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Патент USA US2109283

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Feb._22, 1938.
J. M. BOYKOW
2,109,233
INSTRUMENT FOR INDICATING NAVIGATIONAL FACTORS‘
Filed Jan. 10, 1934
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Feb. 22, 1938.
2,109,283
J. M. BOYKOW
INSTRUMENT FOR INDIC‘ATING NAVIGATIONAL FACTORS
Filed Jan. 10, 1934
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Feb." 22, 1938.
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Feb. 22, 1938.
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INSTRUIENT FOR INDIGATING NAVIGATIONAL FACTORS
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Filed Jan. 10, 1934
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Filed Jan. 10, 1934
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INSTRUMENT FOR INDICATING NAVIGATIONAL FACTORS
Filed Jan. 10, 1934
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BY
ATTORNEYS .
Patented Feb. 22, 1938 v v
* 2,109,283
UNITED, ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,109,283, ,
INSTRUMENT FOR 'INDICATING NAVIGAy
'
"
TIONAL FACTORS
.
Johann Maria Boykow, Berlin-Iichterfelde-West,
Germany, assignor, by inesne assignments, to
Deutsche' Lnftfahrt- 11nd Handeis-Aktien-Ge
sellschaft, Berlin, Germany, a eorperationof
Germany
Application January 10, 1934, Serial No. 105,997
\‘ "‘
21, Claims.
This invention relates to a device for measur
ing distances.
_-
<
For measuring, with respect to length and di
rection, distances covered by all classes of craft,
5 such as land, air,and water craft, it has here
tofore been necessary to establish some relation
to the- travelling path or to determine the~ mo
mental-y, position by sight or observation in order
.to compute the distance covered, with respect to
l) length and‘ course, from the difference of the
positional data.
.
The object of the present invention is to pro
vide a device, or system, to determine'with re
spect to length and direction, the distance trav
ersed by a craft at any. given moment, and that
without requiring either a ‘correlation between
craft and travelling path or the determining of
the momentary position by the observation of
objects outside the craft in question. '
20
The object of the invention is thus toprovide
a device, or system, for determining the distance
‘covered by a double integration of the accelera
tion to which the craft is subjected.
*»
The object of the invention is, furthermore, to
provide a) device, or system, for determining the
vdistance traversed in a de?nite direction by dou-'
ble integration of the acceleration to which the
craft is submitted in this direction.
The object of'the invention is, moreover, to
0 provide a device, or system, for determining,
with respect to length and direction, the distance '
covered by any craft from the starting point, and
thus its position at any given moment, .both by
double integration of the acceleration to which
the craft is subjected from two different direc
tions, these directions suitably being at right
(Cl. 73-151)
‘provide means having the tendency to maintain
the oscillating body‘permanently in a de?nite
direction’ to an earth direction, say the north-.
south direction, resulting in the oscillating body
responding to an acceleration of an east-to-west
tendency.
'
A further object of the invention is the appli
cation of two oscillating sets or "integrators",
oscillating in a horizontal plane and so arranged ~
that the‘oscillating masses, in their center posi
l0
tions, are situated on radii at right angles to each ‘
other and passing through the respective cen
ters of oscillation.
,
- -
.
The present invention, furthermore, consists
in means for neutralizing the eilect of bearing
friction.
-
' An additional object ‘of-the invention consists
in the application of- stabilizing gyros so as to
maintain the horizontal position of the base of
the
swinging
bodies.
7
.
,
"
-
_, A further object of the invention consists in
the application of a swinging body in the form
of a casing, with a field coil for arotor rotating
in the said- casing and provided with an armature
winding so that the torque of the stator results
in a counter-torque of the rotor.
_
7
A further object of the invention consists in
means to compensate for the in?uences exerted by
both the true and the apparent rotation of the
earth upon the oscillating bodies. ,
Another object of the invention consists in
the arrangement of two “integrators” with hori
zontal oscillating plane, the one of which responds
to acceleration inv east-west direction, the‘ other
to acceleration in north-south direction, on a
gimbal-suspended platform stabilized by two
angles to each other, and by geometrical addi- . gyros one of which is allotted to each “integrator”,
tion of the two distances covered in the said di
and provided with a north-south gyro as well as
-
. g0
rections.
an azimuth gyro.
.
V
,
The present invention, furthermore, relates to
Another object of the invention consists in
a. a body oscillating in the craft, the de?ections of
shaking devices for neutralizing the eitect of bear;
ing friction on the platform or on the apparagis
\
which are proportional to the acceleration acting
upon it, in conjunction‘with an electric switch
which supplies current to the exciting circuit of
an electric motor in proportion to the magnitude
mounted on‘ the platform.
