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Патент USA US2109278

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‘ Feb, 22, 1938..
'
K. c. SCHMIDT
2,109,278
STEAM BOILER
Filed Sept. 25, 1936
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INVENTOR.
BY Kar/ CSC/YZTUCZZL
ATTORNEY.
Feb.‘22, 1938.
2,109,278
K. C. SCHMIDT
STEAM BOILER
Filed Sept. 25, 1956
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Feb. 22, 1938.
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STEAM BOILER
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Feb. 22, 1938.
K. c, SCHMIDT
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STEAM BO>ILER '
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Filed Sept. 25, 1936
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INVENTOR.
Kar] G. Schmidi
Feb. 22, 1938. I
K. c. SCHMIDT
2,109,278
STEAM BOILER
Filed Sept. 25; 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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INVENTOR.
Karl C 501721112125
KR WY.
Patented Feb. 22, .1938 i
'
'
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,109,27 8
STEAM BOILER
vKarl C. Schmidt, Western Springs, Ill., assignor
to The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Newark,
N. J., a corporation of New Jersey
'
Application September 25, 1936, Serial No. 102,492
11 Claims. (01. 122—336)
I
My present invention relates to the construc18. The» side wall 12 preferably includes hollow
tion and operation of steam boilers of the water
tube type and more particularly to steam boilers
adapted for installations having limited head
room and ?oor space available. In my prior
application, Serial No. 16,115, ?led April‘13, 1935,
a steam boiler adapted for such use is disclosed
having a relativelyv large amount of convection
and radiant heat absorbing surface, furnace volume, and length of heating gas travel in proportion to the space- occupied and head room required.
'
-
tile‘ l2a arranged to form air passages open at~v
their lower ends. Extending upwardly along the
opposite side walls are structural steel columns I9 ‘
which support girders 20 extending across and 5
I above the top of the setting.
.
The interior of the setting is' divided as here
inafter described into a relatively wide combus
tion lane or furnace chamber 2|. vand a relatively
narrow laterally adjoining heating lane or tube 10
chamber 22. A pair of longitudinally disposed
parallel upper and lower drums 23 and 24 re
The main object of my present invention is
the provision of an improved furnace construction for a steam boiler of the general type de-
spectively extend longitudinally and throughout
the lengthof the heating lane and are connected
throughout their length by a bank of vertically l6
scribed in my prior application ,for adapting the
disposed tubes 25 straight for most of their length
same for stoker ?ring at relatively high e?lciencies. A further object is the provision of
means for effecting an improved ?ow of heating
and having bent ends for radial connection into
the drums at both sides of the central vertical
planes thereof. The upper or steam and water
gases over the convection heating surface.
drum 23 is inwardly o?set slightly from the lower 20 ~
The various features of novelty which characterize my invention are pointed out with par. ticularity in the claims annexed to and forming
a part of this speci?cation. For a better understanding of the invention, its operating advantages and speci?c objects attained by its use,
reference should be had to the-accompanying
or water drum 24. The upper drum 23 is sup
ported from the structural steel members 20, in
dicated in Fig. 1 as carried by the members is,
and in turn supports the lower drum 24 through
the tube bank 25.
25
' The heating lane 22 is separated from the ad
joining combustion lane 2| except at the‘ rear end
drawingsand descriptive matter in which I have
illustrated and described preferred embodiments
thereof by a vertically disposed refractory parti
tion 26 which extends between the drums and ter
of my invention.
minates at its rear end a substantial distance 30
Of the drawings:
_
..
/
‘ >
from the rear wall II.
The lower drum is ade
Fig. 1 is a transverse vertical section of a steam
boiler constructed in accordance with my invention taken on the line i-l of Fig. 2;
quately protected along its inner side by a re
fractory curb 21 on the ?oor l5 and by the
thickened lower section of the partition 26. The
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal vertical section taken on
the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
,
Fig. 3 is'a horizontal section taken on the line
3—3 of Fig. 2; '
'
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 2 of a modi?ed
spaces between the outer side of the drums 23 and 35 .
24 and the side wall i3 are closed by refractory
material so that heating gases entering the rear
end of the heating lane will be con?ned in the
space therein between the drums. A heating
construction;
I
- gas outlet or stack connection 28 controlled by 40' i
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig, 3 of the modi-.
