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Патент USA US2109237

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Feb. 22, 1938.
‘2,109,237
L. LUSTIG
POWER PLANT
Filed June 25, 1934
‘5241-
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
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BY
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Feb. 22, 1938.
2,109,237
L. LUSTIG
POWER PLANT
Filed June 25, 1934
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Patented Feb. 22, 1938
2,109,231
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
2,109,237
POWER PLANT '
Ludwig Lustlg,_ Manhasset, N. Y.
Application June 25, 1934, Serial No. 732,196
8 Claims.
My invention relates to power plants and
particularly to power plants including an inter
nal combustion engine and a super-charger for
supplying air or an explosive mixture to the
engine.
In using a super-charger with an internal com
bustion engine the air or the explosive charge
is admitted to the engine cylinder under pres
sure. Therefore, after explosion of the charge
10 the quantity, the volume and the temperature of
the exhaust gases leaving the cylinder are con
siderably greater than when the super-charger is
not employed. This increase in volume of the
exhaust gases gives rise to considerable back
15 pressure which tends to offset the advantages
gained by the use of the super-charger. For ex
ample the resistance to the passage of the large
volume of exhaust gases from the cylinder pre
sented by the valves, exhaust. manifold, etc.,
causes a substantial portion of the exhaust gases
to remain in the cylinder when a new charge is
admitted. In ordinary operation with a super
charger the back pressure of these gases may
amount to as much as 20 or 30 lbs. per square
25 inch above atmospheric pressure. For this rea
(ci. 60-11)
haust gases as a source of energy for operating
the same. Furthermore, this energy may also be
used for operating the super-charger thus in
creasing the e?iciency of the power plant.
In that form of my invention hereinafter de- 5
scribed, heat contained in the exhaust gases is
employed in the generation of steam for the op
eration of the exhauster for reducing back pres
sure of the exhaust gases and for operating the
super-charger through the use of a turbine.
One of the objects of my invention is to pro
vide a power plant including an internal com-'
bustion engine and a super-charger together with
an exhauster wherein back pressure of the ex-v
haustv gases is reduced.
>
18
Another object of my invention is to provide
mechanical means for reducing back pressure on
the engine.
,
I‘
A further object of my invention is to ‘utilize
waste heat from. the engine for reducing the
back pressure of the exhaust gases.
Another object of my invention is to render the
admission of air or an explosive mixture to the
engine cylinders and the scavenging of the cylin
ders independent.
‘
~-
,
son considerable difficulty is experienced in
Another object of my invention is to provide a
properly scavenging the cylinder preparatory to
the introduction of the succeeding explosive
charge. The explosive charge which is subse
30 quently introduced into the cylinder is, therefore,
diluted' by the remaining exhaust gases and the
waste heat boiler utilizing heat in exhaust gases
leaving the engine to generate steam for supply
amount of the air or explosive mixture actually
admitted to the cylinder is reduced. The force
required to operate the valves and_ to expel the
exhaust gases from the cylinder is also increased
when a super-charger is employed due to the
increased pressure of the gases in the cylinder at
the completion of the piston stroke. Further
more, the temperature of the exhaust gases leav
40 ing the engine is higher whenv a super-charger is
employed and thus the heat contained in the
gases is wasted.
ing power to actuate a super-charger for the
engine and an exhauster functioning to reduce
.back pressure of the exhaust gases. ,
A further object of my inventionis to provide
means for simultaneously effecting thermal and
mechanical evacuation of exhaust gases from a
super-charged internal combustion engine._
These and other objects of my invention will
appear from the following description thereof in
which reference is made to the accompanying
?gures of the drawings illustrating typical em
bodiments thereof.
40
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of one form
In accordance with my invention the back pres
of power plant embodying my invention; _
sure of exhaust gases leaving the engine cylinder 7
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view of a portion
of‘ the mechanism shown in Fig. 3 taken. on the ‘ 45
45 is reduced and in» fact a suction or subéatmos
pheric pressure may be produced so as to aid in
the removal of the exhaust gases from the cylin-_
der. scavenging of the cylinder is therefore im
proved, the amount of air or explosive mixture
50 introduced into the cylinder is increased and the
force required to operate the valves and to expel
exhaust gases from the cylinder is reduced.