'
-
-
Another object of the invention consists
means to indicate the number of revolutions of
and duration of the acceleration acting upon - the rotor of an integrator and to determine there-7
the oscillating body, to the e?ect that the rotor from the distance covered. .
of the electric motor, freed of all possible forces
>Another object of the invention consists
other than those acting 'upon the oscillating means for indicating, with-the aid of the "in
describes revolutions themumber of which, tegrator? movements, the travelling speed and
so body,
in each case, is proportional» to ‘the distance course, at any given moment. a '
'
7
‘ traversed by the craft. -In the following, an in
Another object of the invention consists. in
strument arranged in the said manner will be means for automatically adding up geometrically”
called “integrator”;
'
the distances determined from the value obtained
55
Another object of the present invention is to
from the two integrators.
2
2,109,283
Another object of the invention consists in‘ a
‘device for representing a distance ‘to be covered
resting the true earth rotation, in section along '
line l2—|2 of Fig. 13.
Fig. 13 shows the ‘same device in section along
line l3—l3 of Fig. 12.
on two charts the one of which contains, on
transparent material, the distances from one
place to another according to the geographical
longitude, the other the said distances according
to the geographical latitude, and, furthermore,
Fig. 14 is a vertical section of an integrator with
the associated parts.
'
‘
Fig. 15 shows a top viewof a device for reading
in means for moving the crosswise overlapping
charts, each according to the revolutions of one
the number of revolutions of the integrators. ,
Fig. 16 is a side view, partly sectional, of a shak
ing device.
Fig. 1'? shows a side view of parts for control
10 of the two integrators, in such a manner that
those points of the two charts, which are situat
10
ed on the intersecting point simultaneously, indi
ling the shaking devices.
Fig. 18a is a section along line I8a--l8a and
cate the position of the craft at any given mo-V
Fig. 18b a section along line I8b—l8b of Fig. 17.
' ment.
Fig.‘ 19 is a diagrammatic representation per
Another object of the invention consists in
15
means by which, if a chart arrangement of the taining to the shaking device.
Fig. 20 shows a section of another type of shak
said kind is used and which would correspond to
ing device.
a chart network in Mercator’s projection, a cor
rection is effected and the true geographical lon
Fig. 21 shows a top. view of a device for repre
20 gitude of the momentary position of the craft
obtained.
senting travelling course and speed, at a given 20
moment, partly in section and partly with the
'
‘ Further particulars and. objects of the inven
cover plate removed.
tion may be derived from the following descrip
tion and the attached drawings. _Although in the
Fig. 21, and
25 accompanying drawings I show essentially only
automatically adding up geometrically the dis
tances covered and for determining the position
at any given moment, according to the invention.
Fig. 25 is a section along line 25-25 of Fig. 24. 30
Fig. 26 is a circuit diagram of group A of Fig. 1,
Fig. 27 is a circuit diagram of group B,
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
28, a circuit diagram of groups C and D,
29, a circuit diagram of group E,
30, a circuit diagram of group F, and
31, a diagram showing the interconnection
of the individual instruments. -
I
The whole apparatus, as covered by the inven
tion, consists of a plurality of individual instru
ments and auxiliary apparatus, which, for the 40
sake of clearness will, in the following, be treated '
in individual ‘groups. These groups of apparatus
can'all be arranged on a common base or partly
mounted separately at suitable points of the craft,
in which case they need only be interconnected
by electric wires. Obviously, not all instruments
need be present at the same time.
In‘ the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a schematic drawing showing the co
operating groups of apparatus and their main
50
22-22 of
'
Fig. 23, a section along line 23-23 of Fig. 21.
25
Fig. 24 is a top view of an apparatus used for
one‘ way of putting the invention into e?ect, vari
ations may be made without departing from the
spirit of the invention as de?ned in the claims.
I would explain that by “transmitters” and “re
30 ceivers”, as will be repeatedly mentioned in the
following, similar apparatus are to be understood
as are frequently employed on board ship in the
form of engine room telegraphs. Each of these
well known “transmitters” and “receivers” con
sists of an armature with three-phase winding
and a single-phase ?eld winding fed with alter
nating current. The three armature phases of
a transmitter are electrically connected with the
three phases of the armature of the associate re
40 ceiver, so that the rotation of the transmitter ar
mature causes the armature of the receiver to
rotate through a similar angle. The three-phase
winding may, however, also be arranged on the
stator and the single-phase winding on the rotor
45 of the transmitter and receiver.
connections.