' ?cation shown in Fig. 4;
>
a damper 28 is provided at the front end of the
heating lane.
With this arrangement heating
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of the modi?cation shown in Figs. 4 and 5; and
‘Fig. '7 is a view similar to Fig. _6 of a second
gases generated in the combustion lane will.‘ ?ow
longitudinally thereof, entering. the ‘rear end of
the heating lane and passing forwardly therein 45
modi?cation.
to the stack connection 28..
'
The steam boiler unit illustrated in Figs. 1 to
3 comprises a setting or housing substantially
rectangular in’ horizontal. and vertical cross-
The steam boiler illustrated is especially de- .
signed for the burning of solid fuel in a bed in
sections, and formed by a vertical front wall It,
rear wall ll, side walls l2 and I3, inclined top
wall or roof I‘, and'bottom wall or ?oor 15.
The vertical walls of the setting are formed in
general by an outer steel casing It, a layer of
insulating material I1, and a refractory lining
retort underfeed stoker 30 is conventionally iiIus- 50
trated in the forward half of the combustion
lane. The stoker is mounted on laterally, spaced
walls 3| de?ning the sides of an air-‘chamber 32
which is supplied by an external forced draft fan
33. Solid fuel from a magazine 34 is fed by a 55
the forward end of the combustion lane. - Asingle
.
2
2,109,278
suitable feeding mechanism 35 into the stoker
retort 36 from which it is forced outwardly over
the stoker grates 31. Dumping grates 38 along
the sides of the stoker permit the fuel residue to
be dropped into ash pits 39 along the sides of the
air chamber _32,and from which. it is removed
through suitable cleanout doors in the lower part
the rear wall II for removing ash deposited on
the‘ floor of the combustion lane rear section.
The ash deposited on this floor is protected
of the front wall Ill.
ward of the throat, and the ratio of cold to hot’
area is larger than in the section forward of the
‘
.
The gas flow' area of the combustion lane is
10 substantially restricted at the rear end of the
stoker by a transverse refractory dividing struc
against fusion by the horizontal legs of the tubes ‘
54 spaced above the ?oor. There are spaced 5
water tubes on both sides above and below the
gases in this section of thecombustion lane rear
throat, and the value of the ratio may be selected
ture 40 formed by a bridge wall 4|, wing walls
by the spacing of the enclosing tubes.
The inner side of the rear‘ section of the com
42, and an arch 43, which unite to define a re
bustion lane is de?ned by a rear section 26a of
. stricted throat or gas outlet 44 between the front
the partition 26 which extends rearwardly from
the inner wing wall 42 at a point offset towards
15 and rear sections of the combustion lane.
With
this structure the combustible gas from the fuel
bed and air as iyet uncombined will be intimately
mixed by the high degree of turbulence on pass
ing through the throat into the rear section of
20 the combustion lane and complete combustion in
the combustion lane will be insured.
This throat divides the combustion lane into
two parts, a forward part having the bed of solid
fuel with which the air reacts to form complete
25 and incomplete gaseous products of combustion
with excess air, and a rearward .part in which the
combustible gas combines with some of the ex
cess air. ‘The ?rst stage of combustion in which
the solid fuel reacts with air to form gaseous
30 products requires a temperature as high as pos
sible consistent ‘with ash clinkering limits, and
'the correct temperature is assured by a suitable
the side wall l2. Additional rows of water tubes
25“ are provided in the rear section at opposite
sides of the partition section 25“. These rows of
tubes extend beyond the rear end of the partition
section and form a screen across the entrance ii)
to the heating’ lane. The heating lane side of the
innenwing wall- 42 and partition is cut away at
an angle as indicated at 56 to facilitate gas flow
from the wide to the narrow part of the forwardly
tapering heating lane; This construction sub
stantially' contributes to the maintenance of a
.higher heat transfer rate as the gases become
cooler by increasing the mass velocity toward the
outlet of the heating lane.
