Патент USA US2109287код для вставки
Feb. 22717938. v, ELKINGTQN 2,109,287 MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME Filed Nov. 1, 1935 A‘ T ' s Sheets-Sheet 1 4' 1 22x , . 6151 Q _ I v. ELKINGTON _ 2,109,287 MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME Filed Nov.» 1, 1955 22 I I 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 & Feb, 22, 193. v. ELKINGTON 2,109,28'? MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME Filed Nov. 1, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 2,109,287 Patented Feb. 22, 1938 ViUNlT'ED ‘STATES PATENT ~ OFFICE ‘ 2,109,287 MANHOLE COVER AND’ FRAME Vivian ‘Elkington, Dover, England Application November 1, 1935, Serial No. 47,857 ’ In Great Britain November 9, 1934 9 Claims. This invention relates to manhole covers and frames and the like such as pathway, roadway ‘and like covers, ventilated gratings, gratings for gas, water, electricity or sewage or analogous in 5 'stallations or cable or pipe line trench covers and the like, hereinafter termed manhole covers. The primary object of the invention is to provide a manhole cover in which the frame is of extreme ly light construction and yet which will be of ade quate strength and rigidity when laid on thesite. A further object is to provide a construction of , frame which will cast so as to be initially stress ‘ free and which will be substantially fool-proof in setting without the possibility of deformation‘ 15 or “winding" of the frame occurring, thereby allowing of a machine-tool fit between cover and frame to render the manhole construction water or gas-tight without the use of liquid seals or the like. A still further object is to provide a con struction of frame which may be easily lifted and ' reset if and when the surface level of a road, pavement or yard in which the frame is set has to be altered. According to the invention the frame of a man 25 hole cover is of channel section open at the bot tom, the inner side wall of the channel which constitutes the seating surface for the cover being inclined over at least a part‘of vits depth and the upper part of the frame section being 30 provided with apertures through which concrete can be ?lled into the space enclosed by the chan nel section, for instance on the site. The said seating surface may be curved, a part of the said curved seating surface being capable -35 of producing reaction to a force exerted on the cover and having a large vertical component, the composite curved seating surface operating over ' the whole area to support the cover. ‘ The aforesaid inner side wall may comprise an ,40 inclined part and a substantially horizontal part and preferably consists of two upper andlower inclined parts separated by the substantially horizontal part. (Cl. 94-34) Figure 2 is a section on the line 2-2 of Fig ure 1, - Figures 3 and 4 are similar views to Figures 1 and>2 showing details of a ?xing screw which may be employed when it is desired to have the cover Cl positively attached to the frame, ' Figures 5, 6, and ‘7 are details drawn to an en larged scale of three forms of corner joint which may be formed between the frame sections, Figures 8 is a view of the section face on the 10 line 8-—8 of Figure 5 or 6. I ' Figure 9 is a perspective view of the ‘section face across the joint in Figure '7, Figure 10 is a plan view of part of a trench cover and frame, 15 , Figure 11 is a, sectional elevation on the line ll-—I| of Figure 10, Figure 12 is a plan view of one of a series of removable cross bars which may be employed in conjunction with the frame of medium and large 20 span trench covers, ' Figure 13 is a cross section substantially on the line l3—l3 of Figure 12, and Figure 14 is a section substantially on the line l4—-|4 of Figure 12.‘ 25 Referring to Figures 1 and 2, the frame is composed of four sections l5 cast separately and bolted or otherwise secured together to form the substantially rectangular frame shown in Fig ure 1. The frame sections I5 are of channel sec tion open at the bottom as shown in Figure 2 and the inner side wall of the channel constitutes a seating surface for the cover "5 which seating surface is curved, and a part of which is capable of producing reaction to a force exerted on the 35 cover and having a large vertical component, the composite curved seating surface operating over its whole area to support the cover. As shown, the inner side wall is inclined at l1 and IS, the in clined surfaces I1 and 19 being connected by a 40 substantially horizontal intermediate surface Ill. The whole surface comprising the surfaces H, The lower inclined part may > l8, l9, being in actual metal to metal contact with advantageously be formed as a radiused abut 45 ment for the. cover preventing development of similarly formed surfaces 28, 29, 30 on the cover referred to hereinafter constitutes therefore a Embodiments of the invention will now be more continuous seating surface, the whole of which mutually supports the cover and therefore the loads imposed on its top surface. The horizontal intermediate surface l8 prevents the cover when V50 particularly described by wayiof example with erting a bursting force inside the frame.