‘
Fig. 22 shows a section along line
In Fig. 1:——
~
Group A comprises the “integrators" with their
'
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic top view of the ap
auxiliary instruments and apparatus required for
paratus receiving the acceleration, according to
the invention, with two integrators, two‘ stabiliz
stabilizing them and setting them to the correct
ing gyros and two direction gyros and shaking de
Group B comprises the shaking devices for pre
position.
-
I
‘
vices, the protective cover being partly removed. ' venting the occurrence of faults due to bearing
55
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic side view of the ap
friction in the instruments and apparatus of
paratus, with the individual apparatus covered
bythe protective hood.
group A.
Group C comprises the instrument which indi
cates the ground course and speed.
Group D comprises the instrument which indi
cates the position and effects the automatic geo
metrical addition of the distances traversed.
Group E comprises two transmitterswith con
stant drive by two motors.
Fig. 4 is a side view of one of the stabilizing
gyros, with part of the case and gyro ?oat shown
60
in section.
'
'
.
Fig. 5 is a vertical section of the upper part of
Fig. 4, on a larger scale, along line 5'—-5 of Fig. 6,
looking in the direction of the arrow.
Fig. 6 is a section along line 6-6 of Fig. 5, look
65 ing in the direction of the arrow.
Group F comprises manually operated trans
’
mitters for correcting the true earth rotation.
Figs. '7 and 8 are sections, similar to those of
Figs. 5 and 6, of the corresponding parts on the
other stabilizing gyro.
'
3 ~ denotes a three-phase current lead which
thus contains three’ wires, ‘= denotes a direct
.
current line which consists of two conductors,
I Fig. 9 is a vertical section through the com
pass-gyro arrangement, and
Figs. 10 and 10a. show different views of parts
thereof.
Fig. 11 shows a diagrammatic side View of the
azimuth
75
gyro.
~
.
Fig. 12 is a transmitter rotating device. £01‘ 60!"
I
and ~ a single-phase current line likewise con
sisting of two conductors. The current sources
not represented here may be of any kind as long
as they supply current of the character and
strength required. Letters 0. to g signify groups
015 Conductors ‘for connecting'groups A to F. The
60
65
3
2, 109,288
7 number of conductors of each group may be de
nectedwith the platform itself and mounted on
rived from Figs. 26 to 30.
A description of the individual instruments and
apparatus will be given first, to be‘followed. by
5 comments on their correlation and cooperation,
same with the result that they act upon the plat
form directly; the shaft of the shaking device 55
is parallel to the impulse shaft 44 of the stabiliz
ing gyro 40 and the shaft of the shaking device
56 is parallel to the impulse shaft 45 of the stabil
izing gyro 4|. A third shaking device 51, 54 (see
Fig. 20) is provided and described below; the said
as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 26-31.
In vthe example described, the integrators are
arranged on a platform suspended on gimbals,_
maintained in ‘north-south direction by a com-.'
10 pass gyro and .kept in horizontal position by
stabilizing gyros. The components of groups A
' and B are connected with the platform or with
‘its supporting device.
~
In Figs. 2 and 3 30 is a base-plate with two sup
15 ports-3i in which the apparatus is pivoted with
which are fastened to Cardan ring 33 in a suitable
manner, as, iorexample, by screws 266 and 241 re
spectively. Instead of providing shaking devices
such as 55 and 56 on the platform, I may mount
on the shafts 34 and 35, shaking devices of the
an axis arranged at right angles to axes 34 and
35, which supports platform 31 on which the in
type shown in connection with shaft 36. On
struments are mounted and is one piece with
same. A protective cover 33 which covers the
ple, slip rings 60 of which but a few are repre
sented schematically‘ and whose function it is to
tap current from the various electric conductors
indicated in Figs. 1 and 26-31. Corresponding
slip ring leads (not contained in the drawings)
the platform in a suitable manner, e. g. by screws
33. To stabilize the platform, the gyros 43 and
(23. 4| .are provided which are represented as asyn
- chronous motors (see Fig. 26) ; the said gyros are
capable of precessing on shafts 42 and 43 re
spectively. ~Their impulse shafts 44 and 45 re
spectively are arranged at right angles to each
30 other. Shafts 44 and 45 are preferably arranged
, in parallel or at right angles to the meridian.
46
' is a compass gyro with three degrees of freedom,
_determined by the axis of precession 41, Cardan
shaft 43 and impulse shaft 49, which is parallel
35 to the meridian. To illustrate an example, im~
pulse shaft 44 of the one stabilizing gyro 4B is
preferably arranged parallel to the impulse shaft
43 of the compass gyro; this, however, is not ab
solutely necessary.
