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Патент USA US2109287

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Feb. 22717938.
v, ELKINGTQN
2,109,287
MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME
Filed Nov. 1, 1935
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6151
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v. ELKINGTON
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2,109,287
MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME
Filed Nov.» 1, 1955
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3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Feb, 22, 193.
v. ELKINGTON
2,109,28'?
MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME
Filed Nov. 1, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
2,109,287
Patented Feb. 22, 1938
ViUNlT'ED ‘STATES
PATENT ~ OFFICE ‘
2,109,287
MANHOLE COVER AND’ FRAME
Vivian ‘Elkington, Dover, England
Application November 1, 1935, Serial No. 47,857
’
In Great Britain November 9, 1934
9 Claims.
This invention relates to manhole covers and
frames and the like such as pathway, roadway
‘and like covers, ventilated gratings, gratings for
gas, water, electricity or sewage or analogous in
5 'stallations or cable or pipe line trench covers and
the like, hereinafter termed manhole covers.
The primary object of the invention is to provide
a manhole cover in which the frame is of extreme
ly light construction and yet which will be of ade
quate strength and rigidity when laid on thesite.
A further object is to provide a construction of
, frame which will cast so as to be initially stress
‘ free and which will be substantially fool-proof
in setting without the possibility of deformation‘
15 or “winding" of the frame occurring, thereby
allowing of a machine-tool fit between cover and
frame to render the manhole construction water
or gas-tight without the use of liquid seals or the
like. A still further object is to provide a con
struction of frame which may be easily lifted and
' reset if and when the surface level of a road,
pavement or yard in which the frame is set has
to be altered.
According to the invention the frame of a man
25 hole cover is of channel section open at the bot
tom, the inner side wall of the channel which
constitutes the seating surface for the cover
being inclined over at least a part‘of vits depth
and the upper part of the frame section being
30 provided with apertures through which concrete
can be ?lled into the space enclosed by the chan
nel section, for instance on the site.
The said seating surface may be curved, a part
of the said curved seating surface being capable
-35 of producing reaction to a force exerted on the
cover and having a large vertical component, the
composite curved seating surface operating over
' the whole area to support the cover.
‘ The aforesaid inner side wall may comprise an
,40 inclined part and a substantially horizontal part
and preferably consists of two upper andlower
inclined parts separated by the substantially
horizontal part.
(Cl. 94-34)
Figure 2 is a section on the line 2-2 of Fig
ure 1,
-
Figures 3 and 4 are similar views to Figures 1
and>2 showing details of a ?xing screw which may
be employed when it is desired to have the cover Cl
positively attached to the frame,
'
Figures 5, 6, and ‘7 are details drawn to an en
larged scale of three forms of corner joint which
may be formed between the frame sections,
Figures 8 is a view of the section face on the 10
line 8-—8 of Figure 5 or 6.
I
'
Figure 9 is a perspective view of the ‘section
face across the joint in Figure '7,
Figure 10 is a plan view of part of a trench
cover and frame,
15
,
Figure 11 is a, sectional elevation on the line
ll-—I| of Figure 10,
Figure 12 is a plan view of one of a series of
removable cross bars which may be employed in
conjunction with the frame of medium and large 20
span trench covers,
'
Figure 13 is a cross section substantially on
the line l3—l3 of Figure 12, and
Figure 14 is a section substantially on the line
l4—-|4 of Figure 12.‘
25
Referring to Figures 1 and 2, the frame is
composed of four sections l5 cast separately and
bolted or otherwise secured together to form the
substantially rectangular frame shown in Fig
ure 1. The frame sections I5 are of channel sec
tion open at the bottom as shown in Figure 2
and the inner side wall of the channel constitutes
a seating surface for the cover "5 which seating
surface is curved, and a part of which is capable
of producing reaction to a force exerted on the 35
cover and having a large vertical component, the
composite curved seating surface operating over
its whole area to support the cover. As shown,
the inner side wall is inclined at l1 and IS, the in
clined surfaces I1 and 19 being connected by a 40
substantially horizontal intermediate surface Ill.
The whole surface comprising the surfaces H,
The lower inclined part may > l8, l9, being in actual metal to metal contact with
advantageously be formed as a radiused abut
45 ment for the. cover preventing development of
similarly formed surfaces 28, 29, 30 on the cover
referred to hereinafter constitutes therefore a
Embodiments of the invention will now be more
continuous seating surface, the whole of which
mutually supports the cover and therefore the
loads imposed on its top surface. The horizontal
intermediate surface l8 prevents the cover when
V50 particularly described by wayiof example with
erting a bursting force inside the frame.‘ The
any cover ‘movement when traffic is passing over
it, whilst permitting free opening and closing of
1 the cover.
reference to the accompanying drawings, where
m:
Figure l is a plan view of a manhole cover
according to the invention with the cover in the
55
‘closed position,
heavily loaded from acting as a wedge and ex
50
frame sections are cast with main webs 22 and
subsidiary webs 23 (see also Figures 3 and 5 to
'7) between‘ the collateral parts of the channel
section which impart a more or less box or open 55
v2
2,109,287
grid formation to the frame sections. In like
manner the cover I6 has main webs 24 and sub
sidiary webs 25 running between the main webs.