The means employed for reducing the back
pressure on the cylinder in accordance with my
55 invention utilizes the heat contained in the ex
line 2-2 of Fig. 3;
,
V
. '
Fig. 3 illustrates an alternative construction of
certain elements of the combination;
‘
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of a detail of the device
shown in Fig. 3 taken on the line 4-,4; and
50
Fig. 5 illustrates a further alternative construc
tion adapted for use with the device as shown in
Fig.
1.
.
.
4
.
In that form of my invention chosen for illus
tration in Fig. 1, the device comprises an internal 55'
2
>
.
2,109,287
combustion engine 2 having a cylinder‘ and an
intake manifold 6 through which air or an ex
plosive charge is passed to the various cylinders
of the engine from the conduit 8. An exhaust
ow manifold ill connected to the cylinders 4 through
which exhaust gases are passed communicates
with the exhaust conduit l2.
In order to supply the engine with air or an
explosive mixture under pressure a super-charger
10 N is employed.‘ As shown, the super-charger
comprises an impeller l6 mounted on a shaft I8
which is rotatable at high speed to draw' air in
through the opening 20 and to discharge the same
52 which is provided with any desired number of
nozzles 48 located at suitable positions adjacent
the blades of the turbine.
The pressure of the steam generated in the
waste heat boiler will depend largely upon the 5
type of boiler employed, the construction and op
eration of the turbine and engine and various
other factors. However, in order to increase the
e?iciency of the turbine and to obtain the maxi
mum pressure differential on the opposite sides 10
thereof, I prefer to provide communication be
tween the annular'exhaust ‘chamber 54 of the
turbine and suitable pressure reducing means
to the engine cylinders under the desired pres- ' such as an exhauster-condenser 56.
15 sure through conduit 8.
The construction and
operation of super-chargers of this, type is well
known and may be varied to meet the needs of
any particular installation.
While the super-charger_may be driven from
20 the engine or any other suitable source of power,
I prefer to relieve the engine of this burden in
order to increase the poweravailable for useful
work. For this reason I utilize heat in the ex
haust gases as a source of energy for the opera
Su?icient
cool water is introduced into the exhauster to 15
effectively condense the steam from the turbine
so that the exhauster functions also as a con
denser producing a maximum pressure diiferen
tial on the opposite sides of the turbine and in
creasing the amount of power derived therefrom. go
In order to reduce back pressure of exhaust
gases passing from the engine cylinder the ex
hauster-condenser “associated with the turbine
is provided with communication with the upper
25 tion of the super-charger. This is e?ected 'by chamber '30 of the boiler through the passage 58.‘ as
passing the hot exhaust gases from the engine With this construction the exhaust gases after
cylinders to a waste heat boiler 22 through the
through the waste heat boiler wherein
exhaust conduit H. The boiler, which may be they are considerably reduced in temperature
of any suitable construction, is shown to com
30 prise a lower chamber II to which the exhaust
gases are admitted and with heating tubes 26
through which the hot exhaust gases pass in
heat exchanging relation with water in the cas
ing 28. The upper ends of the tubes communicate
35 withanupperchamberlllfromwhich thegases
are withdrawn by an cxhauster as hereinafter
described.
'
pass to the upper chamber 30 of the boiler and .
thence to the exhauster It through the
e an
I! to the annular chamber ‘II and
62.