_
With the described construction and arrange
ment, fuel is automatically delivered to and
30
burned on the stoker at, a rate suitable for the
- ratio of hot to cold portions of its boundary .load and air supplied by the forced draft fan.
walls. The second stage of combustion in which The gases generated ?ow rearwardly through the ~
throat 44 into the rear section where combustion '
the last traces of combustible gas are burned in
as little excess air as possible may be advantage
is completed. The products of complete combus
ously carried out within walls that have a larger ' tion or heating gases pass around the rear end of
ratio of cold to hot boundary wall surface and‘
the throat divides this section from the forward
'40 one.
A relatively large proportion of the heating
surface of the unit is formed by tubes receiving
radiant heat from the combustion lane. In the
stoker section in front of the throat a row of tubes
45 50 extends upwardly from the drum 24 at the
combustion lane side of the partition 26. Spaced
tubes 50“ are connected directly to the upper
drum 23, while the intermediate tubes 50b are L
shaped and have outwardly inclined legs 0° ex-.
50 tending across the upper part of the combustion
lane to a header 5| at the junction of the side
wall I2 and top wall l4. The header 5| extends
the full length of the unit andis advantageously
supported by longitudinally spaced hangers 52
the partition section 263 and forwardly through
the heating lane at a substantially increasing
mass velocity to the stack connection 28. To 40
avoid by-passing of the lower portions of the
water tubes at the front end of the heating lane,
baffle means are installed in that portion of the
heating lane to cause'the heating gases to pass
downwardly before leaving the heating lane. As
shown in Figs. 1 and 3, a two-section ba?le is
used having a stationary upper section 60 and a
vertically adjustable lower section 6|. The lower
section is carried by a guided rack 62 which can
be raised or lowered by a pinion 43 on a manually
operable shaft 64.
Feed water is supplied to the front end of the
upper drum or at any other suitable point and
?ows downwardly through the forward portion
of the tube bank to the lower drum. Most of the
er 5| is connected to the upper drum 23 by a row steam is ‘generated in‘the tubes receiving radiant
of roof tubes 53, which as shown, correspond ‘in heat from the combustion lane and in- the tubes
in the rear portion of the heating lane. A steam‘
number to the tubes 50a and 50b.
The outer side wall l2 of the stoker section is ‘ outlet 65 is indicated at the forward end of the
55 from the structural steel members 20. The head
60 made of refractory with its outer face air cooled '
by the hollow tile ducts I2“. By proper selection
of the spacing of the water tubes 50 on one side
wall, the tubes 50c over the furnace and 53 along
the roof, and of the area of the outer side and
65 front walls, the temperature of the stoker sec
tion in front of the throat may be made as high
as desirable.
,
At the rear side of the throat the header 5| is
connected to the lower drum by L-shaped tubes
70 54 having outwardly inclined legs ‘extending
across the lower part of the combustion lane
above the floor thereof and vertical legs extend
ing along the outer side wall l2. Roof tubes 53
connect the rear portion of the header to the
75 upper drum. A cleanout door 55 is provided in
upper drum.
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60
In the modi?cation shown in Figs. 4 to 6, the
furnace chamber 2| and heating lane 22 are
transposed so that the tube bank 25 is at the
left side of the unit. The construction is other
wise the same as the form shown in Figs. 1 to 3,
except for \an alternate form of fuel burning
stoker. In the modi?ed unit, a horizontally ar
ranged perforated plate grate 10 receives solid '
fuel from the fuel feeding mechanism'35. The
space below the grate is divided by a longitudinal
verticalpartition 1| into side-by-side air or blast
chambers 12 into which depend air tubes 13 com
municating with the'tuyeres or vgrate openings.
The chamber "receives a. supply of air from an
external fo'rced draft fan (not shown) through a 75
L
2,109,278
transverse duct 14 in the bottom part of the
bridge wall 4| and separate inlet openings ‘I5
controlled by dampers 16. The air becomes pre
heated during its passage through the bridge wall
duct, air chamber tubes and tuyeres, and passes
upwardly into the fuel bed on the grate in a mul~
tiplicity of small jets. The operation otherwise
is the same as in the construction shown in Figs.
1 to 3.
In Fig. 7 I have illustrated a four-drum boiler
unit of the type disclosed and claimed in my said
prior application. The steam generating water
tube surface is mainly concentrated in two spaced
3
and a dividing wall structure at the rear of said
stoker including transversely spaced refractory
wing walls and a connecting arch constructed to
provide a restricted outlet for the heating gases‘
to the rear portion of said combustion lane.