The cover is cast with apertures 26 between the
subsidiary webs 25 and the upper part of each
frame section I5 is cast with apertures 20 there
inside the channel of the frame between the
in.
positively secured thereto.
If the frame is cast in sections l5 as described,
the sections maybe secured together on the site
10 and when the complete frame has been set on
a cement composition bed as usual, grouting is
?lled into the apertures 20 and sets in the cavi
ties 2| to provide a solid reinforced construction ,
of great strength.
Alternatively the frame can
main webs 22.
The casting 3| is held in posi
tion by a soft iron rivet. 33 and a stainless steel
or gunmetal screw 34 ‘provided with a leather
washer 35 passes through apertures in the cover 5
casting into the casting 3| whereby the cover is
’
Figures 5 to 9 show three arrangements of
corner‘ jointfor'the frame. . In Figures 5 and 8
‘each frame section is asshown in Figure 1, that 10
is to say each section'consists of a straight side
piece of the frame and a corner, all the seating
surfaces and the top surface of the frame sec
tions being radiused at the corners. In Figures
15 be ?lled with concrete from the bottom and 96 and -8 also each frame section consists of a 15
then set in position.
In setting the frame in
lower seating'surface is square ended. In Fig
pressed down through the composition directly
ures 7 and 9 the frame sections are cast with
mitred ends and all the seating surfaces and the
on to packings provided for its reception so that
20
straight side piece and a corner piece but the
the cement composition bed, the frame may be
the displaced composition rises internally into-V top surface of the frame sections are substan
the hollow cavities 2|. Grouting is then ?lled
into the cavities through the apertures 20 as
before, unless the cavities are completely ?lled
tially square ended at the corners. In lallcases
the sections may be secured together’ in known
.'manner bybolts passed through the bolt holes
by the displaced cement composition. The cover, 36, hard white metal being run into the chamé;
25 It may be ?lled with concrete, wood-blocks or
bers 3'! after the sections have been bolted to 25
the like 52 and if concrete is. employed as the
gether to key the. joint.
‘ ?lling, a board is placed beneath the cover to
Figures 10 and 11 sh’ w part of a pipe line or
In like ,cableitrench cover in which the frame sections
manner, if the frame is assembled and ?lled with . |5 are bolted and keyed together at 38 as de
30 concrete at the depot, for example, instead of on, scribed above. A series of covers l6 are pro
the site,'it is placed upon a board during ?lling. vided andall the‘ covers with the exception of’
Carborundum, grains may be incorporated into the first of the series have a projecting part 89
close the apertures 26 during ?lling.
the top surface of the concrete of the cover and , at one end instead of the usual recessed part 30
in the apertures 20 of the frame in order to whereby adjacent covers seat upon one another
obtain a “non-skid” surface.
I
The cover I6 may be lifted out vertically by
as shown._ Except in very wide span ‘trench
covers long spans of clear opening, that is to,
inserting lifting keys in the keyholes 21 or is
say without cross members, may be covered satis
easily slid‘out in a more or less horizontal di
‘ factorily in this manner. With wider span trench
rection along the curved surfaces between l8 and
40 IS with each of which curved surfaces it'makes
covers removable bars may be provided between
‘the side frames on to which the covers seat, any 40
a substantially line contact when being slid out.
As previously stated the‘ edges of the cover l6
are formed by surfaces 28, 29, 30 which are
‘desired span of clear opening being obtainable
last mentioned end contacts with a narrow sur
55 face between the surfaces | 8 and IQ of the side
bar is formed with apertures 44 through which
in this manner by removal of the bars. Such
an arrangement is ‘shown- in Figures 12 to ~14
the exact counter-part of the surfaces l1, I8, IQ where the meeting ends of adjacent frame sec
45 of the frame and the lower inclined surface l9 . tions are cut away to receive the V-shaped end 45
Y of the frame forms a radiused abutment for the
of the bar 40. The latter is of channel section .
surface part 30 of the cover which is similarly openat the bottom and formed on both sides
radiused thereby rendering any other form of with seating surfaces ll, l8, IQ of the same form
stop unnecessary. When one end of the cover
as those on the frame sections. A plurality of
50 is lifted the surface 30 turns easily upon the
reinforcing rods 4| pass from end to end' of. the 50
surface part IQ of the frame at the other end bar and are provided with eyebolts 42, which
and a narrow strip of the surface between the
hold a stainless steel plate 43 to close the open
surface parts 28 and 29 of the cover near the , bottom of the channel. The upper part of the
concrete may be ?lled into the hollow cavity 55
frame sections along which narrow strips, almost around the reinforcing rods 4|. The removable
line contacts, the cover slides. Also ‘the upper ' bar is supported byra rolled steel joist 45 and
surfaces l1 form almost vertical abutments for
each end’ of the removable bar and steel joist
the cover whereby the possibility of a rectangular is carried, in a cast iron ‘housing 46 in which they
60 cover, opening on the longer way, that is to say
are carried upon a second stainless steel plate 53 60
across its shorter dimension, being carelessly with a whitemetal backing 54. The removable
handled and falling into the pit is de?nitely I bar 40 is provided with a stainless steel screw 48
avoided. The surfaces I9 and 30 need only be which on being screwed down against the cast
radiused on two sides of the cover and frame
65 but for convenience the radius is employed on
all four sides.