As shown the exhauster comprises a rotatable
impeller 64 on shaft l8 by memo! which the
exhaust gases are forcibly withdrawn from‘ the
waste heat boiler and from the engine cylinders. 36
The gases enter the exhauster tangentially and
in the direction of rotation thereof near the cen
In order to pre-heat water supplied to the waste
heat boiler for producing steam, I prefer to pro
40 vide suitable circulating means for
heated
water from the engine cooling system to the cas
ter and are cooled by water introduced through
inlets '6 supplied through pipes 61 shown in Fig.
latedinthiswayispreheatedsothat heatcon
.tainedinthe exhaustgasespassingtothe waste
50 heat boiler is used primarily-in the generation of’
effective cooling and condensing thereof. With
this construction the temperature of the exhaust
gases is reduced by the introduction of cold water 59
2. These inlets are positioned and directed so as 49
to bring the cold water into intimate contact with
ing 2. as needed to maintain the. desired amount . the exhaust gases and with the steam entering,
of waterintheboilen, For this purposethe cool
the exhauster-condenser through the
es
ing system includes
es II extending about II and a respectively. Furthermore the turbu
45 thecylinderwallstowhichcoolwaterisadmitted lence-of the gases and steam in their
e ‘5
through an inlet 32 and from which heated water from their points of introduction to the periphery _
is withdrawn through an outlet 8|. Water circu
of the exhauster and outlet ‘ll serves to insure
steam and only a relatively small amount of such
heat is required for raising the temperature of the
boiler water. Ordinarily the boiler is not capable
of converting‘all of the cooling water circulating
‘s5
cooling system into steam and I
therefore provide the outlet 34 with a by-pass
36 for returning a portion of the cooling wa'terto
the cooling system.
The‘remaining water is
used as feed-water for the boiler and is intro
'oo duced into the same by means of a pump II or
other means, driven by a suitable controllable
prime mover. The additional cold water nec
essary to maintain the supply of cooling water
passing to the engine is supplied through a con
as duit 40 provided with suitable valves ll.
Steam produced by the absorption of heat from
theexhaustgasesthroughthewasteheat
boiler is utilized in the form of my invention il
lustrated for driving a turbine 42. Any suitable
70 type ofturbinemaybeemployedforthispurpose
such as the single stage turbine illustrated. Tim
comprises a rotorv 44' having blades 46 against
which steam is projected through the nozzles 48.
Thesteamfromtbecasing 2| ottheboiler
75 through the passage II to the annular chamber
into the exhauster-condenser as well as by the
action of the waste heat boiler‘ so that the tem
perature and volume of the exhaust gases is
decreased as much as possible. This reduction
in volume in the exhaust gases increases the 5;
density thereof so that the exhauster operates
more effectively to reduce the back pressure on
the engine. The condensate and cooled exhaust
gases pass from the exhauster through the outlet
‘II to a trap ‘II, where liquids are separated from so
the gases.
In the operation of the power plant shown in
Pig. 1 and described above the super-charger
supplies air or an explosive mixture to the engine .
under pressure to the cylinder of the engine as
where it is'utilized on explosion for producing
power. The resulting hot gases are withdrawn
and forced from the engine cylinder upon com
pletion of the expansion cycle by means of the
exhauster I6 and the cooling and contraction of 70
tbegasesin'their w w e throughthewaste heat
boiler. The action of the exhauster in withdraw
ing the exhaust gases from the engine cylinder
renders it possible to delay the opening of the
intake valve somewhat since it is unn
1‘: =
' to 75
3.
2,109,287
rely upon the admission of the succeeding air,or
explosive charge to assist in the scavenging of
the cylinder. In other words the intake and ex
haust cycles need not overlap as in present op
eration so that there need be no loss in the ad
mission of unused air or explosive mixture to
the cylinder.
