a 75 collar 92 rotatable with the shaft 84_ but is mov 70' source of power to the other for driving these , elements is effected by the pressure actuated 4 2,109,237 means to insure proper operation 01' the super charger and exhauster at all times. In Fig. 5 oi.’ the drawings I have‘ illustrated alternative means for insuring proper operation 5 of the super-charger andexhauster during the initial operation of the power plant. In this con struction the waste heat boiler is provided with a supplemental source 01' heat such as the oil or gas burner I02 projecting into the chamber 24 in the base oi’ the waste heat boiler. The burner is designed to be operated to maintain the tem perature of the boiler water su?lciently high to permit the immediate production of steam when the ‘engine is started or to provide a surplus of 15 steam during the initial period of operation if this should be desirable. The supplemental heat ing device may be operated by a motor I“ under the control of a thermostatic device I 06 respon sive to changes in temperature of the exhaust For this pur pose the thermo-couple I0. is provided which as shown is located in the exhaust conduit, the mechanism used being oi’ any suitable type such as that disclosed in the patent to Mertelmeyer 20 gases in the exhaust conduit II. 25 and Koester 1,203,230. I With this construction the supplemental heat ing device is operated preparatory to starting the engine so as to raise the temperature of the boil er water and generate sui'ilcient steam to operate 30 the turbine. When the engine is started the exhaust gases are drawn through the waste heat boiler by the exhauster adding their heat to that oi.’ the supplemental heating device and act ing upon the thermo-couple to reduce the supply in exhaust gases from said engine to produce steam, a turbine for driving said super-charger ' and driven by steam from said waste heat boiler, an exhauster serving to reduce both the back pressure of exhaust gases of said engine and the exhaust pressure of steam from said turbine, said exhauster utilizing energy from said turbine to drive the same and an alternative device driven independently of said engine and turbine for actuating said super-charger and exhauster, and 10 means responsive to the pressure of the stem in said boiler for actuating said alternative’ de- ' vice. 2. A power plant having in combination, an internal combustion engine, a super-charger for said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in exhaust gases from said engine to generate steam, a turbine utilizing steam from said waste heat boiler, a rotary exhauster-condenser serving to reduce back pressure of exhaust gases from said 20 engine and to condense steam from said turbine, means for supplying cooling liquid to said ex hauster-condenser, a shaft rotated by said tur bine and impellers for said super-charger and said exhauster driven by said shaft. 25 3. A power plant having in combination, an internal combustion engine, a super-charger for said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in exhaust gases from said engine to generate steam, a turbine for driving said super-charger 30 and driven by steam from said waste heat boiler, an exhauster condenser driven by said turbine serving to reduce back pressure of exhaust gases of said engine and to condense steam from said oi’ heat from the burner I02 proportionately. turbine to increase the di?erence in pressure on As the temperature of the exhaust gases rises the opposite sides ‘of said turbine, and alterna 35 upon the continued operation 0! the power plant , tive means for supplying power to drive said the requirement for heat from the burner III! is super-charger and said exhauster-condenser, and decreased and the amount of heat provided is means responsive to the pressure of the steam in 40 correspondingly reduced by the action 01' the said boiler for actuating said alternative means. thermostatic device I“ until the additional heat ,4. A power plant comprising an internal com supply is reduced to a minimum or eliminated bustion engine, a super-charger for said engine, altogether. a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in exhaust gases This construction insures a continuous supply from said engine, an exhauster for drawing ex 45 of steam for the turbine at all times when re .haust gases through said waste heat boiler, a quired and renders it possible to regulate the turbine driven by steam from said boiler to actu steam production to accommodate varying loads ate said exhauster and super-charger, a motor upon the power plant. . adapted to be connected to said exhauster and In each of the forms of my invention illm super-charger to actuate the same and a clutch 50 trated in Figs. 1 and 3, the turbine, exhauster operable to connect either said turbine or said and super-charger are constructed as separate. motor to said exhauster and super-charger, and castings mounted upon the top 01' the waste heat means responsive to the pressure of the steam boiler so'as to present a compactinexpensive in said boiler for actuating said motor. construction adapted to be readily applied to 5. A power plant having in combination an 55 existing power plants without material altera tion. - While I'have illustrated and described certain forms 01' my invention it will be apparent that my invention is not limited to the constructions shown. 'lhe power plant may include two cycle or tour cycle internal combustion engines oi’ either the Diesel or Otto type. The particular form or waste heat boiler employed as well as the former turbine, exhauster, and super-charg er may be varied considerably with each installa tion depending upon the size, cost and other factors as desired. ‘internal combustion engine, a super-charger for 55 said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in the exhaust gases to generate steam, a turbine driven by steam from said boiler, an exhauster communicating with said turbine and said waste heat boiler, means for introducing a cooling me 80 dium into said exhauster to condense steam from the turbine and to cool said exhaust gases, a motor for driving said super-charger and ex hauster, and means responsive to variations in the pressure 01' steam in said boiler to connect either said turbine ‘or said motor selectively to It should, therefore, be un- - the super-charger and exhauster to operate the derstood that the form of power plant herein illustrated and described is intended to represent a typical embodiment of my invention and is not intended to limit the scope thereof. What is claimed is: . i. A power plant having in combination, an internal combustion engine, a super-charger for said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat same. I 6. A power plant having in combination an internal combustion engine, a super-charger for 70 said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in the exhaust gases'to generate steam, a turbine driven by steam from said boiler, common means for reducing back pressure on said engine and on said turbine, a motor for actuating said means 75 ' 9,109,237 and super-charger and means responsive to vari ations in the pressure of steam in said boiler to connect either said turbine or said motor selec tively to the supercharger and said means to operate the same. 1 7. A power plant having in combination an internal combustion engine, a super-charger for said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in the exhaust gases to generate steam, a tur bine driven by steam from said boiler, an ex hauster communicating with said turbine and said waste heat boiler, a motor for driving said super-charger and exhauster and means respon sive to variations in the pressureot steam in said boiler to connect either said turbine or said motor selectively to the super-charger and ex hauster to operate the same. 8. A power plant comprising an internal com bustion engine within which a piston recipro cates, a super-charger for supplying air under~ pressure to said engine, a waste heat boiler uti lizing the heat from_ the exhaust gases from'sald engine to produce steam, a turbine for driving said super-charger and driven 'by steam from said waste heat boiler, common means for reduc ing pressure on the exhaust side of said turbine and‘ for reducing the back pressure of said ex 10 haust' gases irom said internal combustion en gine, an alternative device driven independently of said engine for actuating said supercharger and said‘ common means, and means responsive to the pressure of the steam in said boiler for 15 actuating said alternative device. " / LUDWIG LUS'I'IG.