Referring .to Figures 3 and 4, which show
means for securing the cover positively in its
frame when the cover is required to withstand
-70 gas‘ or liquid pressure therebeneath in a man
hole cover of lighter construction than that shown
in Figures 1 and 2, the frame is cut away at each
end usually on the centre line of the frame to
receive and house a malleable casting 3|, ver
75 tical webs 32 of which project upwardly and ?t
iron housing‘causes the removable bar to lift
65
to facilitate its removal. The cast iron housing
is secured to the adjacent frame sections by
bolts passing through the bolt holes 41 the joint
being keyed by running white metal into the
cavities 31. Grease grooves 49 are provided 1to
render the joint between the bar 40 and'the
frame sections |5 gas- and water-tight. The
cast iron housing 46- is rigidly held by a Lewis
bolt 50 embedded in the concrete surround and
passing through the eye 5|. In cases wheres 15
2,109,287
construction of such strength is unnecessary the
steel joist may be dispensed with.
What I claim and desire to- secure by Letters
Patent is:—
1. A cast metal cover and frame construction
for manholes, comprising a frame of inverted
3 .
formed with a cover-seating surface consisting
of upper and lower inclined portions separated
by a substantially horizontal portion, and a cover
having a seat conforming for close face to face
contact with said cover-seating surface, said 5
lower inclined portion of the latter being formed
substantially U-shaped channel section adapted
as a radiused abutment for the cover to permit
to be ?lled with concrete or the like, said section
free opening and closing of the latter.
being also provided with openings at the top
6. A cast metal cover and frame construction
for manholes according to claim 2, wherein cross 10
Webs are provided between the collateral parts
10 whereby the section may be ?lled either from
the bottom or the top, the inner side wall of the
channel being formed with a cover-seating sur
face extending continuously around the frame
and from the top to the bottom, said surface
15 being inclined over at least a part of its depth,
of said inverted substantially U-shaped channel
section which impart a more or less box or open
grid formation to the frame.
'7. A cast metal cover and frame construction 15
and a cover having a seat conforming for close
for manholes, comprising a frame composed of
face to- face contact from top to bottom with
said cover-seating surface.
a plurality of channel sections open at the bot
tom and adapted to be ?lled with concrete or
the like, said sections being provided with open
ings at the top whereby the sections may be ?lled
either from the bottom or the top, the inner
side walls of the sections being formed with
cover~seating surfaces extending from the top to
2. A cast metal cover and frame construction
20 for manholes, comprising a frame of inverted
substantially U-shaped channel section and hav
ing its inner side wall formed with a compositely
curved cover-seating surface, and a cover having
a seat conforming for close face to face contact
25 with said compositely curved cover-seating sur
face, the latter operating substantially over its
Whole area to support said cover and having
a part capable of producing reaction to a force
having a large vertical component exerted on
30 the cover.
3. .A cast metal cover and frame construction
the bottom and inclined over at least a part of .
their depth, a cover having a seat conforming for 25
close face to face contact from top to bottom
with said cover-seating surfaces, and means for
securing said plurality of frame sections together.
8. A cast metal cover and frame construction
for manholes according to claim 7, wherein each 30
frame section consists of a straight side piece
for manholes according to claim 2, wherein said
compositely curved cover-seating surface com
and a corner piece.
prises an inclined part and a substantially hori
for manholes, comprising a frame of inverted
35 zontal part.
4. A cast metal cover and frame construction
for manholes according to claim 2, wherein said
compositely curved cover-seating surface consists
of two upper and lower inclined parts separated
4:0 by a substantially horizontal part.
5. A cast metal cover and frame construction
for manholes, comprising a frame of channel
section open at the bottom and adapted to be
?lled with concrete or the like, said section being
45 provided with openings at the top whereby the
section may be ?lled either from the bottom or
the top, the inner side wall of the channel being
9. A cast metal cover and frame construction
substantially U-shaped channel section having
its inner side Wall formed with‘ a cover-seating
surface, cross bars removably located transversely
of said frame between opposite sides thereof,
said cross bars having side walls formed with
similar cover-seating surfaces, 'and a plurality 4:0
of covers having seats conforming for close face
to face contact with said cover-seating surfaces,
whereby large areas may be covered yet with
the removal of said cross bars large spans of
clear opening are obtainable.
45
VIVIAN ELKINGTON.
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