with the arrangement described the exhauster
able -longitudinally thereof by means of a piv
oted lever 94 having a yoke 95 engaging the
collar 92. Movement of the lever 94 to the left
serves to disconnect clutch 88 from the motor
99 and to move clutch member 19 into engage
ment to connect the turbine to shaft 88 for driv
ing the impellers of the super-charger and ex
hauster. The selection of the source of power
and super-charger are carried by the same shaft
employed is preferably effected automatically in
10 and driven directly from the turbine. While this
response to a condition of an element‘of the
construction is not essential to my invention it
insures'corresponding and uniform operation of
means of a pressure operated device, such as the
the exhauster, and. super-charger. ' Thus any
change in the pressure or volume of the air sup
15 plied to the engine by the supercharger is met by
a corresponding change in the action of the
exhauster. Furthermore, the supply of heat to
the boiler from the exhaust gases is dependent
in part at least on the velocity of flow of the
20 gases so that the supply of steam to the turbine
power plant. As shown lever 94 is actuated by
sylphon bellows 98 communicating with the up
per portion of the. waste heat boiler. In order
to .prevent free escape of steam from the boiler 15
during the starting period and to build up sufli
cient steam pressure in the boiler to supply the
necessary power to the turbine, the bellows 96
may also serve to actuate valve 91 to admit steam
to the turbine when lever. 94 is moved to disen 20
is varied by the action of the other elements of ' gage the clutch ‘for the motor 90 and connect
the turbine to the shaft. 89. Throttle 99 may
‘
Ordinarily it will be found on starting the also be provided to control the operation of the
engine that the temperature of the boiler water turbine if desired.
The lever 96 is also provided with means for 25
25 is low and the water from the'engine cooling
the combination.
system is comparatively cool.
The piston and
completing and breaking the electric circuit forv
energizing the motor 99 so as to maintain the
motor in operation until the pressure within the
waste heat boiler has reached a predetermined
30 lower when the engine is started than will be the‘ . point, say 80 lbs. per square inch. Thereafter 30
case after the engine has been operated for some upon the operation of the sylphon bellows, or
time. On the other hand the demand for power pressure responsive means, the lever 94 is actu
from the engine is frequently at a maximum on ated'and the motor energizing circuit is broken
starting so that it may be important at such so that the turbine is substituted for the motor
as a source of power for driving the super 35
35 times for the super-charger to be operated and
for the back pressure of the exhaust gases to be charger and exhauster‘ and the motor is allowed
cylinder walls may also be cool or cold. For this
reason the temperature of the exhaust gases
passing to the waste heat boiler is often much
reduced.
However, although the demands for
to remain idle.
.
'
'
In the operation of the mechanism shown in
Fig.- 3 the lever 94 on starting'the engine is in
position to complete the motor circuit by engage 40
ment of the segment 98 with the contacts I90.
In this position the ‘clutch operating shaft 80 is
withdrawn to, the right holding clutch 88 in con
nected position for driving the super-charger and
the boiler has become high enough to drive the exhauster from the motor. The clutch member 45
turbine and operate the super-charger and ex- ‘I9 is then held out of engagement with the coop
hauster satisfactorily. In this construction‘ the \ crating element carried by shaft 14 of the turbine
shaft 14 of the turbine 42' is provided with a so that the turbine may remain idle. The engine
clutch ‘I6 of suitable construction normally urged ' is thus operated supplying air vor an explosive
mixture to the engine under pressure and reliev 50
into disengaged position by a spring 18 to per
mit the super-charger l4’ and exhauster 56' to ing back pressure of the exhaust gases by the
action of the exhauster. Heat contained in the
be freely rotated while the turbine remains sta
tionary. The right hand member of the clutch exhaust gases is taken up by water in the waste
in Fig. 3 is carried by a shaft 80 to which the heat boiler 22' raising the temperature thereof
rotor 64' of the exhauster is keyed. The rotor and converting it into steam. When the pressure 55
l6’ of the super-charger may be secured in any of the steam has reached a suitable point the
pressure responsive means or sylphon bellows is
suitable way to a hollow shaft 84 which prefer
ably is formed integral with the‘rotor for the actuated to open valve 91 to admit steam to the
exhauster. The means shown comprises a nut turbine and to force the lower end of the lever
86 cooperating with a shoulder 81 on shaft 84. 94 outwardly to move the collar 92 and clutch
The outer extremity of the tubular shaft 84 is operating shaft 89'to the left disengaging the
provided with a separable coupling 88 which is . motor clutch 88 and bringing the clutch element
connected with the shaft of an electric motor 16 into engagement connecting the turbine to the
90 for driving the supercharger and exhauster rotors of the super-charger and exhauster for
independently of the turbine when the engine driving the same. At the same time the circuit 65
is being started. The coupling means employed for energizing the motor is broken by movement
steam from the waste heat boiler are high steam
is not available for proper operation of the tur
40 blue to drive the supercharger and exhauster.