‘ The any cover ‘movement when traffic is passing over it, whilst permitting free opening and closing of 1 the cover. reference to the accompanying drawings, where m: Figure l is a plan view of a manhole cover according to the invention with the cover in the 55 ‘closed position, heavily loaded from acting as a wedge and ex 50 frame sections are cast with main webs 22 and subsidiary webs 23 (see also Figures 3 and 5 to '7) between‘ the collateral parts of the channel section which impart a more or less box or open 55 v2 2,109,287 grid formation to the frame sections. In like manner the cover I6 has main webs 24 and sub sidiary webs 25 running between the main webs. The cover is cast with apertures 26 between the subsidiary webs 25 and the upper part of each frame section I5 is cast with apertures 20 there inside the channel of the frame between the in. positively secured thereto. If the frame is cast in sections l5 as described, the sections maybe secured together on the site 10 and when the complete frame has been set on a cement composition bed as usual, grouting is ?lled into the apertures 20 and sets in the cavi ties 2| to provide a solid reinforced construction , of great strength. Alternatively the frame can main webs 22. The casting 3| is held in posi tion by a soft iron rivet. 33 and a stainless steel or gunmetal screw 34 ‘provided with a leather washer 35 passes through apertures in the cover 5 casting into the casting 3| whereby the cover is ’ Figures 5 to 9 show three arrangements of corner‘ jointfor'the frame. . In Figures 5 and 8 ‘each frame section is asshown in Figure 1, that 10 is to say each section'consists of a straight side piece of the frame and a corner, all the seating surfaces and the top surface of the frame sec tions being radiused at the corners. In Figures 15 be ?lled with concrete from the bottom and 96 and -8 also each frame section consists of a 15 then set in position. In setting the frame in lower seating'surface is square ended. In Fig pressed down through the composition directly ures 7 and 9 the frame sections are cast with mitred ends and all the seating surfaces and the on to packings provided for its reception so that 20 straight side piece and a corner piece but the the cement composition bed, the frame may be the displaced composition rises internally into-V top surface of the frame sections are substan the hollow cavities 2|. Grouting is then ?lled into the cavities through the apertures 20 as before, unless the cavities are completely ?lled tially square ended at the corners. In lallcases the sections may be secured together’ in known .'manner bybolts passed through the bolt holes by the displaced cement composition. The cover, 36, hard white metal being run into the chamé; 25 It may be ?lled with concrete, wood-blocks or bers 3'! after the sections have been bolted to 25 the like 52 and if concrete is. employed as the gether to key the. joint. ‘ ?lling, a board is placed beneath the cover to Figures 10 and 11 sh’ w part of a pipe line or In like ,cableitrench cover in which the frame sections manner, if the frame is assembled and ?lled with . |5 are bolted and keyed together at 38 as de 30 concrete at the depot, for example, instead of on, scribed above. A series of covers l6 are pro the site,'it is placed upon a board during ?lling. vided andall the‘ covers with the exception of’ Carborundum, grains may be incorporated into the first of the series have a projecting part 89 close the apertures 26 during ?lling. the top surface of the concrete of the cover and , at one end instead of the usual recessed part 30 in the apertures 20 of the frame in order to whereby adjacent covers seat upon one another obtain a “non-skid” surface. I The cover I6 may be lifted out vertically by as shown._ Except in very wide span ‘trench covers long spans of clear opening, that is to, inserting lifting keys in the keyholes 21 or is say without cross members, may be covered satis easily slid‘out in a more or less horizontal di ‘ factorily in this manner. With wider span trench rection along the curved surfaces between l8 and 40 IS with each of which curved surfaces it'makes covers removable bars may be provided between ‘the side frames on to which the covers seat, any 40 a substantially line contact when being slid out. As previously stated the‘ edges of the cover l6 are formed by surfaces 28, 29, 30 which are ‘desired span of clear opening being obtainable last mentioned end contacts with a narrow sur 55 face between the surfaces | 8 and IQ of the side bar is formed with apertures 44 through which in this manner by removal of the bars. Such an arrangement is ‘shown- in Figures 12 to ~14 the exact counter-part of the surfaces l1, I8, IQ where the meeting ends of adjacent frame sec 45 of the frame and the lower inclined surface l9 . tions are cut away to receive the V-shaped end 45 Y of the frame forms a radiused abutment for the of the bar 40. The latter is of channel section . surface part 30 of the cover which is similarly openat the bottom and formed on both sides radiused thereby rendering any other form of with seating surfaces ll, l8, IQ of the same form stop unnecessary. When one end of the cover as those on the frame sections. A plurality of 50 is lifted the surface 30 turns easily upon the reinforcing rods 4| pass from end to end' of. the 50 surface part IQ of the frame at the other end bar and are provided with eyebolts 42, which and a narrow strip of the surface between the hold a stainless steel plate 43 to close the open surface parts 28 and 29 of the cover near the , bottom of the channel. The upper part of the concrete may be ?lled into the hollow cavity 55 frame sections along which narrow strips, almost around the reinforcing rods 4|. The removable line contacts, the cover slides. Also ‘the upper ' bar is supported byra rolled steel joist 45 and surfaces l1 form almost vertical abutments for each end’ of the removable bar and steel joist the cover whereby the possibility of a rectangular is carried, in a cast iron ‘housing 46 in which they 