3. A steam boiler having upper and lower
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming a longitudinalh7 extending'com
bustion lane and a heating lane laterally adjoin 10
ing said combustion lane and containing said tube
bank and communicating with said combustion
lane at the'rearend thereof, a stoker, at the
front end of said combustion lane for burning
solid fuel' thereon and generating heating gases 15
?owing rearwardly through said combustion lane
and thence. through said heating lane, and a di
viding wall structure at the rear of said stoker
upper ends connected to the adjacent upper drum » including a bridge wall, spacedwing walls and an
23 or 23'. The fuel burning provisions shown in arch arranged to provide a central restricted out 20
Figs. 4 to 6 are incorporated in the modi?cation let for the heating gases to the rear portion of
shown in Fig. 7 as well as the bridge wall and said combustion lane. _
4. A steam boiler having upper and lower
partition elements thereof. In Fig. 7 the heat
ing gases generated divide at the rear end of the drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
boiler between the two heating lanes at opposite extending between and connected to said drums,
'vertical banks 25 and 25' respectively connected
15 to upper and lower drums 23, 24 and 23', 24’. The
furnace chamber in this form has its opposite
sides and roof partly defined by oppositely ar
ranged rows of L-shaped tubes 50’ having their
sides thereof.
.
The steam boiler constructions illustrated are
means forming a longitudinally extending com
bustion lane and a heating lane laterally ad
especially adapted for the low capacity ?eld here
tofore substantially monopolized by horizontal
return tubular boilers. Although incorporating
many features of modern central station design
joining said combustion lane and containing said
be manufactured at a cost but little, if any,
ing gases ?owing rearwardly through said com
bustion lane and thence through said heating
tube bank and communicating with said com
bustion lane at the rear end thereof, a stoker 30'
at the front end of said combustion lane for e
contributing to a high boiler e?iciency, they can _ burning solidfuel thereon and generating heat
greater than prior generating equipment used in
lane, and a row of L-shaped water tubes extend
ing upwardly along the inner side of said stoker
While in accordance with the provisions of the and across the upper portion of said combustion
statutes I have illustrated and described herein lane and having their upper ends connected to
the best forms of my invention now known to me, said upper drum.
_ 5. A steam boiler having upper and lower 40
40 those skilled in the art will understand that,
changes may be made in the form of the appa
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
ratus disclosed without departing from the spirit extending between and connected to said drums,
of the invention covered by my claims, and that means forming a lon tudinally extending com
certain features of my invention may sometimes bustion lane and a. hea ing lane laterally adjoin
be used to advantage ‘without a corresponding‘ ing said combustion lane and containing said
use of other features.
tube bank and communicating with said combus
I claim:
“
tion lane at the rear endthereof, a'stoker at the
1. vA steam boiler having upper and lower front end of said combustion lane for burning
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes solid fuel thereon and generating heating gases
this ?eld ‘and may be installed in small spaces per
unit of capacity.
'
‘
50 extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming _a longitudinally extending com
bustion lane anda heating lane laterally az?oin
ing said combustion lane and containing said
tube bank and communicating with said combus
55 tion lane at one end thereof, a stoker at the op
?owing rearwardly through said combustion lane
and thence through said heating lane, a dividing
wall structure at the rear end of said stoker con
structed to provide-a restricted outlet for the
heating gases to the rear portion of said com
bustion lane, a row of L-shaped water tubes ex
posite end of , said combustion lane for burning
tending upwardly along the inner sideof and
solid fuel thereon and generating heating gases
across the upper portion of the front end of said
combustion lane, a longitudinal header connected
to said L-shaped tubes, and a row of roof tubes
?owing longitudinally through c said combustion
lane and thence through said heating lane, and
a dividing wall structure including transversely
connecting said header to said upper drum.
spaced refractory winged walls arranged to pro- '
6. A steam boiler "having upper and lower
vide a restricted outlet for the heating gases to drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
the remaining portion of said combustion lane.