In order to overcome this di?lculty I have shown
in Fig. 3 a construction for driving the super
charger and exhauster independently of the tur
bine until such time as the pressure ofv steam in
45
50
'
60
65
is preferably in the form of a friction clutch
of the segment 98 on the lever 94 out of engage
ment with the contacts I88 which form a part of
the motor circuit. Thus the motor remains idle
when the turbine drives the super-charger and
The clutch operating shaft 84 is axially mov
70
able within the tubular shaft alternatively to ‘exhauster whereas the turbine is disconnected
when the motor is used for driving the super
connect and disconnect the turbine and the mo
charger and exhauster. The transfer from one
tor to the impellers for the exhauster and super
adapted to provide a driving connection with
.
the motor.
charger. The shaft 80 is movable by means‘ of a
75 collar 92 rotatable with the shaft 84_ but is mov
70'
source of power to the other for driving these ,
elements is effected by the pressure actuated
4
2,109,237
means to insure proper operation 01' the super
charger and exhauster at all times.
In Fig. 5 oi.’ the drawings I have‘ illustrated
alternative means for insuring proper operation
5 of the super-charger andexhauster during the
initial operation of the power plant. In this con
struction the waste heat boiler is provided with
a supplemental source 01' heat such as the oil or
gas burner I02 projecting into the chamber 24
in the base oi’ the waste heat boiler. The burner
is designed to be operated to maintain the tem
perature of the boiler water su?lciently high to
permit the immediate production of steam when
the ‘engine is started or to provide a surplus of
15 steam during the initial period of operation if
this should be desirable. The supplemental heat
ing device may be operated by a motor I“ under
the control of a thermostatic device I 06 respon
sive to changes in temperature of the exhaust
For this pur
pose the thermo-couple I0. is provided which
as shown is located in the exhaust conduit, the
mechanism used being oi’ any suitable type such
as that disclosed in the patent to Mertelmeyer
20 gases in the exhaust conduit II.
25 and Koester 1,203,230.
I
With this construction the supplemental heat
ing device is operated preparatory to starting the
engine so as to raise the temperature of the boil
er water and generate sui'ilcient steam to operate
30 the turbine.
When the engine is started the
exhaust gases are drawn through the waste heat
boiler by the exhauster adding their heat to
that oi.’ the supplemental heating device and act
ing upon the thermo-couple to reduce the supply
in exhaust gases from said engine to produce
steam, a turbine for driving said super-charger
' and driven by steam from said waste heat boiler,
an exhauster serving to reduce both the back
pressure of exhaust gases of said engine and the
exhaust pressure of steam from said turbine,
said exhauster utilizing energy from said turbine
to drive the same and an alternative device driven
independently of said engine and turbine for
actuating said super-charger and exhauster, and 10
means responsive to the pressure of the stem
in said boiler for actuating said alternative’ de- '
vice.
2. A power plant having in combination, an
internal combustion engine, a super-charger for
said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in
exhaust gases from said engine to generate steam,
a turbine utilizing steam from said waste heat
boiler, a rotary exhauster-condenser serving to
reduce back pressure of exhaust gases from said 20
engine and to condense steam from said turbine,
means for supplying cooling liquid to said ex
hauster-condenser, a shaft rotated by said tur
bine and impellers for said super-charger and
said exhauster driven by said shaft.