60 cover, opening on the longer way, that is to say are carried upon a second stainless steel plate 53 60 across its shorter dimension, being carelessly with a whitemetal backing 54. The removable handled and falling into the pit is de?nitely I bar 40 is provided with a stainless steel screw 48 avoided. The surfaces I9 and 30 need only be which on being screwed down against the cast radiused on two sides of the cover and frame 65 but for convenience the radius is employed on all four sides. Referring .to Figures 3 and 4, which show means for securing the cover positively in its frame when the cover is required to withstand -70 gas‘ or liquid pressure therebeneath in a man hole cover of lighter construction than that shown in Figures 1 and 2, the frame is cut away at each end usually on the centre line of the frame to receive and house a malleable casting 3|, ver 75 tical webs 32 of which project upwardly and ?t iron housing‘causes the removable bar to lift 65 to facilitate its removal. The cast iron housing is secured to the adjacent frame sections by bolts passing through the bolt holes 41 the joint being keyed by running white metal into the cavities 31. Grease grooves 49 are provided 1to render the joint between the bar 40 and'the frame sections |5 gas- and water-tight. The cast iron housing 46- is rigidly held by a Lewis bolt 50 embedded in the concrete surround and passing through the eye 5|. In cases wheres 15 2,109,287 construction of such strength is unnecessary the steel joist may be dispensed with. What I claim and desire to- secure by Letters Patent is:— 1. A cast metal cover and frame construction for manholes, comprising a frame of inverted 3 . formed with a cover-seating surface consisting of upper and lower inclined portions separated by a substantially horizontal portion, and a cover having a seat conforming for close face to face contact with said cover-seating surface, said 5 lower inclined portion of the latter being formed substantially U-shaped channel section adapted as a radiused abutment for the cover to permit to be ?lled with concrete or the like, said section free opening and closing of the latter. being also provided with openings at the top 6. A cast metal cover and frame construction for manholes according to claim 2, wherein cross 10 Webs are provided between the collateral parts 10 whereby the section may be ?lled either from the bottom or the top, the inner side wall of the channel being formed with a cover-seating sur face extending continuously around the frame and from the top to the bottom, said surface 15 being inclined over at least a part of its depth, of said inverted substantially U-shaped channel section which impart a more or less box or open grid formation to the frame. '7. A cast metal cover and frame construction 15 and a cover having a seat conforming for close for manholes, comprising a frame composed of face to- face contact from top to bottom with said cover-seating surface. a plurality of channel sections open at the bot tom and adapted to be ?lled with concrete or the like, said sections being provided with open ings at the top whereby the sections may be ?lled either from the bottom or the top, the inner side walls of the sections being formed with cover~seating surfaces extending from the top to 2. A cast metal cover and frame construction 20 for manholes, comprising a frame of inverted substantially U-shaped channel section and hav ing its inner side wall formed with a compositely curved cover-seating surface, and a cover having a seat conforming for close face to face contact 25 with said compositely curved cover-seating sur face, the latter operating substantially over its Whole area to support said cover and having a part capable of producing reaction to a force having a large vertical component exerted on 30 the cover. 3. .A cast metal cover and frame construction the bottom and inclined over at least a part of . their depth, a cover having a seat conforming for 25 close face to face contact from top to bottom with said cover-seating surfaces, and means for securing said plurality of frame sections together. 8. A cast metal cover and frame construction for manholes according to claim 7, wherein each 30 frame section consists of a straight side piece for manholes according to claim 2, wherein said compositely curved cover-seating surface com and a corner piece. prises an inclined part and a substantially hori for manholes, comprising a frame of inverted 35 zontal part. 4. A cast metal cover and frame construction for manholes according to claim 2, wherein said compositely curved cover-seating surface consists of two upper and lower inclined parts separated 4:0 by a substantially horizontal part. 5. A cast metal cover and frame construction for manholes, comprising a frame of channel section open at the bottom and adapted to be ?lled with concrete or the like, said section being 45 provided with openings at the top whereby the section may be ?lled either from the bottom or the top, the inner side wall of the channel being 9. A cast metal cover and frame construction substantially U-shaped channel section having its inner side Wall formed with‘ a cover-seating surface, cross bars removably located transversely of said frame between opposite sides thereof, said cross bars having side walls formed with similar cover-seating surfaces, 'and a plurality 4:0 of covers having seats conforming for close face to face contact with said cover-seating surfaces, whereby large areas may be covered yet with the removal of said cross bars large spans of clear opening are obtainable. 45 VIVIAN ELKINGTON.