2. A steam boiler having upper and lower
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming a longitudinally extending com
bustion lane and a heating lane laterally adjoin
ing said combustion lane and containing said
70 tube bank and communicating with said combus
tion lane at the rear end thereof, a stoker at
the front end of said combustion lane for burn
ing solid fuel thereon and generating heating
gases ?owing rearwardly through said combus
75 tion'lane and thence through said heating lane,
extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming a longitudinally extending com
bustion lane and a heating lane laterally adjoin
ing said ‘combustion lane and containing said
tube bank and communicating with said \com
bustion lane at the rear end thereof, said means
including a vertically disposed longitudinally ex 70
tending partitition separating said combustion
and heating lanes and arranged to form a for
wardly tapering heating lane, means for burning
fuel in said combustion lane and generating heat
ing gases ?owing serially through said combus- u
4
2,109,278
tion and heating lanes, and a heating gas outlet
at the front end of said heating lane.
7. A steam boiler having upper and lower
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming a longitudinally extending com
bustion lane and a heating lane laterally adjoin
ing said combustion lane and containing said
tube bank and communciating with said com
10 bustion lane at the rear end thereof, said means
including a vertically disposed longitudinally ex
tending partition separating said combustion
and heating lanes and having a rear section lat
erally o?set relative to the forward section to
tapering heating lane, means at the front end of
said combustion lane for burning fuel and gen
erating heating gases flowing rearwardly through
said combustion lane and thence through said
heating lane, a heating gas outlet at the front
end of said heating lane, and vertically adJust
able baffle means arranged to effect a downward
flow of the heating gases adjacent said outlet.
10. A steam boiler having upper and lower
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes 10
extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming a longitudinally extending com‘
bustion lane and a heating lane laterally adjoin- I‘
ing said combustion lane and containing said
form a forwardly tapering heating lane, means
tube bank and communicating with said com
at the front end of‘ said combustion lane for
bustion lane, a stoker at one end of said com
burning fuel and generating heating gases ?ow
ing rearwardly through said combustion lane and
thence through said heating lane, and a heating
20 gas outlet at the front end of said heating lane.
8.’ A steam boiler having upper and lower
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming a longitudinally extending com
25 bustion lane and a heating lane laterally adjoin
ing said combustion lane and containing said
tube bank and communicating with said com
15
bustion lane for burning solid fuel thereon and
generating heating gases flowing longitudinally
through said combustion lane and thence
through said heating lane, a bridge wall structure 20
at one end of said stoker constructed to provide
a restricted outlet for the heating gases to the
remaining portion of said combustion lane, sep
arate air chambers below said stoker, a trans
verse passage through - said. bridge wall, and 25
damper-controlled openings separately‘ connect
ing said-bridge wall passage to said air chamber.
11. A steam boiler having laterally spaced‘
bustion lane at the rear end thereof, means for
burning fuel in said combustion lane and gen I pairs of upper and lower drums, a bank of ver
heating gases ?owing serially through
‘so erating
said combustion and heating lanes, a heating gas
outlet at the front end of said heating lane, and
vertically adjustable baiiie means arranged to
effect a downward ?ow of the heating. gases ad
jacent said outlet.
9. A steam boiler' having upper and lower
drums, a bank of vertically disposed water tubes
extending between and connected to said drums,
means forming a longitudinally extending com
40 bustion lane and a heating lane laterally adjoin
ing said combustion lane and containing said
tube bank and communicating with said com
bustion lane at the rear end thereof, said means
including a vertically disposed longitudinally ex
45 tending partition separating said combustion and
heating lanes and arranged to form a forwardly
tically disposed water tubes extending between‘ 30
and connected to each pair of said drums, means
forming a longitudinally extending central com-I
bustion lane and a pair of heating lanes laterally
‘adjoining and at opposite sides of said combus
tion lane, each heating lane containing one of 35
said tube banks and communicating with said
combustion lane at the rear end thereof, a stoker
at the front end of said combustion lane» for
burning solid fuel thereon and generating heat-.
ing gases flowing rearwardly through said com 40
bustion. lane and thence through said heating
lanes, and a dividing wall structure at the rear
end of said stoker constructed to provide a re
stricted outlet for the heating gases to the rear
45
portion of said combustion lane. _
‘
KARL C. SCHMIDT.
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