25
3. A power plant having in combination, an
internal combustion engine, a super-charger for
said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat
in exhaust gases from said engine to generate
steam, a turbine for driving said super-charger 30
and driven by steam from said waste heat boiler,
an exhauster condenser driven by said turbine
serving to reduce back pressure of exhaust gases
of said engine and to condense steam from said
oi’ heat from the burner I02 proportionately. turbine to increase the di?erence in pressure on
As the temperature of the exhaust gases rises the opposite sides ‘of said turbine, and alterna 35
upon the continued operation 0! the power plant , tive means for supplying power to drive said
the requirement for heat from the burner III! is super-charger and said exhauster-condenser, and
decreased and the amount of heat provided is means responsive to the pressure of the steam in
40 correspondingly reduced by the action 01' the said boiler for actuating said alternative means.
thermostatic device I“ until the additional heat
,4. A power plant comprising an internal com
supply is reduced to a minimum or eliminated bustion engine, a super-charger for said engine,
altogether.
a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in exhaust gases
This construction insures a continuous supply from said engine, an exhauster for drawing ex
45 of steam for the turbine at all times when re
.haust gases through said waste heat boiler, a
quired and renders it possible to regulate the turbine driven by steam from said boiler to actu
steam production to accommodate varying loads ate said exhauster and super-charger, a motor
upon the power plant.
.
adapted to be connected to said exhauster and
In each of the forms of my invention illm
super-charger to actuate the same and a clutch
50 trated in Figs. 1 and 3, the turbine, exhauster
operable to connect either said turbine or said
and super-charger are constructed as separate. motor to said exhauster and super-charger, and
castings mounted upon the top 01' the waste heat means responsive to the pressure of the steam
boiler so'as to present a compactinexpensive in said boiler for actuating said motor.
construction adapted to be readily applied to
5. A power plant having in combination an
55
existing power plants without material altera
tion.
-
While I'have illustrated and described certain
forms 01' my invention it will be apparent that
my invention is not limited to the constructions
shown. 'lhe power plant may include two cycle
or tour cycle internal combustion engines oi’
either the Diesel or Otto type. The particular
form or waste heat boiler employed as well as
the former turbine, exhauster, and super-charg
er may be varied considerably with each installa
tion depending upon the size, cost and other
factors as desired.
‘internal combustion engine, a super-charger for 55
said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in
the exhaust gases to generate steam, a turbine
driven by steam from said boiler, an exhauster
communicating with said turbine and said waste
heat boiler, means for introducing a cooling me 80
dium into said exhauster to condense steam from
the turbine and to cool said exhaust gases, a
motor for driving said super-charger and ex
hauster, and means responsive to variations in
the pressure 01' steam in said boiler to connect
either said turbine ‘or said motor selectively to
It should, therefore, be un- - the super-charger and exhauster to operate the
derstood that the form of power plant herein
illustrated and described is intended to represent
a typical embodiment of my invention and is not
intended to limit the scope thereof.
What is claimed is:
.
i. A power plant having in combination, an
internal combustion engine, a super-charger for
said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat
same.
I 6. A power plant having in combination an
internal combustion engine, a super-charger for 70
said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat in
the exhaust gases'to generate steam, a turbine
driven by steam from said boiler, common means
for reducing back pressure on said engine and
on said turbine, a motor for actuating said means 75
' 9,109,237
and super-charger and means responsive to vari
ations in the pressure of steam in said boiler to
connect either said turbine or said motor selec
tively to the supercharger and said means to
operate the same. 1
7. A power plant having in combination an
internal combustion engine, a super-charger for
said engine, a waste heat boiler utilizing heat
in the exhaust gases to generate steam, a tur
bine driven by steam from said boiler, an ex
hauster communicating with said turbine and
said waste heat boiler, a motor for driving said
super-charger and exhauster and means respon
sive to variations in the pressureot steam in
said boiler to connect either said turbine or said
motor selectively to the super-charger and ex
hauster to operate the same.
8. A power plant comprising an internal com
bustion engine within which a piston recipro
cates, a super-charger for supplying air under~
pressure to said engine, a waste heat boiler uti
lizing the heat from_ the exhaust gases from'sald
engine to produce steam, a turbine for driving
said super-charger and driven 'by steam from
said waste heat boiler, common means for reduc
ing pressure on the exhaust side of said turbine
and‘ for reducing the back pressure of said ex 10
haust' gases irom said internal combustion en
gine, an alternative device driven independently
of said engine for actuating said supercharger
and said‘ common means, and means responsive
to the pressure of the steam in said boiler for 15
actuating said alternative device.
"
/
LUDWIG LUS'I'IG.
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