'
I3 is an azimuth gyro with horizontal axis of
precession 5i ; its impulse axis 52 may have any
‘podtion, i. e. either also horizontal, as shown in
the drawings, or vertical. The acceleration in
tegrators 53 and 54 for measuring distances are
' 4,5 associated with the stabilizing arms 48 and 4| in
such a manner thatlthe impulse shaft of either
stabilizing gyro is parallel to the direction of ac
celeration forces to which responds the integrator
associated with same or the oscillating body con
tained in same and described in the coursev of the
specification. Associated with each other in the.
manner described above are the stabilizing gyro
43 and ‘the integrator 53 on the one hand and
stabilizing gyro 4| and integrator 34 on the other.
55 - .The relative position of the integrators is also
determined-by the fact that the lines tangent to
the circles described by the oscillating bodies
through the points of intersection of the oscillaw
tion circles‘ with the radii corresponding to the
_ so neutral positions of the oscillating bodies are at
right angles to each other, no matter whether os
cillating bodies are employed having a vertical
axis of rotation or such having a horizontal axis
of oscillation. If, as in the example described,
55 the axes of oscillation are maintained in a vertical
‘position, not only will the said tangents be 'at
right angles to‘ each other but even the radii cor
j responding to the neutral positionsof‘ the oscillat
shaft 34 means are also arranged, as, for exam
are provided on the other shaft also for the pur
25
pose of passing the current from ring 32 via
ring 33 to platform 31. As these devices are
known and not covered by the claims, ‘it is un- necessary to include them in the drawings since
this would not add to the cleamess of the diagram. 30
The stabilizing gyros 40 and 4| are equal as
far as their main parts are concerned. The de
scription will now proceed in accordance with
Fig. 4 for the east-west gyro 4|. The gyro is
arranged in the form of a so-called ?oat gyro
used for the purpose of diminishing the friction,
there is no reason, however, not to apply suc
cessfully a gyro of some other well known type.
An external case‘6l is rigidly ?xed to platform
31 and ?lled with a liquid 42. In the said liquid 40
the ?oat 63 floatsvwith a vertical axis 43 which
simultaneously is the precession axis of the gyro
contained in the ?oat. 64 is the gyro body with
the impulse shaft 45. The gyro box 65 is rigidly
connected with ?oat 63 by means of bracket 3‘. 45
On‘ float box 6|’ a junction box 68 is arranged
into .which the.upper end 69 of the precession
axis 43 protrudes and which is rigidly connected
with the said ?oat box by partitions or bracket
61. The precession axis is pivoted at its upper and 60
its lower end on. bearings 1|! and 11 respectively.
Means are provided for the purposeof compen
sating the in?uence of the rotation of the earth
' in the stabilizing gyros 40 and 4|, special means
being. available at the east-west gyro to com
pensate for-both the true and the apparent ro
tation of the" earth; the north-south gyro 43 j
is only provided with means. for compensating
the apparent rotation of the earth.‘ The said .
compensating means are housed in the junction 60
box 88; they are shown in large-scale drawings
in Figs. 5 and 6 referring to the above east-west
gyro 4i, and in Figs. 7 and 8 pertaining to the
north-south gyro.
,,
.
.
As already stated above, the extension 4! of
precession axis 43 protrudes into- junction box
Means are-provided for eliminating the effects
68 and rotates freely (Figs. 5 ‘and 6). The ex
tension 69 supports ‘a rigidly connected yoke
shaped piece 12 on its endfthe arms 13 and 14
of which can be seen in ~Fig. 6 where ‘the mid
of bearing friction. Forf’this purpose there are
.two shaking devices 55 and 56 with a relative dis
dle section is not shown; Each of the arms 13
and 14 has a freely rotating pulley at its" end
. ing bodies.
70
by the protective hoods 264 and 265 respectively
two gimbal rings 32 and 33, 34 being the axis of
rotation of ring 32 and 35 that of ring 33. 36 is
instruments arranged on platform 31, is ?xed to
40
device consists of two parts one of which is ar
ranged on the upper part of shaft 36 and the 10
other on the lower part. These parts are covered
_
4
placement of their axes by 90 degrees. The
shaking devices, which inthe course of the de
75 scription will be‘ referred to'in detail, are con
(15 and ‘16 respectively).
>
'
In addition, the case 63 contains two synchro
nous receivers 11 and 13 one arranged higher 75
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